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NEW AND REVISED EDITION 



AN ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

OF 

FBEEMASOMY 

AND 

ITS KINDRED SCIENCES 

COMPRISING 

THE WHOLE RANGE OF ARTS, SCIENCES AND LITERATURE 
AS CONNECTED WITH THE INSTITUTION 

BT . 

ALBERT G. ^ACKEY, M.D., 8S° 

AUTHOR OF "THX HISTORY OF FREEMASONRY," "LEXICON OF FREEMASONRY." l, A TEXT-BOOJ OF 
MASONIC JURISPRUDENCE," " SYMBOLISM OF FREEMASONRY," BTG., ETC. 

THIS NEW AND REVISED EDITION 

PREPARED UNDER THE DIRECTION, AND WITH 
THE ASSISTANCE, OF THE LATE 

WILLIAM J. HUGHAN, 82° 

PAST GRAND DEACON ( ENGLAND), PAST GRAND WARDEN ( EGYPT), PAST GRAND WARDEN (iOWA), FAST 
AS8I8TANT GRAND SOJOITRNER (ENGLAND), ONE OF THE FOUNDERS QUATUOR OORONATI 
LODGE (LONDON),* AUTHOR OF *' ENGLISH MASONIC RITE," " OLD CHARGES," ETC 

BY 

EDWARD L. HAWKINS, M.A., 30° 

PROV. 8. O. W. (SUSSEX), P. PROV. 8. G. W. (OXFORDSHIRE), MEMBER QUATUOR OORONATI 
LODGE (LONDON), AUTHOR OF ** CONCISE CYCLOPAEDIA OF FREEMASONRY* 



PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED 



- • ypLUME: n. 

PUBLISHED BY 

THE MASONIC HISTORY COMPANY 
NEW YORK AND LONDON 
1919 



503777 



Copyright, 1873 and 1878. by Moss & Co. and A. O. Macket 



Revised Edition, with Addendum, Copyright, 1884, by L. H. Everts 6 Oa 



Pronouncing Dictionary, Copyright, 1896, by L. H. Everts 



Copyright, 1906, by Louis H. Everts & Co. 



Copyright, 1909, by The Masonic History Company 



Copyright, 1912, by The Masonic History Company 

,„ f c l "<\- 



PRINTED IN THE tJNlTKf) STATIC OF AMERICA 



M 



MACON 



457 



M 



M. (Heb., tt, Mem), which signifies water 
in motion, having for its hieroglyph a waving 
line, referring to the surface of the water. As 
a numeral, M stands for 1000. In Hebrew 
its numerical value is 40. The sacred name 
of Deity, applied to this letter, is "p2tt, 
Meborach, Benedictus. 

Maacha. In the Tenth Degree of the 
Scottish Rite we are informed that certain 
traitors fled to "Maacha king of Cheth," by 
whom they were delivered up to King Solomon 
on his sending for them. In 1 Kings ii. 39. 
we find it recorded that two of the servants of 
Shimei fled from Jerusalem to " Achish, son of 
Maachah king of Gath." There can be little 
doubt that the carelessness of the early copy- 
ists of the ritual led to the double error of 

Sutting Cheth (or Galh and of supposing that 
laacha was its king instead of its King's 
father. The manuscripts of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, too often copied by 
unlearned persons, show many such corrup- 
tions of Hebrew names, which modern re- 
searches must eventually correct. Delaunay. 
in his Thuilewr, makes him King of Tyre, and 
calls him Mahakah. 

Mac* Masonic writers have generally" 
given to this word the meaning of " is smitten/ 1 
deriving it probably from the Hebrew verb 
HDl mocha, to smite. Others, again, think it 
is the word ptt, mak, rottenness, ana suppose 
that it means "he is ratten" Both deriva- 
tions are, I think, incorrect. 

Mac is a constituent part of the word 
macbenac, which is the substitute Master's 
word in the French Rite, and which is in- 
terpreted by the French ritualists as meaning 
"he lives in the son." But such a derivation 
can find no support in any known Hebrew 
root. Another interpretation must be sought. 
I think there is evidence, circumstantial at 
least, to show that the word was, if not an 
invention of the Ancient or Dermott Masons, 
at least adopted by them in distinction from 
the one used by the Moderns, which latter 
is the word now in use in this country. I am 
disposed to attribute the introduction of the 
word into Masonry to the adherents of the 
house of Stuart, who sought in every way to 
make the institution of Freemasonry a political 
instrument in their schemes for the restora- 
tion of their exiled monarch. Thus the old 

Ehrase, "the widow's son," was applied 
y them to James II., who was the son 
of Henrietta Maria, the widow of Charles I. 
So, instead of the old Master's word which 
had hitherto been used, they invented 
macbenac out of the Gaelic, which to them 
was, on account of their Highland supporters, 
almost a sacred language in the place of 
Hebrew. Now, in Gaelic, Mac is son, and 
benach is blessed, from the active verb bean- 
naich. to bless. The latest dictionary pub- 
lished by the Highland Society gives this 
example: "Benach De High Albane, Alexan- 

80 



der, Mac Alexander," etc., i. e.. Bless the 
King of Scotland, Alexander, son of Alexander, 
etc. Therefore we find, without any of those 
distortions to which etymologists so often 
recur, that macbenac means in Gaelic "the 
blessed son." This word the Stuart Masons 
applied to their idol, the Pretender, the son 
of Charles I. 

Macbenac. 1. A significant word in the 
Third Degree according to the French Rite 
and some other rituals. (See Mac.) 

2. In the Order of Beneficent Knights of 
the Holy City, the recipiendary, or novice, is 
called Macbenac. 

Maccabees. A heroic family, whose pa- 
triotism and valor form bright pictures in the 
Jewish annals. The name is generally sup- 
posed to be derived from the letters % 2* 2* B«» 
M. C. B. I. — which were inscribed upon 
their banners — being the initials of the 
Hebrew sentence, "Mi Camocha, Baalim, 
Iehovah," Who is like unto thee among the 
aods, O Jehovah. The Hebrew sentence has 
been appropriated in some of the high Scot- 
tish degrees as a significant word. 

Maceiio. Du Cange gives this as one of 
the Middle Age Latin words for mason, de*» 
riving it from maceria, a wall. The word is 
now never employed. 

Maclo. Du Cange (Gloss.) defines Macio, 
Mattio, or Machio, on the authority of Isi- 
dore, as Macon, latomus, a mason, a con- 
structor of walls, from machina, the machines 
on which they stood to work on account of 
the height of the walls. He gives Maco also. 

Mackenzie, Kenneth B. H. ("Cryptony- 
mus.") Editor of The Royal Masonic Cycto- 
pcedia of History, Rites, Symbolism, and 
Biography, published in London in 1877, by 
Bro. John Hogg, Paternoster Row. He was 
one of the founders of the present Rosicrucian 
Society in England. 

Macon. The following is extracted from 
Kenning 9 s Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry: "The 
Norman-French word for ( mason' — as the 
operative mason in early days was called 'le 
macon,' and this was corrupted into maccon. 
maccouyn, masoun, masouyn, messouyn, ana 
even mageon. The word seems to come from 
'maoonner,' which had both its operative 
meaning and derivative meaning of conspir- 
ing, in 1238, and which again comes from 
'mansio,' a word of classic use. Some writers 
have derived the word 'macon ' from maison; 
but though 'maisonner ' ana maconner appear 
eventually to be equivalent to 'mansionem 
facere,' in its first meaning, ' maison ' seems to 
be simply a wooden house, as 'maisonage' is 
defined by Roquefort to be ( Bois de charpente 
propre a batir lea maisons,' and then he adds, 
'C'est aussi Paction de batir.' Roquefort 
seems to prefer to derive ' maisonner ' from the 
Low Latin verb 'mansionare.' Be this as it 
may, we have in the word macon, as it appears 
to us, a clear evidence of the development of 



458 MACON 



MAGI 



the operative guilds through the Norman- 
French artificers of the Conquest, who carried 
the operative guilds, as it were, back to Latin 
terminology, and to a Roman origin." (See 
Mason.) 

Maeon dans la Vole Drolte. (The Mourn 
in the Right Way.) The second grade of the 
Hermetic system of Montpellier. (Thory, 
Acta Lot., i., 321.) 

Macon du Secret. (The Mason of the 
Secret.) The sixth grade of the reformed 
rite of Baron Tschoudy, and the seventh in 
the reformed rite of St. Martin. (Thory, 
Acta Lot., i., 321.) 

Macon, Ecossals, Mattre. See Mown, 
Scottish Master. 

Maconetus. Low Latin, signifying a 
Mason, and found in documents of the four- 
teenth century. 

Maconne. A French word signifying a 
female Mason, that is to say, the degrees of 
the Rite of Adoption. It is a very convenient 
word. The formation of the English language 
would permit the use of the equivalent word 
Masoness, if custom would sanction it. 

Maconne Egyptlenne. The Third De- 
gree in Cagliostro's Rite of Adoption. 

Maconne Maltresse. Third grade of the 
Maconnerie d' Adoption. 

Maconner. Du Cange gives citations 
from documents of the fourteenth century, 
where this word is used as signifying to build. 

Maconnerie Rouge. (Red Freemasonry.) 
The designation of the four high grades of 
the French Rite. Bazot says that the name 
comes from the color worn in the forth 
grade. 

Maconnleke Socletelten. Dutch Ma- 
sonic Clubs, somewhat like unto the English 
Lodges of Instruction, with more, perhaps, 
of the character of a club. Kenninq's Cy- 
clopaedia says "there were about nineteen 
of these associations in the principal towns 
of Holland in I860." 

"Macoy'8 Cyclopedia." "A General 
History, Clycopedia, and Dictionary of Free- 
masonry," containing some 300 engravings, 
by RobertMacoy. 33°, published in New York, 
which has passed through a number of edi- 
tions. It was originally founded on A Dic- 
tionary of Symbolical Masonry, by George 
Oliver, D.D. Bro. Macoy has occupied the 
prominent position of Deputy G. Master of 
the G. Lodge of New York, and that of G. 
Recorder of the State G. Commandery of the 
Order of the Temple, K. T. 

Macrocosm, (juuepos *4<rpos, the great 
world.) The visible system of worlds; the 
outer world or universe. It is opposed to 
Microcosm, the little world, as in man. It 
has been used as the Macric soul in opposition 
to the Micric animal life, and as the soul of 
the universe as opposed to the soul of a single 
world or being. A subject of much note to 
the Rosicrucians in the study of the Myste- 
rium Magnum. 

Macio. Latin of the Middle Ages for a 
mason. Du Cange quotes a Computum of 
the year 1324, in which it is said that the work 



was done "per manum Petri, maczonis de 
Lagnicio." 

Made. A technical word signifying initi- 
ated into Masonry. (See Make?) 

Madman. Madmen are specially des- 
ignated in the oral law as disqualified for 
initiation. (See Qualifications.) 

Magazine. The earliest Masonic maga- 
zine was published at Leipsic in 1738 and 
named Der Freymaurer. in 1783 the Freir 
maurerzeitung appeared at Berlin, having 
only a short existence of six numbers. The 
Journal fur Freimaurer, which appeared in 
1784 at Vienna, had a longer life of some three 
years. In England, the first work of this kind 
was The Freemasons 1 Magazine or General and 
Complete Library, begun in 1703, and continued 
until 1798. In Ireland, in 1792, the Sentimental 
and Masonic Magazine appeared and ran to 
seven volumes (1792-5) . In France the Miroir 
de la veYite seems to have been issued from 
1800 to 1802, followed by Hermes in 1808. 

In England the Freemasons' Quarterly Re* 
view commenced in 1834 and was continued 
until 1849. followed by the Freemasons 9 
Quarterly Magazine in 1853, which lived until 
1858. In 1873 a new Masonic Magazine was 
issued, but it had not a very long existence; 
and the nearest approach to a Masonic maga- 
zine now existing is the Ars Quatuor Corona- 
torum, published by the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge. Of American Masonic magazines the 
earliest is the Freemasons' Magazine and Gen- 
eral Miscellany, published at Philadelphia in 
1811. The oldest periodical devoted to Ma- 
sonry is the Freemasons 1 Monthly Magazine, 
published by Charles W. Moore, at Boston. 
It was established in the year 1842. 

The American Freemason appears monthly, 
published at Storm Lake, Iowa, and has now 
reached a third volume; The American Tyler- 
Keystone, published at Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
twice a month, is in its 26th volume. 

In Switzerland the " International Bureau 
for Masonic Affairs'' issues a quarterly maga- 
zine, called the Bulletin, which is now in its 
9th volume. (E. L. H.J 

Magi. The ancient Greek historians so 
term the hereditary priests among the Persians 
and Medians. The word is derived from mog 
or mag, signifying priest in the Pehlevi lan- 
guage. The IUuminati first introduced the 
word into Masonry, and employed it in the 
nomenclature of their degrees to signify men 
of superior wisdom. 

Magi, The Three. The " Wise Men of the 
East" who came to Jerusalem, bringing gifts 
to the infant Jesus. The traditional names 
of the three are Melchior, an old man, with a 
long beard, offering gold; Jasper, a beardless 
youth, who offers frankincense; Balthazar, a 
black or Moor, with a large spreading beard, 
who tenders myrrh. The patron saints of 
travelers. " Tradition fixed their number at 
three, probably in allusion to the three races 
springing from the sons of Noah. The Em- 
press Helena caused their corpses to be trans- 
ported to Milan from Constantinople. Fred- 
erick Barbarossa carried them to Cologne, the 



MAGIC 

place of their special glory as the Three Kings 
of Cologne." — Yonge. The three principal 
officers ruling the society of the Rosicrucians 
are styled Magi. 

Magic. The idea that any connection 
exists between Freemasonry and magic is to 
be attributed to the French writers, especially 
to Ragon. who gives many pages of his Ma- 
sonic Orthodoxy to the subject of Masonic 
magic; and still more to Louis Constance, 
who has written three large volumes on the 
History of Magic, on the Ritual and Dogma of 
the Higher Magic, and on the Key of the Grand 
Mysteries, in all of which he seeks to trace 
an intimate connection between the Masonic 
mysteries and the science of magic. Ragon 
designates this sort of Masonry by the name 
of <r Occult Masonry." But he looselv con- 
founds magic with the magism of the an- 
cient Persians, the Medieval philosophy and 
modern magnetism, all of which, as identical 
sciences, were engaged in the investigation of 
the nature of man t the mechanism of his 
thoughts, the faculties of his soul, his power 
over nature, and the essence of the occult 
virtues of all things. Magism, he says { is to 
be found in the sentences of Zoroaster, m the 
hymns of Orpheus, in the invocations of the 
Hierophants, and in the symbols of Pythago- 
ras; it is reproduced in the philosophy of 
Agrippa and of Cardan, and is recognised 
under the name of Magic in the marvelous 
results of magnetism. Cagliostro, it is well 
known, mingled with his Spurious Freema- 
sonry the superstitions of Magic and the 
Operations of Animal Magnetism. But the 
writers who have sought to establish a scheme 
of Magical Masonry refer almost altogether 
to the supposed power of mystical names or 
words, which they say is common to both 
Masonry and magic. It is certain that ono- 
matology, or the science of names, forms a 
very interesting part of the investigations of 
the higher Masonry, and it is only in this way 
that any connection can be created between 
the two sciences. Much light, it must be 
confessed, is thrown on manv of the mystical 
names in the higher degrees by the dogmas of 
magic; and hence magic furnishes a curious 
ana interesting study tor the Freemason. 

Magicians, Society of the. A society 
founded at Florence, which became a division 
of the Brothers of Rose Croix. They wore 
in their Chapters the habit of members of the 
Inquisition. 

Magic Squares* A magic square is a 
series of numbers arranged in an equal number 
of cells constituting a square figure, the 
enumeration of all of whose columns, ver- 
tically, horizontally, and diagonally, will give 
the same sum. The Oriental philosophers, 
and especially the Jewish Talmudists, have 
indulged in many fanciful speculations in 
reference to these magic squares, many of 
which were considered as talismans. The 
following figure of nine squares, containing 
the nine digits so arranged as to make fifteen 
when counted in every way, was of peculiar 
import: 



MAGIC 459 



4 


9 


2 


8 


5 


7 


8 


1 


6 



There was no talisman more sacred than 
this among the Orientalists, when arranged 
in the following figure: 




8L 81 



Thus arranged, they colled it by the name 
of the planet Saturn, ZaHaL, because the 
sum of the digits in the square was equal to 
45 (1 +2+3+4+5+6+7 +8+9)^ which is 
the numerical value of the letters m the word 
ZaHaL, in the Arabic alphabet. The Tal- 
mudists also esteemed it as a sacred talisman, 
because 15 is the numerical value of the 
letters of the word .T, JaH, which is one of 
the forms of the Tetragrammaton. 

The Hermetic philosophers called these 
magic squares "tables of the planets/ 1 and 
attributed to them many occult virtues. 
The table of Saturn consisted of 9 sauares, 
and has just been given. The table of Jupiter 
consisted of 16 squares of numbers, whose 
total value is 136, and the sum of them added, 
horizontally, perpendicularly, and diagonally, 
is always 34; thus: 



4 


14 


15 


1 


9 


7 


6 


12 


5 


11 


10 


8 


16 


2 


8 


18 



460 MAGISTER 



So the table of Man consists of 25 squares, 
of the Sun of 36, of Venus of 49, of Mercury 
of 64, and of the Moon of 81. These magic 
squares and their values have been used in 
the symbolism of numbers in some of the high 
degrees of Masonry. 

Maglster Ccementariorum. A title ap- 
plied in the Middle Ages to one who presided 
over the building of edifices-* Master of the 
Masons. 

Maglster Hospltalls. See Master of the 

Hospital. 

Maglster Lapldum. Du Cange defines 
this as Master Mason ; and he cites the statutes 
of Marseilles as saying: "Tres Magistros 
Lapidis bonos et legates," i. e.. three good 
and lawful Master Masons "shall be selected 
to decide on all questions about water in the 
city." 

Maglster Militi® Christl. See Master of 
the Chivalry of Christ. 

Maglster Perrerlus. A name given in 
the Middle Ages to a Mason; literally, a Mas- 
ter of Stones, from the French pierre, a stone. 

Maglster Templl. See Master of the 
Temple. 

Maglstrl Comadnl. See Comacine Mas- 
ters; also Como. 

Magna est Veritas et pravaleblt. (The 
truth is great and will prevail.) The motto 
of the Red Cross Degree, or Knights of the 
Red Cross. 

Magnan, B. P. A marshal of France, 
nominated by Napoleon III., emperor, as 
Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, 
in 1862, and, though not a member of the 
great Fraternity at the time, was initiated 
and installed Grand Master, February 8, 
1862, and so remained until May 29, 1865. 

Magnanimous* The title applied in 
modern usage to the Order of Knights 
Templar. 

Magnetic Masonry. This is a form of 
Freemasonry which, although long ago prac- 
tised by Caglioetro as a species of charlatanism, 
was first introduced to notice as a philosophic 
system by Ragon in his treatise on Maconnerie 
Occults. "The occult sciences," says this 
writer, "reveal to man the mysteries of his 
nature, the secrets of his organization, the 
means of attaining perfection and happmess; 
and. in short, the decree of his destiny. Their 
study was that of the high initiations of the 
Egyptians; it is time that they should be- 
come the study of modern Masons." And 
again he says: "A Masonic society which 
should establish in its bosom a magnetic 
academy would soon find the reward of its 
labors m the good that it would do, and the 
happiness which it would create." There can 
be no doubt that the Masonic investigator 
has a right to search everywhere for the means 
of moral, intellectual, and religious perfection; 
and if he can find anything in magnetism 
which would aid him in the search, it is his 
duty and wisest policy to avail himself of it. 
But, nevertheless, Magnetic Masonry, as a 
special regime, will hardly ever be adopted 
by the Fraternity. 



MAINE 



Magus. 1. The Fourteenth Degree, and 
the first of the Greater Mysteries of the sys- 
tem of lUuminism. 2. The Ninth and last 
degree of the German Rosicrucians. It is 
the singular of Magi, which see. 

Mali. The Hebrew mterrogative pronoun 
ntt, signifying what? It is a component 
part of a significant word in Masonry. The 
combination mahhah, literally "what! the," 
is equivalent, according to the Hebrew method 
of ellipsis, to the question. "What! is this 
the— i-T 

Mababharata. A Sanskrit poem, re- 
counting the rivalries of the descendants of 
King Bharata. and occupying a place among 
the Shasters of the Hindus. It contains many 
thousand verses, written at various unknown 
periods since the completion of the Ramayana. 

Mahadeva. ("The great god.") One of 
the common names by which the Hindu god 
Siva is called. His consort, Durga, is simi- 
larly styled MahAdevi (the great goddess). 
In Buddhistic history, Mahadeva, who lived 
two hundred years after the death of the 
Buddha Sakyamuni, or 343, is a renowned 
teacher who caused a schism in the Buddhistic 
Church. 

Mabalcasyapa. The renowned disciple 
of Buddha Sakyamuni. who arranged the 
metaphysical portion of the sacred writings 
called Abhidharma. 

Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz. Hebrew. O 
tt?H bbu TTO. Four Hebrew words which 
the prophet Isaiah was ordered to write 
upon a tablet, and which were afterward to 
be the name of his son. They signify, " make 
haste to the prey, fall upon the spoil," and 
were prognostic of the sudden attack of the 
Assyrians. They may be said, in their Ma- 
sonic use, to be symbolic of the readiness for 
action which should distinguish a warrior, and 
are therefore of significant use in the system 
of Masonic Templarism. 

Maler 9 Michael. A celebrated Rosi- 
crucian and interpreter and defender of Rosi- 
crucianism. He was born at Resinsburg, 
in Holstein, in 1568, and died at Magdeburg 
in 1620. He is said to have been the first to 
introduce Rosicrucianism into England. He 
wrote many works on the system, among 
which the most noted are Atlanta Fugiens, 
1618; Septimana Philosophica, 1620; De Fra- 
ternitate Rosa Cruets, 1618; and Lusus Serius, 
1617. Some of his contemporaries having 
denied the existence of the Roeicrucian Order, 
Maier in his writings has refuted the calumny 
and warmly defended the society, of which, 
in one of his works, he speaks thus: "Like the 
Pythagoreans and Egyptians, the Rosicru- 
cians exact vows oi silence and secrecy. 
Ignorant men have treated the whole as a 
fiction; but this has arisen from the five years 1 
probation to which they subject even well- 
qualified novices before they are admitted to 
the higher mysteries, and within this period 
they are to learn how to govern their own 
tongues." 

Maine. Until the year 1820, the District 
of Maine composed a part of the political 



MAITRE 

territory of the State of Massachusetts, and its 
Lodges were under the obedience of the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts. In that year, a 
political division having taken place, and 
Maine having been erected into an inde- 
pendent State, the Masons of Maine took the 

Sreliminary steps toward an independent 
1 asonic organisation, in obedience to the 
universally recognized ^ law that political 
territory makes Masonic territory, and that 
changes of political jurisdiction are followed 
by corresponding changes of Masonic jurisdic- 
tion. A memorial was addressed to the 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts praying for 
its consent to the organization of an inde- 
pendent Grand Lodge and a just division of 
the charity and other funds. A favorable 
response having been received, a convention 
was held at Portland on June 1, 1820, consist- 
ing of delegates from twenty-four Lodges, 
when the Grand Lodge of Maine was organ- 
ised, and William King elected Grand Master. 

The Grand Royal Arch Chapter was organ- 
ized in 1821, the Grand Council of Royal Arch 
Masons in 1855, and the Grand Commandery 
in 1852. 

Maitre Macon, The name of the Third 
Degree in French. 

Maitresse Aglssante* Acting Mistress. 
The title of the presiding officer of a female 
Lodge in the Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro. 

Maitresse Macon. The Third Degree of 
the French Rite of Adoption. We have no 
uivalent word in English. It signifies a 
istress in Masonry. 
Maltrlse. This expressive word wants an 
eguivadent in English. The French use la 
Mattrise to designate the Third or Master's 
Degree. 

Major. The Sixth Degree of the German 
Rose Croix. 

Major Illuminate. (Illuminatus Major.) 
The Eighth Degree of the Illuminati of Ba- 
varia. 

Majority. Elections in Masonic bodies 
are as a general rule decided by a majority of 
the votes cast. A plurality vote is not ad- 
missible unless it has been provided for by a 
special by-law. 

Make. " To make Masons " is a very 
ancient term; used in the oldest charges 
extant as synonymous with the verb to in- 
itiate or receive into the Fraternity. It is 
found in the Lansdowne MS., whose date 
is the latter half of the sixteenth century. 
"These be all the charges . . . read at the 
making of a Mason." 

Malach. An angel. A significant 

word in the high degrees. Lenning gives it 
as Melek or MeTech. 

Malachl or Malachlas. The last of the 
prophets. A significant word in the Thirty- 
second Degree of the Scottish Rite. 

Malcolm III. (King of Scotland.) Re- 
ported to have chartered the Lodge "St. 
John of Glasgow " in the year 1051. 

Malcolm Canmore Charter. See Manu- 
scripts, Apocrtmhal. 



MAN 461 

Mallet. One of the working-tools of a 
Mark Master, having the same emblematic 
meaning as the common gavel in the Entered 
Apprentice's Degree. It teaches us to correct 
the irregularities of temper, and, like enlight- 
ened reason, to curb the aspirations of un- 
bridled ambition, to depress the malignity 
of envy, and to moderate the ebullition of 
anger. It removes from the mind all the ex- 
crescences of vice, and fits it, as a well-wrought 
stone, for that exalted station in the great 
temple of nature to which, as an emanation 
of the Deity, it is entitled. 

The mallet or setting maul is also an emblem 
of the Third Degree, and is said to have been 
the implement by which the stones were set 
up at the Temple. It is often improperly 
confounded with the common gavel. 

The French Masons, to whom the word 
gavel is unknown, uniformly use maillet, or 
mallet, in its stead, and confound its sym- 
bolic use, as the implement of the presiding 
officer, with the mallet of the English ana 
American Mark Master. 

Malta. Anciently, Melxta. A small island 
in the Mediterranean Sea, which, although 
occupying only about 170 sq. miles, possessed 
for several centuries a greater degree of 
celebrity than was attached to any other 
territory of so little extent. It is now a pos- 
session of the British Government, but was 
occupied from 1530 to 1798 bv the Knights 
Hospitalers, then called Knights of Malta, 
upon whom it was conferred in the former 
year bv Charles V. 

Malta* Cross of. See Cross, Maltese. 

Malta, Knight of. See Knight of Malta. 

Maltese Cross. See Cross, Maltese. 

Man. 1. Man has been called the micro- 
cosm, or little world, in contradistinction to 
the macrocosm, or great world, by some 
fanciful writers on metaphysics, by reason 
of a supposed correspondence between the 
different parts and qualities of his nature and 
those of the universe. But in Masonic sym- 
bolism the idea is borrowed from Christ and 
the Apostles, who repeatedly refer to man as 
a symool of the Temple. 

2. A man was inscribed on the standard of 
the tribe of Reuben, and is borne on the Royal 
Arch banners as appropriate to the Grand 
Master of the second veil. It was also the 
charge in the third quarter of the arms of the 
Atholl Grand Lodge. 

3. Der Mann, or the man, is the Second* 
Degree of the German Union. 

4. To be "a man, not a woman," is one of 
the qualifications for Masonic initiation. It 
is the first, and therefore the most important, 
qualification mentioned in the ritual. 

Man or Perfected Creation. The svm- 
bol representing perfected creation, which is 
"very common on ancient Hindu monuments 
in China," embraces so many of the Masonic 
emblems, and so directly refers to several of 
the elementary principles taught^ in philo- 
sophic Masonry, that it is here introduced 
with its explanations. Forlong, in his Faith* 
of Man. stives this arrangement: 



482 



MAN 



MANITOBA 



A— is the Earth, or foundation on which all 
build. 

Wa — Water, as in an egg, or as condensed 
fire and ether. 

Ra — Fire, or the elements in motion. 

Ka — Air, or wind — Juno, or Jo ni; a con- 
densed element. 

Cha— E ther, or Heaven, the coemical 
Former. 

This figure is frequently found in India: 
Ether, or Heaven, 
Air, 

Fire* 



Water* 




Earth. 



As these symbols are readily interpretable 
by those conversant with Masonic hiero- 
glyphs, it may be seen that the elements, in 
then* ascending scale, show the perfected 
creation. Forlong remarks that "as it was 
difficult to show the AU-pervading Ether, 
Egypt, for this purpose, surrounded her 
figures with a powder of stars instead of 
flame, which on Indra's garments were Yonis. 
This figure gradually developed, becoming 
in time a very concrete man, standing on two 
legs instead of a square base — the horns of the 
crescent (Air), being outstretched, formed the 
arms, and the refulgent Flame the head, which, 
with the Greeks and Romans, represented the 
Sun, or Fire, and gives Light to all. To this 
being, it was claimed, there were given seven 
senses; and thus, perfect and erect, stood 
Man, rising above the animal state." 

The seven senses were seeing, hearing, 
tasting, feeling, smelling, understanding, ana 
speech. See Ecclesiasticus xvii. 5: 

"The Lord created man, and they received 
the use of the five operations of the Lord; 
and in the sixth place he imparted (to) them 
understanding, and in the seventh speech, an 
interpreter of the cogitations thereof." 

The words " seven senses " also occur in the 
poem of Taliesin, called 14 Y Bid Mawr, or the 
Macrocosm" (Brit. Mag., vol. 21, p. 30). See 
further the " Mvsterium Magnum" of Jacob 
Boehmen, which teaches "how the soul of 
man, or his inward holy body," was com- 

Sounded of the seven properties under the in- 
uence of the seven planets: 

"I will adore my Father, 
My God, my Supporter, 
Who placed, throughout my head, 
The soul of my reason. 
And made for my perception 
My seven faculties 

Of Fire, and Earth, and Water, and Air, 



And mist, and flowers. 

And the southerly wind. 
As it were seven senses of i_. 
For my Father to impel me: 
With the first I shall be ^mm^t^ 
With the second I shall touch. 
With the third I shall cry out. 
With the fourth I shall taste, 
With the fifth I shall see. 
With the sixth 1 shall hear. 
With the seventh I snail smell. 99 

[C. T. Mcdenaehan.] 

Mandate* That which is commanded. 
The Benedictine editors of Du Cange define 
mandatum as 4 'breve aut edictum regium," 
i. e.. a royal brief or edict, and mandamentum 
as ''liters) quibus magistratus aliquid man* 
dat," i. e., letters in which a magistrate com- 
mands anything. Hence the orders and 
decrees of a Grand Master or a Grand Lodge 
are called mandates, and implicit obedience 
to them is of Masonic obligation. There is 
an appeal, yet not a suspensive one, from the 
mandate of a Grand Master to the Grand 
Lodge, but there is none from the latter. 

Mango. The branches of this tree are a 
prominent feature in all Eastern religious 
ceremonies. The mango is the apple-tree of 
India, with which man, in Indian tale, 
tempted Eve. 

Manpourlt, Michel Ange Bernard de. 
A distinguished member of the Grand 
Orient of France. He founded in 1776, at 
Rennea, the Rite of Sublimes Elus de la VeriU, 
or Sublime Elects of Truth, and at Paris the 
androgynous society of Dames of Mount 
Thabor. He also created the Masonic Liter- 
ary Society of Free Thinkers, which existed 
for three years. He delivered lectures which 
were subsequently published under the title 
of Cours de Philosophic Maeonnique, in 500 
pp., 4to. He also delivered a great many 
lectures and discourses before different Lodges, 
several of which were published. He died, after 
a long and severe illness, February 17, 1829. 

Manichaeans. (Also termed Gnostics.) 
A sect taking its rise in the middle of the 
third century, whose belief was in two eternal 
principles of good and evil. They derived their 
name from Manes, a philosopher of Persian 
birth, sometimes called Mamchsus. Of the 
two principles. Ormudz was the author of the 
good, while Anriman was the master spirit of 
evil. The two classes of neophytes were, the 
true, siddi kun; the listeners, samma un. 

Manlcheens, Les Freres. A secret Italian 
society, founded, according to Thory (Acta 
Lot., i., 325) and Clavel ( Hist. PiU. t p. 407), in 
the eighteenth century, at which the doctrines 
of Manes were set forth in several grades. 

Manitoba. In 1864 a dispensation was 
issued over the signature of M. W. Bro. A. T. 
Pierson, then Grand Master of Masons in 
Minnesota, and "Northern Light" Lodge was 
organized at Fort Garry (Winnipeg), with 
Bro. Dr. John Schultx, Worshipful Master, 
A. G. B. Bannatyne, S. W., and Wm. Inkster, 
J. W. 

In 1867 Bro. Bannatyne was elected W. M, 
and the Lodge went out of existence shortly 



MANN 



before the Red River insurrection. At this 
time, the country was claimed by the "Hon. 
Hudson Bay Co. ; but when the transfer was 
made to Canada m 1870 and the Red River 
Settlement, as it was then known, became the 
Province of Manitoba, the Grand Lodge of 
Canada assumed jurisdiction and shortly 
afterward issued Charters to "Prince Ru- 
pert's" Lodge, Winnipeg, December, 1870, 
and Lisgar Lodge, Selkirk. 

On May 12. 1875, the three Lodges then 
existing, via., "Prince Ruoert," "Lisgar," and 
"Ancient Landmark." held a convention and 
formed the "Grand Lodge of Manitoba/' 
electing M. W. Bro. the Rev. Dr. W. C. 
Clarke as Grand Master. [Will H. Whvte.] 

Mann, Der. The Man, the second grade 
of the "Deutsche Union." 

Manna, Pot of. Among the articles laid 
up in the Ark of the Covenant by Aaron was a 
Pot of Manna. In the substitute ark, com- 
memorated in the Royal Arch Degree, there 
was, of course, a representation of it. Manna 
has been considered as a symbol of life; not 
the transitory, but the enduring one of a future 
world. Hence the Pot of Manna, Aaron's 
rod that budded anew { and the Book of the 
Law, which teaches Divine Truth, all found 
together, are appropriately considered as the 
symbols of that eternal fife which it is the 
design of the Royal Arch Degree to teach. 

Manningham, Thomas. Dr. Thomas 
Manningham was a physician, of London, of 
much repute in the last century. He took an 
active interest in the concerns of Freemasonry, 
being Deputy Grand Master of England, 
1752-6. According to Oliver (Revelations of 
a Square, p. 86), he was the author of the 
prayer now so well known to the Fraternity, 
which was presented by him to the Grand 
Lodge, and adopted as a form of prayer to be 
used at the initiation of a candidate. Before 
that period, no prayer was used on such oc- 
casions, and the one composed by Manning- 
ham (Oliver says with the assistance of Ander- 
son, which is doubtful, as Anderson died in 
1739) is here given as a document of the 
time. It will be seen that in our day it has 
been somewhat modified, Preston making the 
first change; and that, originally used as one 
prayer, it has since been divided, in this coun- 
try at least, into two, the first part being used 
as a prayer at the opening of a Lodge, and the 
latter at the initiation of a candidate. 

" Most Holy and Glorious Lord God, thou 
Architect of heaven and earth, who art the 
giver of all good gifts and graces; and hath 
promised that where two or three are gathered 
together in thy Name, thou wilt be in the midst 
of them; in thy Name we assemble and meet 
together, most humbly beseeching thee to 
bless us in all our undertakings: to give us 
thy Holy Spirit, to enlighten our minds with 
wisdom and understanding; that we may 
know and serve thee aright, that all our 
doings may tend to thy glory and the salva- 
tion of our souls. And we Deseech thee. O 
Lord God, to bless this our present under- 
taking, and to grant that this our Brother 



Manual 463 

may dedicate his life to thy service, and be a 
true and faithful Brother amongst us. Endue 
him with Divine wisdom, that he may. with 
the secrets of Masonry, be able to unfold the 
mysteries of godliness and Christianity. This 
we humbly beg, in the name and for the sake 
of Jesus Christ our Lord and Saviour, Amen." 

Dr. Manningham rendered other important 
services to Masonry by his advocacy of 
healthy reforms and his determined opposi- 
tion to the schismatic efforts of the "Ancient 
Masons." He died February 3, 1794. The 
third edition of the Book of Constitutions 
(1756) speaks of him in exalted terms as "a 
diligent^ and active officer " (p. 258.) Two 
interesting letters written by Dr. Manning- 
ham are given at length in Gould's Concise 
History of Freemasonry (pp. 328-334): one 
dated December 3, 1756, and addressed to 
what was then the Provincial Grand Lodge of 
Holland, refusing leave for the holding of 
Scotch Lodges and pointing out that free- 
masonry is the same in all parts of the 
world; and another dated July 12, 1757, also 
dealing with the so-called Scotch Masonry, 
and explaining that its orders of Knighthood 
were unknown in England, where the only 
Orders known are those of Masters, Fellow- 
Crafts, and Apprentices. [E. L. H.] 

Mantle. A dress placed over all the 
others. It is of very ancient date, being a 
part of the costume of the Hebrews, Greeks, 
and Romans. Among the Anglo-Saxons it 
was the decisive mark of military rank, being 
confined to the cavalry. In the Medieval 
ages, and on the institution of chivalry, the 
long, trailing mantle was especially reserved 
as one of the insignia of knighthood, and was 
worn by the knight as the most august and 
noble decoration that he could have, when he 
was not dressed in his armor. The general 
color of the mantle, in imitation of that of the 
Roman soldiers, was scarlet, which was lined 
with ermine or other precious furs. But some 
of the Orders wore mantles of other colors. 
Thus the Knights Templar were clothed with 
a white mantle having a red cross on the 
breast, and the Knights Hospitalers a black 
mantle with a white cross. The mantle is 
still worn in England and other countries of 
Europe as a mark of rank on state occasions 
by peers, and by some magistrates as a 
token of official rank. 

Mantle of Honor. The mantle worn by 
a knight was called the Mantle of Honor. 
This mantle was presented to a knight when- 
ever he was made by the king. 

Manu. By reference to the Book of the 
Dead, it will be found that this word covers 
an ideal space corresponding to the word 
west, in whose bosom is received the setting 
sun. (See Truth.) 

Manual* Relating to the hand, from the 
Latin manus, a hand. See the Masonic use 
of the word in the next two articles. 

Manual Point of Entrance. Masons are, 
in a peculiar manner, reminded, by the hand, 
of the necessity of a prudent and careful 
observance of all their pledges and duties, and 



464 



MANUAL 



MANUSCRIPTS 



hence this organ suggests certain symbolic in- 
structions in relation to the virtue of prudence. 
Manual Sign. In the early English 



lectures this term is applied to what is now 
called the Manual Point of Entrance. 

Manuscripts* Anderson tells us, in the 
second edition of his Constitutions, that in 
the year 1717 Grand Master Payne "desired 
any brethren to bring to the Grand Lodge any 
old writings and records concerning Masons 
and Masonry, in order to show the usages of 
ancient times, and several old copies of the 
Gothic Constitutions were produced and 
collated" (Constitutions. 1738, p. 110); but 
in consequence of a jealous supposition that 
it would be wrong to commit anything to 
print which related to Masonry, an act of 
Masonic vandalism was perpetrated. For 
Anderson further informs us that in 1720, "at 
some private Lodges, several very valuable 
manuscripts (for they had nothing yet in 
print), concerning the Fraternity, their Lodges, 
Regulations, Charges, Secrets, and Usages, 
(particularly one written by Mr. Nicholas 
Stone, the Warden of Inigo Jones,) were too 
hastily burnt by some scrupulous Brothers, 
that those papers might not fall into strange 
hands." (Ibid, p., 111.) 

The recent labors of Masonic scholars in 
England, among whom the late William James 
Hughan deserves especial notice, have suc- 
ceeded in rescuing many of the old Masonic 
manuscripts from oblivion, and we are now 
actually in possession of more of these hereto- 
fore unpublished treasures of the Craft than 
were probably accessible to Anderson and his 
contemporaries. (See Records, Old.) 

Manuscripts, Apocryphal. There are 
certain documents that at various times have 
been accepted as genuine, but which are now 
rejected, and considered to be fabrications, by 
most, if not by all, critical Masonic writers. 

The question of their authenticity has been 
thoroughly gone into by R. F. Gould in Ch. 
XI. of his History of Freemasonry, and he 
places them all "within the category of Apoc- 
ryphal MSS." 

The first is the "Leland-Locke MS." (See 
Leland MS.) The second is the "Steinmetz 
Catechism, 1 ' given by Krause as one of the 
three oldest documents belonging to the Craft, 
but of which Gould says, " there appears to me 
nothing in the preceding 'examination' (or 
catechism) that is capable of sustaining the 
claims to antiquity which have been ad- 
vanced on its behalf. 19 The third is the 
Malcolm Canmore Charter, which came to light 
in 1806, consequent upon the "claim of the 
'Glasgow Freemen Operative St. John's 



Lodge 9 to take precedence of the other Lodges 
in the Masonic procession, at the laying of the 
foundation-stone of Nelson's monument on 
'Glasgow Green.' although at that time it 
was an independent organization." Accord- 
ing to the Charter, the Glasgow St. John's 
Lodge was given priority over all the other 
Lodges in Scotland by Malcolm III., King of 
Scots, in 1051. The controversy as to the 
document was lively, but finally it was pro- 
nounced to be a manufactured parchment, 
and the Grand Lodge of Scotland declined to 
recognize it of value. The fourth MS. is that 
of Krause. known as Prince Edwin* s Constitu- 
tion of 926. Upon this unquestioned reliance 
had tor decades been placed, then it came 
to be doubted, and is now little credited by 
inquiring Masons. Bro. Gould closes his re- 
cital of criticisms with the remark: 41 The 
original document, as commonly happens in 
forgeries of this description, is missing; and 
how, under all the circumstances of the case 
Krause could have constituted himself the 
champion of its authenticity, it is difficult to 
conjecture. Possibly t however, the explana- 
tion may be, that in impostures of this char- 
acter, credulity, on the one part, is a strong 
temptation to deceit on the other, especially 
to deceit of which no personal injury is the 
consequence, and which flatters the student of 
old documents with his own ingenuity." These 
remarks are specially quoted as relating to 
almost all apocryphal documents. The fifth is 
the Charter of Cologne, a document in cipher, 
bearing the date June 24. 1535, as to which 
see Cologne, Charter of. The sixth is the Lar- 
menius Charter, or The Charter of Transmission, 
upon which rest the claims of the French 
Order of the Temple to being the lineal suc- 
cessors of the historic Knights Templar, for 
which see Temple, Order of the. fE. L. H.j 

Manuscripts, Old. The following is a 
list, arranged as far as possible in sequence 
of age, of the old Masonic MSS., now usually 
known as the Old Charges. They generally 
consist of t three parts — first, an opening 
prayer or invocation: second, the legendary 
history of the Craft ; third, the peculiar statutes 
and duties, the regulations and observances, 
incumbent on Masons. There is no doubt 
that they were read to candidates on theiz 
initiation, and probably each Lodge had a 
copy which was used for this purpose. The 
late Bro. W. J. Hughan made a special study 
of these old MSS., and was instrumental in dis- 
covering a great many of them; and his book 
The Ola Charges of British Freemasons, pub- 
lished in 1895, is the standard work on the 
subject. 



No. Name. Date. Owner. When and Where Published. 

1. Regius (also Halliwell) . .circa 1390. . .British Museum By Mr. Halliwell in 1840 and 1844; 

by Mr. Whymper in 1880; by the 
Quatuor Corona ti Lodge in 1889. 



2. Cooke circa 1450. 



& Grand Lodge. No. 1. 



1688 



. .British Museum By Mr. Cooke in 1861 ; by the Quatuor 

Coronati Lodge in 1890. 
..Grand Lodge of England. ...By W.J. Hughan. in Old Charges, 
1872; by H. Sadler, in Masenic Facte 
and Fictions, 1887; in Hist, of 
Freemasonry and Concordant Orders. 
1891; by the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge in 1892. 



MANUSCRIPTS 



MANUSCRIPTS 465 



No Nam*. Doit. Owner. When and Where Published. 

4. Lansdowne circa 1600. . .Britiib Mnmm In Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 

1848; in Freemasons' Magasine, 
1808; in Hughan's Old Charges. 
1872; by the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge in 1890. 

A. York, No. 1 circa 1600. . .York Lodge, No. 230 In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; in 

Masonic Magasine, 1873; in Ancient 
York Masonic Rolls, 1894. 

6. Wood 1610 . . .Pror. G. Lodge of Worcester. In Masonic Magasine, 1881; by the 

Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1895. 

7. John T. Thorp 1629 . . . J. T. Thorp, Eeq. (Leicester) .In Are Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. ix., 

1898; in Lodge of Research Trans' 
actions, 1898-99. 

8. Sloane, 3848 1640 .. .British Museum In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; in Ma- 

sonic Magasine, 1873; by the Quat- 
uor Coronati Lodge in 1891. 

9. Sloane, 3323. 1009 . . .British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871; by the Quatuor Coro- 
nati Lodge in 1891. 

10. Grand Lodge, No. 2.... circa 1050... Grand Lodge of England. .. .By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 

1892. 

11. Harleian, 1942. circa 1050. . .British Museum In Freemasons' Quarterly Review, 1830; 

in Hughan's Old Charges, 1872; by 
the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1890. 

12. G. W. Bain. circa 1050. . .R. Wilson, Esq. (Leeds) In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. zz., 

1907. 

13. Harleian, 2064. cm 1000. . .British Museum In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871; in Masonic Magasins. 
1873; by the Quatuor Coronati 
Lodge in 1891. 

14. Phfflipps, No. 1 circa 1077. . .Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick (Chel- 

tenham) By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 

1894. 

15. Phillipps, No. 2 ciroa 1077... M In Masonic Magasine, 1870; in 

Archstological Library. 1878; by the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1894. 

16. Lochmore 1650-1700 . . . Prov. G. Lodge of Worcester . In Masonic Magasine, 1882. 

17. Buchanan 1650-1700. . .Grand Lodge of England. . . .In Gould's Hist, of Freemasonry, by 

Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1892. 

18. Kilwinning cvea 1005. . .Mother Kilwinning Lodge 

(Sootland) In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871; in Lyon's HisL of the 
Lodgs of Edinburgh, 1873. 

19. Ancient Stirling. 1050-1700. . .Ancient Stirling Lodge (Soot- 

land) By Hughan in 1893. 

20. Taylor circa 1050. . .Prov. G. Lodge of West 

Yorkshire In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. zxi., 

1908. 

21. Atcheeon Haven 1000 . . .G. Lodge of Scotland In Lyon's Hist, of the Lodge of Edin- 

burgh, 1873. 

22. Aberdeen 1070 . . .Aberdeen Lodge, No. 1 trie . . In Voice of Masonry, Chicago, U. S. A., 

1874; in Freemason, 1895. 

23. Melrose, No. 2 1074 . . .Melrose St. John Lodge, No. 

1 bis (Scotland) In Masonic Magasine, 1880; in Ver- 
non's Hist, of F. AT. in Roxburgh, 
etc., 1893. 

24. Henery Heads 1075 ...Inner Temple library (Lon- 

don) In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. zxi., 

1908. 

25. Stanley 1077 ...West Yorkshire Masonio Li- 

brary In West Yorkshire Masonic Reproduc- 
tions, 1893. 

20. Carson 1077 ...E. T. Carson. Esq. (Cincin- 
nati, U. 8. A.) In Masonic Review (Cincinnati). 1890; 

in Freemasons* Chronicle, 1890. 

27. Antiquity 1080 ...Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2 

(London) In Hughan's Old Charges, 1872. 

28. Col. Clerke 1080 .. .Grand Lodge of England. .. .In Freemason, 1888; in Condor's Hot* 

Crafts, etc., 1894. 

29. William Watson 1087 .. .West Yorkshire Masonio Li- 

brary In Freemason, 1891; in West Yorkshire 

Masonic Reprints, 1891; by the 
Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 1891. 

80. T. W. Tew circa 1080. . .West Yorkshire Masonio Li- 
brary In Christmas Freemason. 1888; in 

West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 
1880 and 1892. 

31. Inigo Jones circa 1080. . .Worcestershire Masonis Li- 

brary In Masonic Magasine, 1881; by the 

Quatuor Coronati Lodgs in 1895. 

32. Dumfries, No. 1 1075-1700... Dumfries KH winning Lodge, 

No. 53 (Sootland) In Smith's Hist, of the Old Lodge of 

_ Dumfries, 1892. 

33. Dumfries, No. 2 1075-1700... '* In Christmas Freemason, 1892; by 

Hughan, in 1892. 

34. Beaumont 1075-1700. . .Prov. G. Lodge of West 

Yorkshire In Freemason, 1804. 

35. Dumfries, No. 3 1075-1700.. . M In 8mith's Hist, of the Old Lodge of 

M Dumfries, 1892. 

81 



466 MANUSCRIPTS 



MANUSCRIPTS 



No. Name. Dai*. Owner. When and Where Published. 

36. Hop* 1676-1700... Lodge of Hope. No. 302 

(Bradford, Yorkshire) In Hughan's Old Charge, 1872; in 

West Yorkshire Masonic Reprint*, 
1802 

87. T. W. Embleton 1676-1700. . .W«t Yorkshire Masonic Li- 

brary In Christmas Freemason, 1880; in 

West Yorkshire Mamie Reprints, 
1803. 

88. York, No. 6 tiroa 1670. . .York Lodge, No. 236 In Masonic Magazine, 1881; in Ancient 

York Masonic Constitutions, 1804. 

80. York, No. 6 1676-1700. . . " In Masonic Magazine, 1880; in Ancient 

York Masonic Constitutions, 1804. 

40. Coins, No. 1 1676-1700. . .Royal Lancashire Lodge, No. 

116 (Colne, Lancashire) . . .In Christmas Freemason, 1887. 

41. Clapham eirea 1700... West Yorkshire Masonic Li- 

brary In Freemason, 1800; in West Yorkshire 

Masonic Reprints, 1802. 

42. Hughan 1676-1700... " In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 

1802; in Freemason, 1802 and 1011. 

43. Dauntesey circa 1600... R. Dauntesey, Esq. (Man- 

chester) In Keystone, Philadelphia, 1886. 

44. Harris, No. 1 " . . .Bedford Lodge, No. 167 (Lon- 

don) In Freemasons* Chronicle, 1882. 

46. David Ramsey M . . .The Library, Hamburg In Freemason, 1006. 

46. T^ngdale " ...Q. W. Bain, Esq. (Bunder- 

land) In Freemason, 1806. 

47. H. F. Beaumont 1600 ...West Yorkshire Masonic Li- 

brary In Freemason, 1804; in West York- 
shirs Masonic Reprints, 1001. 

48. Waistell 1603 ... M In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 

1802. 

40. York, No. 4 1603 . . .York Lodge, No. 238 In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871; in Ancient York Ma- 
sonic Rolls, 1804. 

60. Thomas Fozcroft 1600 . . .Grand Lodge of England In Freemason, 1000. 

61. Newcastle College Roll. . droa 1700. . . Newcastle College of Rosi- 

cruciana By F. F. 8chnitger in 1804. 

62. John Strachan " . . .Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 

2076 (London) In the Transactions of the Lodge of Re- 
search, 1800-1000. 

63. Alnwiok 1701 . . .Mr. Turnbull (Alnwick) In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871, and Old Charges. 1872; 
by the Newcastle College of Rosi- 
crucians in 1806. 

64. York, No. 3 1704 .. .York Lodge, No. 236 In Hughan's Masonic Sketches and Re- 

prints, 1871; in Ancient York Ma- 
sonic Rolls, 1804. 

66. Scarborough. 1706 .. .G. Lodge of Canada In Philadelphia Mirror and Keystone, 

1860; in Canadian Masonic Record, 
1874; in Masonic Magazine, 1870; 
by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 
1804; in Ancient York Masonic RoUs, 
1804 

66. Colne, No. 2 1700-1726. . .Royal Lancashire Lodge, 

No. 116 (Colne, Lanca- 
shire) Has not been reproduced. 

67. Papworth eirea 1720. . . W. Papworth, Esq. (London) . In Hughan's Ola Charges, 1872. 

68. Macnab 1722 .. .West Yorkshire Masonio Li- 

brary In West Yorkshire Masonic Reprints, 

1806. 

69. Haddon 1723 ...J. 8. Haddon. Esq. (Well- 

ington) In Hughan's Old Charges, 1806. 

60. Phillipps. No. 3 1700-1726. . . Rev. J. E. A. Fenwick (Chel- 

tenham) By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 

1804. 

61. Dumfries, No. 4 1700-1726. . .Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge, 

No. 63 (Scotland) In Are Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. v., 

1803. 

62. Cams 1700-1726 . . . Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 

2076 (London) By the Quatuor Coronati Lodge in 

1801. 

63. Songhurst. ciroa 1725. . . " Has not been reproduced. 

64. Spenoer. 1726 ...E. T. Carson. Esq. (Cincin- 

nati, U. 8. A.) In Spencer's Old Constitutions, 1871. 

66. Tho. Carmick 1727 ...P. F. Smith, Esq. (Pennsyl- 
vania) In Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. xxiL, 

1000. 

66. Woodford 1728 .. .Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 

2076 (London) A copy of the Cooke Ma 

67. Supreme Council. 1728 ...Supreme Council, 33° (Lon- 

don) 

68. Gateshead etrco 1730. . .Lodge of Industry, No. 48 

(Gateshead, Durham) In Masonic Magazine, 1876. 

60. Rawimson 1726-1760 . . . Bodleian Library (Oxford) ... In Freemasons 1 Monthly Magaeine, 

1866; in Masonic Magaeine, 1876; in 
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, voL xi., 
1808. 

7a Probity ciroa 1736. . .Probity Lodge, No. 61 (Hali- 
fax, Yorkshire) In Freemason, 1886; in Wfist Yorkshire 

Masonic Reprints, 1802 



MARCHESHVAN 



MARIA 



467 



No. 
71. 

72. 

73. 

74. 

75. 
76. 

77. 

78. 



Name. Date. 
Levander-York circa 1740. 



Owner, 



When and Where Published. 



.F. W. Levander, Esq. (Lon- 
don) In Are Quatuor Coronatorum, voL 

xviii., 1006. 

.Thistle Lodge, No. 62 (Dum- 
fries, Scotland) Has not been reproduced. 

.Melrose St. John, No. 1 bi* 

(Scotland) 

.Cestrian Lodge. No. 425 

(Chester) In Freemason, 1884. 

Crane, No. 2 1775-1800. . . " 

Harris, No. 2 circa 1781. . .British Museum By the Quatuor Coronati Lodce m 

1802. 

Tunnah circa 1828. . .Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 

2076 (London) Has not been reproduced. 

Wren 1852 . . . Unknown In Masonic Magasine. 1870. 

[E. L. H.] 



Thistle Lodge 1756 

Melrose, No, 3 1762 

Crane, No. 1 1781 



Marcheshvan. p&mtt. The second 
•month of the Jewish civil year. It beg 
with the new moon in November, and corre- 
sponds, therefore, to a part of that month 
and of December. 

Marconls, Gabriel Mathleu, more fre- 
quently known as De Negre, from his dark 
complexion, was the founder and first G. Mas- 
ter and G. Hierophant of the Rite of Mem- 
phis, brought by Sam'l Honis, a native of 
Cairo, from Egypt, in 1814. who with Baron 
Dumas and the Marquis de la Rogne, founded 
a Lodge of the Rite at Montauban, France, on 
April 30, 1815, which was closed March 7, 
1816. In a work entitled The Sanctuary of 
Memphis, by Jacques Etienne Marconis, the 
author — presumptively the son of G. M. Mar- 
conis — who styles himself the founder of the 
Rite of Memphis, thus briefly gives an account 
of its origin : "The Rite of Memphis, or Orien- 
tal Rite, was introduced into Europe by 
# Ormus, a seraphic priest of Alexandria and 
'Egyptian sage, who had been converted by 
St. Mark, and reformed the doctrines of the 
Egyptians in accordance with the principles 
of Cnristiatiity. The disciples of Ormus con- 
tinued until 1118 to be the sole guardians of 
ancient Egyptian wisdom, as purified by 
Christianity and Solomonian science. This 
science they communicated to the Templars. 
They were then known by the title of Knights 
of Palestine, or Brethren Rose Croix of the 
East. In them the Rite of Memphis recog- 
nises its immediate founders." 

The above, coming from the G. Hierophant 
and founder, should satisfy the most scru- 
pulous as to the conversion of Ormus by St. 
Mark, and his then introducing the Memphis 
Rite. But Marconis continues as to the ob- 
ject and intention of his Rite: "The Masonic 
Kite of Memphis is a combination of the an- 
cient mysteries; it taught the first men to 
render homage to the Deity. Its dogmas are 
based on the principles of humanity; its mis- 
sion is the study of that wisdom which serves to 
discern truth; it is the beneficent dawn of the 
development of reason and intelligence; it is the 
worship of the qualities of the human heart 
and the impression of its vices; in fine, it is the 
echo of religious toleration, the union of all be- 
lief, the bond between all men { the symbol of 
sweet illusions of hope, preaching the faith in 
God that saves, and the charity that blesses. 11 

We are further told by the Hierophant 



founder that "The Rite of Memphis is the 
sole depository of High Masonry, the true 
primitive Rite, the Rite par excellence, which 
has come down to us without any alteration, 
and is consequently the only Rite that can 
justify its origin and the combined exercise of 
its rights by constitutions, the authenticity of 
which cannot be questioned. The Rite of 
Memphis, or Oriental Rite, is the veritable 
Masonic tree, and all systems, whatsoever 
they be, are but detached branches of this in- 
stitution, venerable for its great antiquity, and 
born in Egypt. The real deposit of the prin- 
ciples of Masonry, written in the Chaldee lan- 
guage, is preserved in the sacred ark of the 
Rite of Memphis, and in part in the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland, at Edinburgh, and in the 
Maronite Convent on Mount Lebanon." 
"Brother Marconis de Negre, the Grand Hier- 
ophant, is the sole consecrated depositary of 
the traditions of this Sublime Order." 

The above is enough to reveal the character 
of the father and reputed son for truth, as also 
of the institution founded by them, which, 
like the firefly, is seen now here, now there, 
but with no steady beneficial light. (See 
Memphis, Rite of.) 

Marconis, Jacques Etienne. Born at 
Montauban, January 3, 1795; died at Paris, 
November 21, 1868. (See Memphis, Rite of.) 

Marduk. A victorious warrior-god, de- 
scribed on one of the Assyrian clay tablets of 
the British Museum, who was said to have en- 
gaged the monster Tiamat in a cosmogonio 
struggle. He was armed with a namzar (grap- 
pling-hook), ariktu (lance), shibbu (lasso), 
qashtu (bow), zizpau (club), and kabab 
(shield), together with a dirk m each hand. 

Maria Theresa. Empress of Austria, who 
showed great hostility to Freemasonry, pre- 
sumably from religious leanings and advisers. 
Her husband was Francis I., elected Emperor 
of Germany in 1745. He was a zealous Mason, 
and had been initiated at The Hague in 1731. 
at a Special Lodge, at which Lord Chesterfield 
and Dr. Desaguliers were present. He was 
raised at Houghton Hall, the same year, while 
on a visit to England. He assisted to found 
the Lodge "Drei Kanonen," at Vienna, consti- 
tuted in 1742. During the forty years' reign 
of Maria Theresa, Freemasonry was tolerated 
in Vienna doubtless through the intercession 
of the Emperor. It is stated in the Pocket 
Companion of 1754, one hundred grenadiers 



468 MARK 



were sent to break up the Lodge, taking twelve 
prisoners, the Emperor escaping by a back 
staircase. He answered for and freed the 
twelve prisoners. His son, Emperor Joseph, 
inherited good-will to Masonry. He was G. 
Master of the Viennese Masons at the time of 
his death. 

Mark. The appropriate jewel of a Mark 
Master. It is made of sold or silver, usually 
of the former metal, ana must be in the form 
of a keystone. On the obverse or front sur- 
face, the device or "mark" selected by the 
owner must be engraved within a circle com- 

rjed of the following letters: H. T. W. S. 
T. K. S. On the reverse or posterior sur- 
face, the name of the owner, the name of his 
Chapter, and the date of his advancement, 
may be inscribed, although this is not abso- 
lutely necessary. The "mark " consists of the 
device and surrounding inscription on the ob- 
verse. The Mark jewel, as prescribed by the 
Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland, is of 
mother-of-pearl. The circle on one side is 
inscribed with the Hebrew letters EttKElGXn, 
and the circle on the other side with letters 
containing the same meaning in the vernac- 
ular tongue of the country in which the Chap- 
ter is situated, and the wearer's mark in the 
center. The Hebrew letters are the initials 
of a Hebrew sentence equivalent to the Eng- 
lish one familiar to Mark Masons. It is but a 
translation into Hebrew of the English mys- 
tical sentence. 

It is not requisite that the device or mark 
should be of a strictly Masonic character, al- 
though Masonic emblems are frequently se- 
lected in preference to other subjects. As 
soon as adopted it should be drawn or de- 
scribed in a book kept by the Chapter for that 
purpose, and it is then said to be "recorded 
m the Book of Marks, 1 ' after which time it 
can never be changed by the possessor for any 
other, or altered m the slightest degree, but 
remains as his "mark " to the day of his death. 

This mark is not a mere ornamental appen- 
dage of the degree, but is a sacred token of the 
rites of friendship and brotherly love, and its 
presentation at any time by the owner to an- 
other Mark Master, would claim, from the 
latter, certain acts of friendship which are of 
solemn obligation among the Fraternity. A 
mark thus presented, for the purpose of ob- 
taining a favor, is said to be pledged; though 
remaining in the possession of the owner, it 
ceases, for any actual purposes of advantage, 
to be nis property; nor can it be again used by 
him until, either by the return of the favor, or 
with the consent of the benefactor, it has been 
redeemed : for it is a positive law of the Order, 
that no Mark Master shall " pledge his mark a 
second time until he has redeemed it from its 
previous pledge." By this wise provision, the 
unworthy are prevented from making an im- 
proper use of this valuable token, or from levy- 
ing contributions on their hospitable brethren. 
Marks or pledges of this kind were of frequent 
use among the ancients, under the name of 
tessera hospitalis and "arrhabo." The nature 
of the tessera hospitalis, or, as the Greeks 



MARK 

called it, vt/ifckur, cannot be better described 
than in the words of the Scholiast on the 
Medea of Euripides, v. 613, where Jason prom- 
ises Medea, on her parting from him. to send 
her the symbols of hospitality which should 
procure her a kind reception m foreign coun- 
tries. It was the custom, says the Scholiast, 
when a guest had been entertained, to break a 
die in two parts, one of which parts was re- 
tained by the guest, so that if, at any future 
period he required assistance, on exhibiting 
the broken pieces of the die to each other, the 
friendship was renewed. Plautus, in one of his 
comedies, gives us an exemplification of the 
manner m which these tessera or pledges of 
friendship were used at Rome, whence it ap- 
pears that the privileges of this friendship 
were extended to the descendants of the con- 
tracting parties. Pcenulus is introduced, 
inquiring for Agorastocles. with whose family 
he had formerly exchanged the tessera. 

Ag. Siquidem Antidimarchi queris adopta- 
titium. 

Ego sum ipsus quern tu qusris. 

Paen. Hem I quid ego audio? 

Ag. Antidam® me gnu turn esse. 

Pcen. Si ita est, tesseram 
Conferre si vis hospitalem, eccam, attuli. 

Ag. Agedum hucostende; est par probe; nam 
habeo domum. 

Pan. O mi hospes, salve multum ; nam mihi 
tuus pater, 

Pater tuus ergo hospes, Antidamas fuit: 
HfiDc mihi hospitalis teosera cum illo fuit. 

Patnvl., act. v., $. e. 2, ver. 86. 

Ag. Antidimarchus' adopted son. 
If you do seek, I am the very man. 
How! do I hear aright? 

Ag. I am the son 
Of old Antidam ua. 

Petri. If so, I pray you 
Compare with me the hospitable die 
I've brought this with me. 

Ag. Prithee, let me see it. 
It is, indeed, the very counterpart 
Of mine at home. 

Pan. All hail, my welcome guest, 
Your father was my guest, Antidamus. 
Your father was my honored guest, and then 
This hospitable die with me he parted. 

These tesserce. thus used, like the Mark 
Master's mark, tor the purposes of perpetuat- 
ing friendship and rendering its union more 
sacred, were constructed in the following man- 
ner: they took a small piece of bone, ivory, 
or stone, generally of a square or cubical form, 
and dividing it into equal parts, each wrote 
his own name, or some other inscription, upon 
one of the pieces; they then made a mutual 
exchange, and, lest falling into other hands it 
should give occasion to imposture, the pledge 
was preserved with the greatest secrecy, and 
no one knew the name inscribed upon it ex- 
cept the possessor. 

The primitive Christians seem to have 
adopted a similar practise, and the tessera was 
carried by them in their travels, as a means of 
introduction to their fellow Christians. A 
favorite inscription with them were the letters 
n. T. A. n., being the initials of rianyp, T<os v 
Kyioy ibw/us, or Father, Son, and Holy Ghost 



MARK 



The use of these tesserae, in the place of written 
certificates, continued, says Dr. Harris {Diss, 
on the Tess. Hosp.), until the eleventh cen- 
tury, at which time they are mentioned by 
Burchardus, Archbishop of Worms, in a visi- 
tation charge. 

The "arrha)x>" was a similar keepsake, 
formed by breaking a piece of money in two. 
The etymology of this word shows distinctly 
that the Romans borrowed the custom of 
these pledges from the ancient Israelites, for 
it is derived from the Hebrew arabon, a pledge. 

With this detail of the customs of the 
ancients before us, we can easily explain the 
well-known passage in Revelation ii. 17: 
"To him that overcometh will I give a white 
stone, and in it a new name written, which no 
man knoweth saving he that receiveth it." 
That is, to borrow the interpretation of Har- 
ris, "To him that overcometh will I give a 
pledge of my affection, which shall constitute 
nim my friend, and entitle him to privileges 
and honors of which none else can know the 
value or the extent." 

Mark Man. According to Masonic tradi- 
tion, the Mark Men were the Wardens, as the 
Mark Masters were the Masters of the Fellow- 
Craft Lodges, at the building of the Temple. 
They distributed the marks to the workmen, 
and made the first inspection of the work, 
which was afterward to be approved by the 
overseers. As a degree, the Mark Man is not 
recognized in the United States. In England 
it is sometimes, but not generally, worked as 
preparatory to the degree of Mark Master. 
In Scotland, in 1778, it was given to Fellow- 
Crafts, while the Mark Master was restricted 
to Master Masons. It is not recognized in 
the present regulations of the Supreme Grand 
Chapter of Scotland. Much of the esoterio 
ritual of the Mark Man has been incorporated 
into the Mark Master of the American Sys- 
tem. 

Blark Master. The Fourth Degree of the 
American Rite. The traditions of the degree 
make it of great historical importance, since 
by them we are informed that by its influence 
each Operative Mason at the building of the 
Temple was known and distinguished, and the 
disorder and confusion which might otherwise 
have attended so immense an undertaking 
was completely prevented. Not less useful 
is it in its symbolic signification. As illustra- 
tive of the Fellow-Craft, the Fourth Degree is 
particularly directed to the inculcation of 
order, regularity, and discipline. It teaches 
us that we should discharge all the duties of 
our several stations with precision and punc- 
tuality; that the work of our hands and the 
thoughts of our hearts should be good and 
true — not unfinished and imperfect, not sin- 
ful and defective — but such as tne Great 
Overseer and Judge of heaven and earth will 
see fit to approve as a worthy oblation from 
his creatures. If the Fellow-Craft's Degree is 
devoted to the inculcation of learning, that of 
the Mark Master is intended to instruct us 
how that learning can most usefully and ju- 
diciously be employed for our own honor and 



MARK 469 

the profit of others. And it holds forth to the 
desponding the encouraging thought that al- 
though our motives may sometimes be misin- 
terpreted by our erring fellow mortals, our at- 
tainments be underrated, and our reputations 
be traduced by the envious and malicious, 
there is one, at least, who sees not with the 
eyes of man, but may yet make that stone 
which the builders rejected, the head of the 
corner. The intimate connection then, be- 
tween the Second and Fourth degrees of Ma- 
sonry, is this, that while one inculcates the nec- 
essary exercise of all the duties of life, the 
other teaches the importance of performing 
them with systematic regularity. The true 
Mark Master is a type of that man mentioned 
in the sacred parable, who received from his 
master this approving language — "Well done, 
good and faithful servant; thou hast been 
faithful over a few things, I will make thee 
ruler over many things: enter thou into the 
joys of thy Ix)rd." 

In America, the Mark Master's is the first 
degree given in a Royal Arch Chapter. Its 
officers are a Right Worshipful Master, Sen- 
ior and Junior Wardens, Secretary, Treas- 
urer, Senior and Junior Deacons. Master, 
Senior and Junior Overseers. Tne degree 
cannot be conferred when less than six are 
present, who, in that case, must be the first 
and last three officers above named. The 
working tools are the Mallet and Indenting 
Chisel (which see). The symbolic color is 
purple. The Mark Master's Degree is now 

S'ven in England under the authority of the 
rand Lodge of Mark Masters, which was 
established m June, 1856, and is a jurisdiction 
independent of the Grand Lodge. The officers 
are the same as in America, with the addition 
of a Chaplain, Director of Ceremonies, As- 
sistant Director, Registrar of Marks, Inner 
Guard or Time Keeper, and two Stewards. 
Master Masons are eligible for initiation. Bro. 
Hughan says that the degree is virtually the 
same in England, Scotland, and Ireland. It 
differs, however, in some respects from the 
American degree. 

Mark of the Craft, Regular. In the 
Mark Degree there is a certain stone which is 
said, in the ritual, not to have upon it the reg- 
ular mark of the Craft. This expression is de- 
rived from the following tradition of the de- 
gree. At the building of the Temple, each 
workman placed his own mark upon his own 
materials, so that the workmanship of every 
Mason might be readily distinguished, and 
praise or blame be justly awarded. These 
marks, according to the lectures, consisted of 
mathematical figures, squares, angles, lines, 
and perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a 
different kind, such as a circle, would not be 
deemed "the regular mark of the Craft." 
Of the three stones used in the Mark Degree, 
one is inscribed with a square and another 
with a plumb or perpendicular, because these 
were marks familiar to the Craft; but the 
third { which is inscribed with a circle and 
certain hieroglyphics, was not known, and was 
not, therefore, called "regular." 



470 MARKS 

Marks of the Craft. In former tunes. 
Operative Masons, the "Steinmetzen" of 
Germany, were accustomed to place some 
mark or sign of their own invention, which, 
like the monogram of the painters, would 
seem to identify the work of each. They are 
to be found upon the cathedrals, churches, 
castles, and other stately buildings erected 
since the twelfth century, or a little earlier, 
in Germany, France, England, and Scotland. 
As Mr. Godwin has observed in his History in 
Ruins, it is curious to see that these marks 
are of the same character, in form, in all these 
different countries. They were principally 
crosses, triangles, and other mathematical 
figures, and many of them were religious sym- 
bols. Specimens taken from different build- 
ings supply such forms as follow. 

V A Z + 

+ ffl A * 

H ix>o 

The last of these is the well-known vesica 
piscis, the symbol of Christ among the prim- 
itive Christians, and the last but one is the 
Pythagorean pentalpha. A writer in the 
London Times (August 13, 1835) is incorrect in 
stating that these marks are confined to Ger- 
many, and are to be found only since the 
twelfth or thirteenth centuries. More recent 
researches have shown that they existed in 
many other countries, especially in Scotland, 
and that they were practised by the builders 
of ancient tunes. Thus Ainsworth, in his 
Travels (ii., 167), tells us, in his description of 
the ruins of Al-Hadhv in Mesopotamia, that 
"every stone, not only in the chief building, 
but in the walls and bastions and other pubhc 
monuments, when not defaced by time, is 
marked with a character which is for the most 
part either a Chaldean letter or numeral.' 1 
M. Didron, who reported a series of observa- 
tions on the subject of these Masons' marks to 
the ComiM Historique des Arts et Monumens of 
Paris, believes that he can discover in them 
references to distinct schools or Lodges of 
Masons. He divides them into two classes: 
those of the overseers, and those of the 
men who worked the stones. The marks of the 
first class consist of monogrammatic charac- 
ters; those of the second, are of the nature of 
symbols, such as shoes, trowels, mallets, etc. 

A correspondent ot the Freemasons 1 Quar- 
terly Review states that similar marks are to be 
found on the stones which compose the walls 
of the fortress of Allahabad, which was erected 
in 1542, in the East Indies. "The walls," says 
this writer, "are composed of large oblong 



MARSHAL 



blocks of red granite, and are almost every- 
where covered by Masonic emblems, which 
evince something more than mere ornament. 
They are not confined to one particular spot, 
but are scattered over the walls of the fortress, 
in many places as high as thirty or forty feet 
from the ground. It is quite certain that 
thousands of stones on the walls, bearing 
these Masonic symbols, were carved, marked, 
and numbered m the quarry previous to the 
erection of the building." 

In the ancient buildings of England and 
France, these marks are to be found in great 
abundance. In a communication, on this 
subject, to the London Society of Antiquaries, 
Mr. Godwin states that, "in my opinion, 
these marks, if collected and compared might 
assist in connecting the various bands of op- 
eratives, who, under the protection of the 
Church— mystically united — spread them- 
selves over Europe during the Middle Ages, 
and are known as Freemasons." Mr. Godwin 
describes these marks as varying in length 
from two to seven inches, and as formed by a 
single line, slightly indented, consisting chiefly 
of crosses, known Masonic symbols, em- 
blems of the Trinity and of eternity, the 
double triangle, trowel, square, etc. 

The same writer observes that, in a conver- 
sation, in September, 1844, with a Mason at 
work on the Canterbury Cathedral, he "found 
that many Masons {all who were Freemasons) 
had their mystic marks handed down from 
generation to generation: this man had his 
mark from his father, ana he received it from 
his grandfather." 

Marrow in the Bone. An absurd corrup- 
tion of a Jewish word, and still more absurdly 
said to be its translation. It has no appro- 
priate signification in the place to which it is 
applied, out was once religiously believed in 
by many Masons, who, being ignorant of the 
Hebrew language, accepted it as a true inter- 
pretation. It is now universally rejected by 
the intelligent portion of the Craft. 

Marseilles, Mother Lodge of. A Lodge 
was established in 1748, at Marseilles, m 
France, Thory says, by a traveling Mason, 
under the name of St. Jean d'Ecosse. It 
afterward assumed the name of Mother 
Lodge of Marseilles, and still later the name 
of Scottish Mother Lodge of France. It 
granted Warrants of its own authority for 
Lodges in France and in the colonies; among 
others for one at New Orleans, in Louisiana. 

Marshal* An officer common to several 
Masonic bodies, whose duty is to regulate pro- 
cessions, and other pubhc solemnities. In 
Grand bodies he is called a Grand Marshal. 
In the American Royal Arch System, the Cap- 
tain of the Host acts on public occasions as 
the Marshal. The Marshal's ensign of office is 
a baton or short rod. The office of Marshal 
in State affairs is very ancient. It was found 
in the court of the Byzantine emperors, and was 
introduced into England from France at the 
period of the conquest. His badge of office 
I was at first a rod or verge, which was afterward 
I abbreviated to the baton, for, as an old writer 



MARTEL 

has observed (Thinne). "the verge or rod was 
the ensign of him who had authority to reform 
evil in warn and in peace, and to see quiet 
and order observed among the people. 11 

Martel. Charles M artel, who died in 741, 
although not actually Mng, reigned over 
France under the title of Mayor of the Palace. 
Rebold (Hist. Gen., p. 69) says that "at the 
request of the Anglo-Saxon kings, he sent 
workmen and Masters into England." The 
Operative Masons of the Middle Ages consid- 
ered him as one of their patrons, and give the 
following account of him in their Legend of 
the Craft. "There was one of the Royal line 
of France called Charles Marshall, and he was 
a man that loved well the said Craft and took 
upon him the Rules and Manners, and after 
that By the Grace of God he was elect to be 
the King of France, and when he was in his 
Estate, he helped to make those Masons that 
were now, and sett them on Work and gave 
them Charges and Manners and good pay as 
he had learned of other Masons, and con- 
firmed them a Charter from yeare to yeare to 
hold their Assembly when they would, and 
Cherished them right well, and thus came this 
Noble Craft into France." (Lansdowne MS.) 

Martha. The Fourth Degree of the 
Eastern Star; a Rite of American Adoptive 
Masonry. 

Martinism. The Rite of Martinism. 
called also the Rectified Rite, was instituted 
at Lyons, by the Marquis de St. Martin, a 
disciple of Martinez Paschalis, of whose Rite 
it was pretended to be a reform. Martinism 
was divided into two classes, called Temples, 
in which were the following degrees: 

/. Temple. 1. Apprentice. 2. Fellow- 
Craft. 3. Master Mason. 4. Past Master. 
5. Elect. 6. Grand Architect. 7. Mason of 
the Secret. 

II. Temple. 8. Prince of Jerusalem. 9. 
Knight of Palestine. 10. Eadosh. 

The degrees of Martinism abounded in the 
reveries of the Mystics. (See Saint Martin.) 

Martin, Louis Claude de St. See Saint 
Martin. 

Martyr. A title bestowed by the Tem- 

Slars on their last Grand Master, James de 
lolay. If, as Du Cange says, the Church 
sometimes gives the title of martyr to men of 
illustrious sanctity t who have suffered, death 
not for the confession of the name of Christ, 
but for some other cause, being slain by im- 
pious men, then De Molay, as the innocent 
victim of the malignant schemes of an atro- 
cious pope and king, was clearly entitled to 
the appellation. 

Martyrs, Four Crowned. See Four 
Crowned Martyrs. 

Maryland. Freemasonry was introduced 
into Maryland, in 1750, by the Provincial 
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, which issued a 
Charter for the establishment of a Lodge at 
Annapolis. Five other Lodges were subse- 
quently chartered by the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Pennsylvania, and one in 1765, at 
Joppa, by the Grand Lodge of England. On 
the 31st of July, 1783, these five Lodges held a 



MASON 471 



convention at Talbot Court-House, and in- 
formally organized a Grand Lodge. But as 
the Lodge at Annapolis had taken no part 
in this movement, another convention of all 
the Lodges was held at Baltimore on the 17th 
of April, 1787, and the Grand Lodge of Mary- 
land was duly organized, John Coates being 
elected the Grand Master. The Grand Chap- 
ter was established in 1812. 

Mason Crowned. (Macon Couronne.) A 
degree in the nomenclature of Fustier. 

Mason, Derivation of the Word. The 
search for the etymology or derivation of the 
word Mason has given rise to numerous the- 
ories, some of them ingenious, but many of 
them very absurd. Thus, a writer in the Eu- 
ropean Magazine for February, 1792, who 
signs his name as "George Drake/ 1 lieutenant 
of marines, attempts to trace the Masons to 
the Druids, and derives Mason from May's on, 
May's being in reference to May-day, the great 
festival of the Druids, and on meaning men, as 
in the French on dit, for homme dit. According 
to this, May's on therefore means the Men of 
May. This idea is not original with Drake, 
since the same derivation was urged in 1766 by 
Cleland, in his essays on The Way to Things in 
Words, and on The Real Secret of Freemasons. 

Hutchinson, in his search for a derivation, 
seems to have been perplexed with the variety 
of roots that presented themselves, and, being 
inclined to believe that the name of Mason 
I' has its derivation from a language in which it 
implies some strong indication or distinction 
of the nature of the society, and that it has no 
relation to architects," looks for the root in the 
Greek tongue. Thus he thinks that Mason 
may come from Mam loot, Mao Soon, "I seek 
salvation," or from Mwmp, Mystes, "an in- 
itiate " ; and that Masonry is only a corruption 
of M€<rovpawa>, Mesouraneo, "I am in the 
midst of heaven 99 j or from Mafopouff, Mazour 
routh, a constellation mentioned by Job, or 
from Mwrryptov, Mysterion, "a mystery." 

Leasing says, in his Ernst una Folk, that 
Masa in the Anglo-Saxon signifies a table, and 
that Masonry, consequently, is a society of the 
table. 

Nicolai thinks he finds the root in the Low 
Latin word of the Middle Ages Massonya, or 
Masonia, which signifies an exclusive society 
or clubj such as that of the round table. 

Coming down to later times, we find Bro. 
C. W. Moore, in his Boston Magazine, of May, 
1844, deriving Mason from AiSorofws. Lith- 
otomos, "a Stone-cutter." But although fully 
aware of the elasticity of etymological rules, it 
surpasses our ingenuity to get Mason ety- 
mologically out of Lithotomos. 

Bro. Giles F. Yates sought for the deriva- 
tion of Mason in the Greek word Mafow, 
M ozones, a festival of Dionysus, and he 
thought that this was another proof of the 
lineal descent of the Masonic order from the 
Dionysiac Artificers. 

The late William S. Rockwell, who was 
accustomed to find all his Masonry in the 
Egyptian mysteries, and who was a thorough 
student of the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, 



472 MASONEY 



derives the word Mason from a combination 
of two phonetic signs, the one being MAI, 
and signifying "to love/' and the other being 
SON, which means "a brother." Hence, he 
says, "this combination, MAISON, expresses 
exactly in sound our word MASON, and sig- 
nifies literally loving brother, that is. Phila- 
delphia, brother of an association, and thus cor- 
responds also in sense." 

But all of these fanciful etymologies, which 
would have terrified Bopp, Grimm, or Muller, 
or any other student of linguistic relations, 
forcibly remind us of the French epigram- 
matist, who admitted that alphina came from 
equus, but that, in so coming, it had very con- 
siderably changed its route. 

What, then, is the true derivation of the 
word Mason? Let us see what the orthoepists, 
who had no Masonic theories, have said upon 
the subject. 

Webster, seeing that in Spanish masa means 
mortar, is inclined to derive Mason, as denot- 
ing one that works in mortar, from the root of 
mass, which of course gave birth to the Span- 
ish word. 

In Low or Medieval Latin, Mason was 
machio or macio, and this Du Cange derives 
from the Latin maceria, " a long walL" Others 
find a derivation in machines, because the 
builders stood upon machines to raise their 
walls. But Richardson takes a common-sense 
view of the subject. He says, " It appears to 
be obviously the same word as maison, a house 
or mansion, applied to the person who builds, 
instead of the thing built. The French Mais- 
soner is to build houses; Masonner, to build of 
stone. The word Mason is applied by usage 
to a builder in stone, and Masonry to work m 
stone." 

Carpenter gives Massom, used in 1225, for 
a building of stone, and Massonus, used in 
1304, for a Mason; and the Benedictine edi- 
tors of Du Cange define Massoneria "a build- 
ing, the French Maconnerie, and Massoner- 
ius," as Latomus or a Mason, both words in 
manuscripts of 1385. 

[Dr. Murray, in the New English Dictionary, 
says of the word Mason: "the ulterior ety- 
mology is obscure, possibly the word is from 
the root of Latin 'maceria 9 (a wall)."] 

As a practical question, we are compelled 
to reject all those fanciful derivations which 
connect the Masons etvmologically and his- 
torically with the Greeks, the Egyptians, or 
the Druids, and to take the word Mason in its 
ordinary signification of a worker in stone, 
and thus indicate the origin of the Order from 
a society or association of practical and oper- 
ative builders. We need no better root tnan 
the Medieval Latin Magonner, to build, or 
Maconetus, a builder. 

Masoney. Used in the Strassburg Consti- 
tutions, and other German works of the 
Middle Ages, as equivalent to the modern 
Masonry. Kloss translates it by Masonhood. 
Leasing derives it from masa } Anglo-Saxon, a 
table, and says it means a Society of the Table. 
Nicolai deduces it from the Low Latin mas- 
sonya, which means both a club and a key, and 



MASON 



eays ft means an exclusive society or dub, and 
so, he thinks, we get our word Masonry. 
Krause traces it to mas, mase, food or a ban- 
quet. It is a pity to attack these speculations, 
but we are inclined to look at Masonry as 
simply a corruption of the English Masonrie. 

Mason Hermetic. (Magon Herntitique.) 
A degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge 
of the Eclectic Philosophic Rite. 

Masonic Colors. The colors appropriated 
by the Fraternity are many, and even shades 
of the same color. The principal ones are 
blue, to the Craft degrees; pwrpUAa the Royal 
Arch; white and black, to the Order of the 
Temple; while all colors are used in the 
respective degrees of the A. A. Scottish Rite: 
notably, the nine-colored girdle, intertwined 
with a tenth, worn in the Fourteenth Degree 
of the last-named system. 

Masonic Hall. See HaU, Masonic. 

Masonic literature. See Literature of 
Masonry. 

Mason, Illustrious and gubllme Grand 
Master. (Macon Illustre et Sublime Grand 
Mattre.) A degree in the manuscript collec- 
tion of Peuvret. 

Mason of the Secret. (Macon du Secret.) 

1. The Sixth Degree of the Rite of Tschoudy. 

2. The Seventh Degree of the Rite of Saint 
Martin. 

Mason, Operative. See Operative Masons. 

Mason, Perfect. (Magon Par/ait.) The 
Twenty-Seventh Degree of the collection of the 
Metropolitan Chapter of France. 

Mason Philosopher. (Macon Philosophe.) 
A degree in the manuscript collection of Peu- 
vret. 

Mason, Practical. The French so call an 
Operative Mason, Macon de Pratique. 

Masonry. Although Masonry is of two 
kinds, Operative and Speculative, yet Masonic 
writers frequently employ the word Masonry 
as synonymous with Freemasonry. 

Masonry, Operative. See Operative Ma- 
sonry. 

Masonry, Origin of. See Origin of Free* 
masonry. 

Masonry, Speculative. See Speculative 
Masonry. 

Masons, Company of. One of the 

ninety-one livery companies of London, but 
not one of the twelve greater ones. Their 
arms are azure, on a chevron, between three 
castles argent, a pair of compasses somewhat 
extended of tie 1st; crest, a castle of the 2d: 
and motto, " In the Lord is all our trust." 
These were granted by Clarencieux, King of 
arms, in 1472, but they were not incorporated 
until Charles II. gave them a charter m 1677. 
They are not to be confounded with the 
Fraternity of Freemasons, but originally 
there was some connection between the two. 
At their hall in Basinghall Street, Ashmole 
says that in 1682 he attended a meeting at 
which several persons were "admitted into 
the Fellowship of Freemasons. 11 (See Ash~ 
mole. Elias, and Accepted). 

Mason, Scottish Master. (Macon Ecos- 
sais Maitre.) Also called Perfect Elect, Elu 



MASONS 



forfait. A degree in the Archives of the 
Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish 
Rite. 

Masons, Emperor of all the. (Masons, 
Empereur de tons les.) A degree cited in the 
nomenclature of Fustier. 

Mason, Speculative. See Speculative 
Masonry. 

Mason, Stone. See Stone Masons. 

Mason Sublime. (Maqon sublime.) A 
degree in the manuscript collection of Peuvret. 

Mason, Sublime Operative. (Macon 
Sublime Pratique.) A degree in the manu- 
script collection of Peuvret. 

Mason's Wife and Daughter. A degree 
frequently conferred in the United States on 
the wives, daughters, sisters, and mothers of 
Masons, to secure to them, by investing them 
with a peculiar mode of recognition, the aid 
and assistance of the Fraternity. It may be 
conferred by any Master Mason, and the re- 
quirement is that the recipient shall be the 
wife, unmarried daughter, unmarried sister, 
or widowed mother of a Master Mason. It is 
sometimes called the Holy Virgin, and has 
been by some deemed of so much importance 
that a Manual of it, with the title of The 
Ladies* Masonry, or Hieroglyphic Monitor, 
was published at Louisville, Kentucky, in 
1851. by Past Grand Master William Leigh, 
of Alabama. 

Mason, True. (Macon Vrai.) A degree 
composed by Pernetty. It is the only one of 
the high Hermetic degrees of the Rite of 
Avignon, and it became the first degree of 
the same system after it was transplanted to 
Montpellier. (See Academy of True Masons.) 

Masora. A Hebrew work on the Bible, 
intended to secure it from any alterations 
or innovations. Those who composed it 
were termed Masorites, who taught from 
tradition, and who invented the Hebrew 
points. They were also known as Melchites. 

Masoretlc Points. The Hebrew alphabet 
is without vowels, which were traditionally 
supplied by the reader from oral instruction, 
hence the true ancient sounds of the words 
have been lost. But about the eighth 
or ninth century a school of Rabbis, called 
Masorites, invented vowel points, to be 
placed above or below the consonants, so 
as to give them a determined pronunciation. 
These Masoretic Points are never used by 
the Jews in their rolls of the law, and in all 
investigations into the derivation and mean- 
ing of Hebrew names, Masonic scholars and 
other etymologists always reject them. 

Massachusetts. Freemasonry was intro- 
duced into Massachusetts, in 1733, by a 
Deputation granted to Henry Price as Grand 
Master of North America, dated April 30, 
1733. Price, on July 30th of the same year, 
organized the "St. John's Grand Lodge." 
which immediately granted a Warrant to "St. 
John's Lodge' 1 in Boston, which is now the 
oldest Lodge existing in America. In 1752 
some brethren in Boston formed a Lodge, 
which was afterward known as "St. Andrew's 
Lodge," and received a Warrant from the 



MASTER 473 



Grand Lodge of Scotland; the rivalry between 
the two Loages continued for forty years. On 
December 27, 1709, St. Andrew's Lodge, with 
the assistance of three traveling Lodges m tlje 
British army, organised the Grand Lodge of 
Massachusetts, and elected Joseph Warren 
Grand Master. In 1792, the two Grand 
Lodges united and formed the "Grand Lodge 
of the Most Ancient and Honorable Society 
of Free and Accepted Masons for the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts/' and elected 
John Cutler Grand Master. 

The Grand Chapter of Massachusetts was 
organised June 12, 1798, and the Grand 
Council of Royal and Select Masters in 1826. 
The Grand Commanderv. which exercises 
jurisdiction over both Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, was established May 6, 1805. 
In 1807 it extended its jurisdiction, and called 
itself "The United States Grand Encamp- 
ment." In 1816, it united with other Encamp- 
ments at a convention in Philadelphia, where a 
General Grand Encampment of the United 
States was formed; and in 1819, at the meet- 
ing of that body, the representatives of the 
"Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island " are recorded as being present. 
And from that time it has retained that title, 
only changing it, in 1859, to "Grand Com* 
mandery,' in compliance with the new Con- 
stitution of the Grand Encampment of the 
United States. 

Massena, Andre. Duke of Rivoli. Prince 
of Essling, and a Marshal of France, Dorn at 
Nice in 1758. Early in the French Revolu- 
tion he joined a battalion of volunteers, and 
soon rose to high military rank. He was a 
prominent Grand Officer of the French Grand 
Orient. He was designated by Napoleon, his 
master, as the Robber, in consequence of his 
being so extortionate. 

Massonus. Used in the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, according to Carpenter 
(Gloss.), for Mason. 

Master, Absolute Sovereign Grand. 
(Souverain Orand MaUre absolu.) The Nine- 
tieth and last degree of the Rite of Misraim. 

Master ad Yttam. In the French Masonry 
of the earlier part of the last century, the 
Masters of Lodges were not elected annually, 
but held their office for life. Hence they 
were called Masters ad Vitam, or Masters for 
life. 

Master, Ancient* (MaUre Ancien.) The 
Fourth Degree of the Rite of Martinism. 
This would more properly be translated Past 
Master, for it has the same position in the 
rigime of St. Martin that the Past Master has 
in the English system. 

Master Architect, Grand. See Orand 
Master Architect. 

Master Architect, Perfect. (MaUre Arch- 
itect* Parfait.) A degree in the Archives of 
the Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish 
Rite, and in some other collections. 

Master Architect, Prussian. (MaUre 
Architecte Prussien.) A degree in the Ar- 
chives of the Mother Lodge of the Philo- 
sophic Scottish Rite. 



474 MASTER 

Master, Blue. A name sometimes given, 
in the Scottish Rite, to Master Masons of the 
Third Degree, in contradistinction to some of 
the higher degrees, and in reference to the 
color of their collar. 

Master Builder. Taking the word master 
in the sense of one possessed of the highest 
degree of skill and knowledge, the epithet 
"Master Builder" is sometimes used by 
Masons as an epithet of the Great Architect 
of the Universe. Urquhart (Pillars of Her- 
cules, ii., 67) derives it from the ancient 
Hebrews, who, he saySj "used alqabil, the 
Master Builder, as an epithet of God." 

Master, Cohen. (Maitre Coen.) A de- 
gree in the collection of the Mother Lodge of 
the Philosophic Scottish Rite. 

Master, Crowned. {Maitre Couronne.) 
A degree in the collection of the Lodge of Saint 
Louis des Amis-R6unis at Calais. 

Master, Egyptian. (Maitre Egyvtien.) 
A degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge 
of the Philosophic Scottish Rite. 

Master, Elect. See Elect Master. 

Master, English. (Maitre Anglais.) The 
Eighth Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 

Master, English Perfect. (Maitre Par- 
fait Anglais.) A degree in the collection of 
Le Rouge. 

Master, Four Times Venerable. (Maitre 
auatre fois Venerable.) A degree introduced 
into Berlin by the Marquis de Bernez. 

Master, Grand. See Grand Master. 

Master Hermetic. (Maitre Hermitique.) 
A degree in the collection of Lemanceau. 

Master, Illustrious. (Maitre Illustre.) 
A degree in the collection of Lemanceau. 

Master, Illustrious Symbolic* (Maitre 
Symbolique Illustre.) A degree in the nomen- 
clature of Fustier. 

Master In Israel. See Jntendant of the 
Building. 

Master In Perfect Architecture. (Maitre 
en la ParfaUe Architecture.) A degree in the 
nomenclature of Fustier. 

Master In the Chair. (Meister im Stuhl.) 
The name given in Germany to the presiding 
officer of a Lodge. It is the same as the 
Worshipful Master in English. 

Master, Irish. (Maitre Irlandais.) The 
Seventh Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 
Ramsay gave this name at first to the degree 
which he subsequently called Maitre Ecossais 
or Scottish Master. It is still the Seventh 
Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 

Master, Kabballstlc. (Maitre Cabalis- 
tigue.) A degree in the collection of the 
Mother Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish 
Rite. 

Master, Little Elect. (Petit Maitre du.) 
A degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge 
of the Philosophic Scottish Rite. 

Master Mason. In all the Rites of Ma- 
sonry, no matter how variant may be their 
organization in the high degrees, the Master 
Mason constitutes the Third Degree. In 
form this degree is also everywhere substan- 
tially the same, because its legend is an essen- 
tial part of it; and, as on that legend the 



MASTER 

degree must be founded, there can nowhere 
be any important variation, because the tra- 
dition has at all times been the same. 

The Master Mason's Degree was originally 
called the summit of Ancient Craft Masonry; 
and so it must have been before the dissever- 
ance from it of the Royal Arch, by which is 
meant not the ritual, but the symbolism of 
Arch Masonry. But under its present or- 
ganization the degree is actually incomplete, 
because it needs a complement that is only 
to be supplied in a higher one. Hence its 
symbolism is necessarily restricted, in its 
mutilated form, to the nrst Temple and the 
present life, although it gives the assurance 
of a future one. 

As the whole system of Craft Masonry is 
intended to present the symbolic idea of man 
passing through the pilgrimage of life, each 
degree is appropriated to a certain portion 
of that pilgrimage. If, then, the First Degree 
is a representation of youth, the time to learn, 
and tne Second of manhood or the time to 
work, the Third is symbolic of old age, with 
its trials, its sufferings, and its final termina- 
tion in death. The time for toiling is now 
over — the opportunity to learn has passed 
away — the spiritual temple that we all have 
been striving to erect in our hearts, is now 
nearly completed, and the wearied workman 
awaits only the word of the Grand Master of 
the Universe, to call him from the labors of 
earth to the eternal refreshments of heaven. 
Hence, this is, by far, the most solemn and 
sacred of the degrees of Masonry; and it has, 
in consequence of the profound truths which 
it inculcates, been distinguished by the Craft 
as the sublime degree. As an Entered Ap- 
prentice, the Mason was taught those ele- 
mentary instructions which were to fit him 
for further advancement in his profession, 
just as the youth is supplied with that rudi- 
mentary education which is to prepare him for 
entering on the active duties of life; as a 
Fellow-Craft, he is directed to continue his 
investigations in the science of the Insti- 
tution, and to labor diligently in the tasks it 
prescribes, just as the man is required to 
enlarge his mind by the acquisition of new 
ideas, and to extend his usefulness to his 
fellow-creatures; but, as a Master Mason, he 
is taught the last, the most important, and the 
most necessary of truths, that having been 
faithful to all his trusts, he is at last to die, and 
to receive the reward of his fidelity. 

It was the single object of all the ancient 
rites and mysteries practised in the very 
bosom of Pagan darkness, shining as a soli- 
tary beacon m all that surrounding gloom, 
and cheering the philosopher in his weary 
pilgrimage of life, to teach the immortality of 
the soul. This is still the great design of the 
Third Degree of Masonry. This is the scope 
and aim of its ritual. The Master Mason 
represents man, when youth, manhood, old 
age, and life itself, have passed away as 
fleeting shadows, yet raised from the grave 
of iniquity, and quickened into another and 
a better existence. By its legend and all its 



MASTER 



ritual, it is implied that we have been re- 
deemed from the death of sin and the sepul- 
cher of pollution. "The ceremonies and the 
lecture," says Dr. Crucefix, "beautifully 
illustrate this all-engrossing subject; and the 
conclusion we arrive at is, that youth, properly 
directed, leads us to honorable and virtuous 
maturity, and that the life of man, regulated 
by morality, faith, and justice, will be re- 
warded at its closing hour, by the prospect of 
eternal bliss." 

Masonic historians have found much diffi- 
culty in settling the question as to the time 
of the invention and composition of the degree. 
The theory that at the building of the Temple 
of Jerusalem the Craft were divided into three 
or even more degrees, being only a symbolic 
myth, must be discarded in any historical 
discussion of the subject. The real question 
at issue is whether the Master Mason's Degree, 
as a degree, was in existence among the Opera- 
tive Freemasons before the eighteenth century, 
or whether we owe it to the Revivalists of 
1717. Bro. Wm. J. Hughan, in a very able 
article on this subject, published in 1873, in 
the Voice of Masonry, says that "so far the 
evidence respecting its history goes no farther 
back than the early part of the last century." 
The evidence, however, is all of a negative 
character. There is none that the degree 
existed in the seventeenth century or earlier, 
and there is none that it did not. All the old 
manuscripts speak of Masters and FellowB, 
but these might have been and probably were 
only titles of rank. The Sloane MS., No. 
3329. speaks, it is true, of modes of recognition 
peculiar to Masters and Fellows, and also of 
a Lodge consisting of Masters, Fellows, and 
Apprentices. But even if we give to this MS. 
its earliest date, that which is assigned to it 
by Findel, near the end of the seventeenth 
century, it will not necessarily follow that 
these Masters, Fellows, and Apprentices had 
each a separate and distinct degree. Indeed, 
it refers only to one Lodge^ which was, how- 
ever, constituted by three different ranks; and 
it records but one oath, so that it is possible 
that there was only one common form of 
initiation. 

The first positive historical evidence that 
we have of the existence of a Master's Degree 
is to be found in the General Regulations 
compiled by Payne in 1720. It is there de- 
clared that Apprentices must be admitted 
Masters and Fellow-Crafts only in the Grand 
Lodge. The degree was then in existence. 
But this record would not militate against the 
theory advanced by some that Desaguliers 
was its author in 1717. Dermott asserts 
that the degree, as we now have it, was the 
work of Desaguliers and seven others, who, 
being Fellow-Crafts, but not knowing the 
Master's part, boldly invented it, that they 
might organize a Grand Lodge. He intimates 
that the true Master's Degree existed before 
that time, and was in possession of the 
Ancients. But Dermott's testimony is abso- 
lutely worth nothing, because he was a violent 
partisan, and because his statements are 



MASTER 475 



irreconcilable with other facts. If the An- 
cients were in possession of the degree which 
had existed before 1717. and the Moderns 
were not, where did the former get it? 

Documentary evidence is yet wanting to 
settle the precise time of the composition of 
the Third Degree as we now have it. But it 
would not be prudent to oppose too positively 
the theory that it must be traced to the 
second decade of the eighteenth century. 
The proofs, as they arise day by day, from 
the resurrection of old manuscripts, seem to 
incline that way. 

But the legend, perhaps, is of much older 
date. It may have made a part of the 
general initiation; but there is no doubt that, 
Eke the similar one of the Compagnons de 
la Tour in France, it existed among the 
Operative Gilds of the Middle Ages as an 
esoteric narrative. Such a legend all the 
histories of the Ancient Mysteries prove to 
us belongs to the spirit of initiation. There 
would have been no initiation worth preserva- 
tion without it. 

Master, Most High and Puissant. 
{Maitre ires haul et iris puissant.) The 
Sixty-second Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 

Master, Most Wise* The title of a pre- 
siding officer of a Chapter of Rose Croix, 
usually abbreviated as Most Wise. 

Master, Mystic. {Maitre Mystique.) A 
degree in the collection of Pyron. 

Master of all Symbolic Lodges, Grand. 
See Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges. 

Master of a Lodge. See Worshipful. 

Master of Cavalry. An officer in a Council 
of Companions of the Red k Cross, whose duties 
are, in some respects, similar to those of a 
Junior Deacon m a symbolic Lodge. The 
two offices of Master of Cavalry and Master 
of Infantry were first appointed by Con- 
stantino the Great. 

Master of Ceremonies. An officer found 
in many American Lodges and at one time in 
the Lodges of England and the Continent. 
In English Lodges the office is almost a 
nominal one, without any duties, but in the 
continental Lodges he acts as the conductor 
of the candidate. Oliver says that the title 
should be, properly. Director of Ceremonies, 
and he objects to Master of Ceremonies as 
"uiimasonic." In the Constitutions of the 
Grand Lodge of England, issued in 1884 { the 
title is changed to "Director of Ceremonies." 

Master of Dispatches. The Secretary of 
a Council of Companions of the Red Cross. 
The M agister Epistolarum was the officer under 
the Empire who conducted the correspondence 
of the Emperor. 

Master of Finances. The Treasurer of 
a Council of Companions of the Red Cross. 

Master of Hamburg, Perfect. (Maitre 
parfait de Hamburg.) A degree in the nomen- 
clature of Fustier. 

Master of Infantry. The Treasurer of 
a Council of Companions of the Red Cross. 
(See Master of Cavalry.) 

Master of Lodges. {Maitre des Loges.) 
The Sixty-first Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 



476 



MASTER 



MATERIALS 



Master of Masters, Grand. (Grand 
MatUre des Mattres.) The Fifty-ninth Degree 
of the Metropolitan Chapter of France. 

Master of Paracelsus. (Mattre de Para- 
celse.) A degree in the collection of Pyron. 

Master of Secrets, Perfect. (Mattre 
parfait des Secrete.) A degree in the manu 
script collection of Peuvret. 

Master of St. Andrew. The Fifth Degree 
of the Swedish Rite; the same as the Grand 
Elu Ecossais of the Clermont system. 

Master of the Chivalry of Christ. So 
St. Bernard addresses Hugh de Payens, Grand 
Master of the Templars. "Hugoni Militi 
Christi et Magistro Militias Christi, Bernardus 
Clercevallus, etc. 

Master of the Hermetic Secrets, Grand. 
(Mattre dee Secrets Hermdtique, Grand.) A de- 
gree in the manuscript collection of Peuvret. 

Master of the Hospital. "Sacri Domus 
Hoepitalis Sancto Joannis Hieroeolvmitani 
Magister," or Master of the Sacred House 
of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, was 
the official title of the chief of the Order of 
Knights of Malta; more briefly, "Magister 
Hoepitalis/' or Master of the Hospital Late 
in tneir history, the more imposing title of 
"Magnus Magister/' or Grand Master, was 
sometimes assumed; but the humbler designa- 
tion was still maintained. On the tomb of 
Zacosta, who died in 1467, we find "Magnus 
Magister"; but twenty-three years after, 
D'Aubusson signs himself "Magister Hospi- 
talis Hierosolymitani." 

Master of the Key to Masonry, Grand. 
(Grand Mattre. de la Clef de la Maconnerie.) 
The Twenty-first Degree of the Chapter of 
the Emperors of the East and West. 

Master of the Legitimate Lodges, 
Grand. (Mattre des Loges legitimes.) A 
degree in the Archives of the Mother Lodge 
of the Eclectic Philosophic Rite. 

Master of the Palace. An officer in a 
Council of Companions of the Red Cross, 
whose duties are peculiar to the degree. 

Master of the Sages. The Fourth Degree 
of the Initiated Knights and Brothers of Asia. 

Master of the Seven Kabballstlc Se- 
crets, Illustrious. (Mattre IUustre des sept 
Secrets CabalisHques.) A degree in the manu- 
script collection of Peuvret. 

Master of the Temple. Originally the 
official title of the Grand Master of the 
Templars. After the dissolution of the Order 
in England, the same title was incorrectly 
given to the eustos or guardian of the Temple 
Church at London, and the error is continued 
to the present day. 

Master of the Work. The chief builder 
or architect of a cathedral or other important 
edifice in the Middle Ages was called the 
Master of the work; thus, Jost Dotzinger was, 
in the fifteenth century, called the Master 
of the work at the cathedral of Strasburg. 
In the Middle Ages the "Magister operis" 
was one to whom the public works was en- 
trusted. Such an officer existed in the monas- 
teries. He was also called operarius and 
magister operamm. Du Cange says that 



kings had their operant, magistri overarvm or 
masters of the works. It is these Masters of 
the works whom Anderson has constantly 
called Grand Masters. Thus, when he says 
(Constitutions, 1738, p. 69 ) that "King John 
mads Peter de Cole-Church Grand Master of 
the Masons in rebuilding London bridge/' he 
should have said that he was appointed 
operarius or Master of the works. The use 
of the correct title would have made Ander- 
son's history more valuable. 

Master, Past. See Past Master. 

Master, Perfect. See Perfect Master. 

Master, Perfect Architect. The Twen- 
ty-seventh Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 

Master, Perfect Irish. See Perfect Irish 
Master, 

Master Philosopher by the Number 3. 

(Mattre philosophe par le N ombre S.) A 
degree in the manuscript collection of Peuvret. 

Master Philosopher by the Number 9. 
(Mattre philosophe par le N ombre 9.) A 
degree in the manuscript collection of Peuvret. 

Master Philosopher Hermetic. (Mattre 
philosophe HerrrUtique.) A degree in the 
collection of Peuvret. 

Master, Private. (Mattre ParHculier.) 
The Nineteenth Degree of the Metropolitan 
Chapter of France. 

Master Provost and Judge. (Mattre 
Prevto et Juge.) The Eighth Degree of the 
Metropolitan Chapter of France. 

Master, Puissant Irish. See Puissant 
Irish Master. 

Master, Pythagorean. (Mattre Pythaao- 
ricien.) Thory says that this is the Third 
and last degree of the Masonic system in- 
stituted according to the doctrine of Pythago- 
ras. 

Master, Royal. See Royal Master. 

Master, Secret. See Secret Master. 

Master, Select. See Select Master. 

Master, Supreme Elect. (Mattre su- 
vrtme Elu.) A degree in the Archives of the 
Philosophic Scottish Rite. 

Master Theosophlst. (Mattre Theos- 
ophie.) The Third Degree of the Rite of 
Swedenborg. 

Master through Curiosity. (Mattre par 
Curiosite.) 1. The Sixth Degree of the Kite 
of Mizraim; 2. The Sixth Degree of the col- 
lection of the Metropolitan Chapter of France. 
It is a modification of the Intimate Secretary 
of the Scottish Rite. 

Master to the Number 15. (Mattre au 
N ombre 16.) A degree in the manuscript 
collection of Peuvret. 

Master, True. (Vrai Mattre.) A degree 
of the Chapter of Clermont. 

Master, Worshipful. See Worshipful. 

Materials of the Temple. Masonic tra- 
dition tells us that the trees out of which the 
timbers were made for the Temple were felled 
and prepared in the forest of Lebanon, and 
that the stones were hewn, cut, and squared 
in the quarries of Tyre. But both the Book 
of Kings and Josephus concur in the state- 
ment that Hiram of Tyre furnished only 
cedar and fir trees for the Temple. The stones 



MATERS 

were most probably (and the explorations of 
modern travelers confirm the opinion) taken 
from the quarries which abound m and around 
Jerusalem. The tradition, therefore, which 
derives these stones from the quarries of Tyre, 
is incorrect. 

Maters. In the Cooke MS. (line 825)— 
and it is the only Old Constitution in which 
it occurs — we find the word maters: "Hit is 
seyd in y© art of Masonry yt no man scholde 
make ende so well of worke begonne bi 
another to y« profite of his lorde as he began 
hit for to end hit bi his maters or to whom he 
scheweth his maters" where, evidently, maters 
is a corruption of the Latin matrix, a mold; 
this latter being the word used in all the other 
Old Constitutions in the same connection. 
(See Mold.) 

Mathoc. (Amiability, sweetness.) The 
name of the Third Step of the Mystic Ladder 
of the Kadosh of the A. A. Scottish Rite. 

Matriculation Book. In the Rite of 
Strict Observance, the register which con- 
tained the lists of the Provinces, Lodges, and 
members of the Rite was called the Matricu- 
lation Book. The term was borrowed from 
the usage of the Middle Ages, where matricula 
meant a catalogue." It was applied by the 
ecclesiastical writers of that period to lists of 
the clergy, and also of the poor, who were 
to be provided for by the churches, whence 
we have matricula dericarum and matricula 
pauperum. 

Matter. A subject deemed of impor- 
tant study to the alchemical and hermetical 
devotee. The subject will not be discussed 
here. It holds a valued position for instruc- 
tion in the Society of the Rosicrucians, who 
hold that matter is subject to change, trans- 
formation, and apparent dissolution; but, in 
obedience to God s great laws of economy, 
nothing is lost, but is simply transferred. 

Mature Age. The Charges of 1722 pre- 
scribe that a candidate for initiation must be 
of "mature and discreet age"; but the usage 
of the Craft has differed in various countries 
as to the time when maturity of age is sup- 
posed to have arrived. In the Regulations 
of 1663, it is set down at twenty-one years 
(Constttutvms, 1738, p. 102); and this con- 
tinues to be the construction of maturity in 
all English Lodges both in Great Britain and 
this country. France and Switzerland have 
adopted the same period. At Frankfortnon- 
the-Main it is fixed at twenty, and in Prussia 
and Hanover at twenty-five. The Grand 
Lodge of Hamburg has decreed that the age 
of Masonic maturity shall be that which is 
determined by the laws of the land to be the 
age of legal majority. [Under the Scotch 
Constitution the age was eighteen until 1891, 
when it was raised to twenty-one; and under 
the Irish Constitution it was twenty-one until 
1741, when it was raised to twenty-five and 
so remained until 1817, when it was again 
lowered to twenty-one.] 

Maul or Setting Maul. See Mallet. 

Maurer. German for Mason, as Maurerei 
is for Masonry, and Freimaurer for Freemason. 



MEDALS 477 



Maurer, Grass. A German Masonic 
operative expression, divided by some into 
Uruss Maurer, Wort Maurer, Schrift Maurer. 
and Brief trager— that is, those who claimed 
aid and recognition through signs and proving, 
and those who carried written documents. 

Mailt. The consort of the god Amon, 
usually crowned with a pschent or double 
diadem, emblem of the sovereignty of the two 
regions. Sometimes a vulture, the symbol of 
maternity, of heaven, and knowledge of the 
future, shows its head on the forehead of the 

foddess. its wings forming the head-dress, 
[orapollo says the vulture designates ma- 
ternal love because it feeds its young with its 
own blood; and, according to Pliny, it rep- 
resents heaven because no one can reach its 
nest, built on the highest rocks, and, there- 
fore, that it is begotten of the winds. Maut 
is clothed in a long, close-fitting robe, and 
holds in her hand the sacred Anch, or sign 
of life. 

Maximilian, Joseph I. King of Bavaria, 
who, becoming incensed against the Frater- 
nity, issued edicts against freemasons in 1799 
and 1804, which he renewed in 1814. 

Mecklenburg. Masonry was introduced 
here in 1754, but not firmly rooted until 1799. 
There are two Provincial G. Lodges, with 13 
Lodges and 1,250 Brethren. 

Medals. A medal is defined to be a piece 
of metal in the shape of a coin, bearing figures 
or devices and mottoes, struck and distributed 
in memory of some person or event. When 
Freemasonry was in its operative stage, no 
medals were issued. The medals of the Oper- 
ative Masons were the monuments which 
they erected in the form of massive buildings, 
adorned with all the beauties of architectural 
art. But it was not long after its transfor- 
mation into a Speculative Order before it 
began to issue medals. Medals are now 
struck every year by Lodges to commemorate 
some distinguished member or some remark- 
able event in the annals of the Lodge. Many 
Lodges in Europe have cabinets of medals, of 
which the Lodge Minerva of the Three Palms 
at Leipsic is especially valuable. In America 
no Lodge has made such a collection except 
Pythagoras Lodge at New York. 

No Masonic medal appears to have been 
found earlier than that of 1733, commemora- 
tive of a Lodge being established at Florence, 
by Lord Charles Sackville. The Lodge appears 
not to have been founded by regular author- 
ity; but, however that may be, the event was 
commemorated by a medal, a copy of which 
exists in the collection in possession of the 
Lodge "Minerva of the Three Palms," at 
Leipsic. The obverse contains a bust repre- 
sentation of Lord Sackville, with the inscrip- 
tion— "Carolvs Sackville, Magister. Fl." 
The reverse represents Harpocrates in the atti- 
tude of silence, leaning upon a broken column, 
and holding in his left arm the cornucopia 
filled with rich fruits, also the implements of 
Masonry, with a thyrsus, staff, and serpent 
resting upon the fore and back ground. 

Hie minimum of charity found among Mark 



478 MEDITERRANEAN 



MELECH 



Masters is the Roman penny (denarius), 
weighing 60 grains silver, worth fifteen cents. 




THE PENNY OF THE MARK MA0TBB. 

The above was struck at Rome, under Ti- 
berius, a.d. 18. The portrait is ''Tiberius"; 
the reverse the "Goddess Clemency." The 
inscription reads: "Tiberius Caesar Augustus, 
the son of the Deified Augustus, the High 
Priest." 

Two medals, weighing 120 grains each, of 
silver, about thirty cents, were struck on at 




Knight of the Mediterranean Pass. It is* 
however, now nearly obsolete. 

Meeting of a Chapter. See Convocation. 

Meeting of a Lodge. See Commmicor 
tion. 

Meet on the Level. In the Prestonian 
lectures as practised in the beginning of the 
last century, it was said that Masons met on 
the square and hoped to part on the level. In 
the American system of Webb a change was 
made, and we were instructed that they meet 
on the level and part on the square. And in 
1842 the Baltimore Convention made a still 
further change, by adding that they act by the 
plumb; and this formula is now, although 
quite modern, generally adopted by the 
Lodges in America. 

Megacosm. An intermediate world, great, 
but not equal to the Macrocosm, and yet 
greater than the Microcosm, or little world, 
man. 

Mehen. An Egyptian mythological ser- 
pent, the winding of whose body represented 
the tortuous course of the sun in the nocturnal 
regions. The serpentine course taken when 
traveling through darkness. The direction 
metaphorically represented by the initiate in 
his first symbolic journey as Fractions in the 
Society of the Rosicrucians. 

Menour. Space, the name given to the 
feminine principle of the Deity by the Egyp- 



THE JEWISH HALF-SHEKEL OF SILVER, 
(TWO SPECIMENS.) 

Jerusalem, under Simon Maccabee, the Jew- 
ish ruler, B.C. 138. 139. They are the old- 
est money coined by the Jews. The devices 
are the brazen laver that stood before the 
Temple, and three lilies springing from one 
stem. The inscriptions, translated from the 
Hebrew of the oldest style, say, "Half-shekel; 
Jerusalem the Holy." 

Bro. Robt. Morris and Bro. Coleman, in 
their Calendar, furnish much valuable in- 
formation on this subject. 

[The earliest work on Masonic Medals is by 
Ernest Zacharias, entitled Nwnotheca Numis- 
matica Latomorum. It was issued at Dres- 
den in parts, the first appearing on Septem 
ber 13, 1840, the eighth and last on January 
29,1846. It gave 48 medals in all. Then came 
Die Denkmunzen der FreimaurerbruderschafL 
by Dr. J. F. L. Theodor Merzdorf, published 
at Oldenburg in 1851, and describing 334 
medals. 

The standard work now on the subject 
is The Medals of the Masonic Fraternity \ by 
W. T. R. Marvin, privately printed at Boston 
in 1880, in which over 700 medals are de- 
scribed. 

Mediterranean Pass. A side degree 
sometimes conferred in America on Royal 
Arch Masons. It has no lecture or legend, 
and should not be confounded, as it some- 
times is, with the very different degree of 



Melster. German for Master; in French, 
Maltre; in Dutch, Meester; in Swedish, Mas- 
tar; in Italian, Maestro; in Portuguese, Mes- 
tre. The old French word appears to have 
been Meistrier. In old French operative 
laws, Le Mestre was frequently used. 

Melster tm Stuhl. {Master in the Chair.) 
The Germans so call the Master of a Lodge. 

Melancthon, Philip. The name of this 
celebrated reformer is signed to the Charter 
of Cologne as the representative of Dantsic. 
The evidence of his connection with Free- 
masonry depends entirely on the authenticity 
of that document. 

Melchizedek. King of Salem, and a priest 
of the Most High God, of whom all that we 
know is to be found in the passages of Scrip- 
ture read at the conferring of the degree of 
High Priesthood. Some theologians have 
supposed him to have been Shem, the son of 
Noah. The sacrifice of offering bread and 
wine is first attributed to Melchlzedek; and 
hence, looking to the similar Mithraic sacri- 
fice, Higgins is inclined to believe that he pro- 
fessed the religion of Mithras. He aban- 
doned the sacrifice of slaughtered animals, 
and, to quote the words of St. Jerome " offered 
bread and wine as a type of Christ." Hence, in 
the New Testament, Christ is represented as 
a priest after the order of Melchisedek. In 
Masonry, Melchisedek is connected with the 
order or degree of High Priesthood, and some 
of the high degrees. 

Melchlzedek, Degree of. The Sixth 
Degree of the Order of Brothers of Asia. 

Meleeh. Properly, Moloch, a messenger, 
and hence an angel, because the angels were 



MELESINO 



supposed to be the messengers of God. In 
the ritual of one of the high degrees we meet 
with the sentence hamelech Gebolim, which has 
been variously translated. The French ritual- 
ists handle Hebrew words with but little at- 
tention to Hebrew grammar, and hence they 
translate this sentence as " Jabulum est un bon 
Macon." The former American ritualists gave 
it as meaning "Guibulum is a good man." 
Guibulum is undoubtedly used as a proper 
name, and is a corrupt derivation from the 
Hebrew Masonic Giblim, which means stone- 
squarers or masons, and melach for malach 
means a messenger, one sent to accomplish a 
certain task. Bros. Pike and Rockwell make 
the first word hamalek, the king or chief. If 
the words were reversed, we should have the 
Hebrew vocative, "01 Gibulum the messen- 
ger." As it is, Bro. Pike makes it vocative, and 
interprets it. "Oh! thou glory of the Build- 
ers." Probably, however, the inventor of the 
degree meant simply to say that Gibulum was 
a messenger, or one who had been sent to make 
a discovery, but that he did not perfectly ex- 
press the idea according to the Hebrew idiom, 
or that his expression has since been corrupted 
by the copyists. 

Meieslno, Rite of. This is a Rite scarcely 
known out of Russia, where it was founded 
about the year 1765, by Melesino, a very 
learned man and Mason, a Greek by birth, but 
high in the military service of Russia. It 
consisted of seven degrees, viz.: 1. Appren- 
tice. 2. Fellow-Craft. 3. Master Mason. 
4. The Mystic Arch. 5. Scottish Master and 
Knight. 6. The Philosopher. 7. The Priest 
or High Priest of the Templars. The four 
higher degrees abounded in novel traditions 
and myths unknown to any of the other Rites, 
and undoubtedly invented by the founder. 
The whole Rite was a mixture of Kabbalism, 
magic, Gnosticism, and the Hermetic philos- 
ophy mixed in almost inextricable confusion. 
The Seventh or final degree was distinctly 
Rosicrucian, and the religion of the Rite was 
Christian, recognizing and teaching the belief 
in the Messiah and the dogma of the Trinity. 

Mellta. The ancient name of the island 
of Malta. 

Member, Honorary. See Honorary Mem- 
bers. 

Member, Life. See Life Member. 

Member of a Lodge. As soon as perma- 
nent Lodges became a part of the Masonic or- 
ganization, it seems to have been required that 
every Mason should belong to one, and this 
is explicitly stated in the charges approved 
in 1722. (See Affiliated Mason.) 

Membership, Bight of. The first right 
which a Mason acquires, after the reception of 
the Third Degree, is that of claiming member- 
ship in the Lodge in which he has been initi- 
ated. The very fact of his having received 
that degree makes him at once an inchoate 
member of the Lodge — that is to say, no fur- 
ther application is necessary, and no new bal- 
lot is required: but the candidate, having 
now become a Master Mason, upon signifying 
his submission to the regulations of the So- 



MEMPHIS 479 



cietv by affixing his signature to the book of 
by-laws, is constituted, by virtue of that act. 
a full member of the Lodge, and entitled to all 
the rights and prerogatives accruing to that 
position. 

[Under the English Constitution (Rule 191 ), 
initiation is sufficient for membership.] 

Memphis, Rite of. In 1839, two French 
Masons, named respectively Marconis and 
Moullet. of whom the former was undoubtedly 
the leader, instituted, first at Paris, then at 
Marseilles, and afterward at Brussels, a new 
Rite which they called the "Rite oi Mem- 
phis/' and which consisted of ninety-one de- 
grees. Subsequently, another degree was 
added to this already too long list. The Rite, 
however, has repeatedly undergone modifi- 
cations. The Rite of Memphis was undoubt- 
edly founded on the extinct Rite of Mizraim; 
for. as Ragon says, the Egyptian Rite seems 
to nave inspired Marconis and Moullet in the 
organization of their new Rite. It is said by 
Ragon, who has written copiously on the Rite, 
that the first series of degrees, extending to the 
Thirty-fifth Degree, is an assumption of the 
thirty-three degrees of the Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Rite, with scarcely a change of name. 
The remaining degrees of the Rite are bor- 
rowed, according to the same authority, from 
other well-known systems, and some, perhaps, 
the invention of their founders. 

The Rite of Memphis was not at first rec- 
ognized by the Grand Orient of France, and 
consequently formed no part of legal French 
Masonry. So about 1852 its Lodges were 
closed by the civil authority, and the Rite, to 
use a French Masonic phrase, " went to sleep." 

In the year 1862, Marconis, still faithful to 
the system which he had invented, applied to 
the Grand Master of France to give to it a new 
life. The Grand College of Rites was con- 
sulted on the subject, and the Council of the 
Order having made a favorable decree, the 
Rite of Memphis was admitted, in November, 
1862, among those Masonic systems which 
acknowledge obedience to the Grand Orient 
of France, and perform their functions within 
its bosom. To obtain this position, however, 
the only one which, in France, preserves a 
Masonic system from the reputation of being 
clandestine, it was necessary that Marconis, 
who was then the Grand Hierophant. should, 
as a step preliminary to any favorable action 
on the part of the Grand Orient, take an obli- 
gation by which he forever after divested him- 
self of all authority, of any kind whatsoever, 
over the Rite. It passed entirely out of his 
hands, and, going into "obedience" to the 
Grana Orient, that body has taken complete 
and undivided possession of it, and laid its 
high degrees upon the shelf, as Masonic curi- 
osities, since the Grand Orient only recognizes, 
in practise, the thirty-three degrees of the 
Ancient and Accepted Rite. 

This, then, is the present position of the 
Rite of Memphis in France. Its original pos- 
sessors have disclaimed all further control or 
direction of it. It has been admitted by the 
Grand Orient among the eight systems of 



480 MEMPHIS 



MEMPHIS 



Rites which are placed "under its obedience " ; 
that is to say, it admits its existence, but it 
does not suffer it to be worked. Like all Ma- 
sonic Rites that have ever been invented, the 
organization of the Rite of Memphis is 
founded on the first three degrees of Ancient 
Craft Masonry. These three degrees, of course, 
are given in Symbolic Lodges. In 1862, when 
Marconis surrendered the Rite into the hands 
of the ruling powers of French Masonry, 
many of these Lodges existed in various parts 
of France, although in a dormant condition, 
because, as we have already seen, ten years 
before they had been closed by the civil au- 
thority. Had they been in active operation, 
they would not have been recognised by the 
French Masons; they would have been looked 
upon as clandestine, and there would have 
been no affiliation with them, because the 
Grand Orient recognises no Masonic bodies as 
legal which do not in return recognize it as the 
head of French Masonry. 

But when Marconis surrendered his powers 
as Grand Hierophant of the Rite of Memphis 
to the Grand Orient, that body permitted 
these Lodges to be resuscitated and reopened 
only on the conditions that they would ac- 
knowledge their subordination to the Grand 
Orient; that they would work only in the first 
three degrees and never confer any degree 
higher than that of Master Mason: the mem- 
bers of these Lodges, however high might be 
their dignities in the Kite of Memphis, were to 
be recognized only as Master Masons; every 
Mason of the Rite of Memphis was to deposit 
his Masonic titles with the Grand Secretary of 
the Grand Orient; these titles were then to be 
trisi or approved and regularized, but only as 
far as the decree of Master Mason; no Mason 
of the Rite of Memphis was to be permitted to 
claim any higher degree, and if he attempted 
to assume any such title of a higher degree 
which was not approved by the Grand Master, 
he was to be considered as irregular, and was 
not to be affiliated with by the members of 
any of the regular Lodges. 

Such is now the condition of the Rite of 
Memphis in France. It has been absorbed 
into the Grand Orient; Marconis, its founder 
and head, has surrendered all claim to any 
jurisdiction over it; there are Lodges under the 
jurisdiction of the Grand Orient which orig- 
inally belonged to the Rite of Memphis, and 
they practise its ritual, but only so far as to 
give the degrees of Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, 
and Master Mason. Its "Sages of the Pyra- 
mids," its "Grand Architects of the Mysteri- 
ous City," its "Sovereign Princes of the Magi 
of the Sanctuary of Memphis," with its 
" Sanctuary, " its "Mystical Temple," its 
"Liturgical College," its "Grand Consistory," 
and its "Supreme Tribunal," exist no longer 
except in the diplomas and charters which 
have been quietly laid away on the shelves of 
the Secretariat of the Grand Orient. To at- 
tempt to propagate the Rite is now in France 
a high Masonic offense. The Grand Orient 
alone has the power, and there is no likelihood 
that it will ever exercise it. Some circum- 



stances which have recently occurred in the 
Grand Orient of France very clearly show the 
true condition of the Rite of Memphis. A 
meeting was held in Paris by the Council of the 
Order, a body which, something like the Com- 
mittee of General Purposes of the Grand Lodge 
of England, does all the preliminary business 
for the Grand Orient, but which is possessed of 
rather extensive legislative and administrative 
powers, as it directs the Order during the re- 
cess of the Grand Orient. At that meeting, a 
communication was received from a Lodge in 
Moldavia, called "The Disciples of Truth," 
which Lodge is under the jurisdiction of the 
Grand Orient of France, having been char- 
tered by that body. This communication 
stated that certain brethren of that Lodge had 
been invested by one Carence with the degree 
of Rose Croix in the Rite of Memphis, and 
that the diplomas had been dated at the 
"Grand Orient of Egypt," and signed by Bro. 
Marconis as Grand Hierophant. The com- 
mission of the Council of the Order, to whom 
the subject was referred, reported that the con- 
ferring of these degrees was null and void; 
that neither Carence nor Marconis had any 
commission, authority, or power to confer 
degrees of the Memphis Rite or to organize 
bodies; and that Marconis had. by oath, 
solemnly divested himself of all right to claim 
the title of Grand Hierophant of the Rite; 
which oath, originally taken in May, 1862, 
had at several subsequent times, namely, in 
September, 1863, March, 1864, September, 
1865, and March, 1866, been renewed. As a 
matter of clemency, the Council determined 
not ( for the present at least, to prefer charges 
against Marconis and Carence before the 
Grand Orient, but to warn them of the error 
they committed in making a traffic of Masonic 
degrees. It also ordered the report to be pub- 
lished and widely diffused, so that the Fra- 
ternity might be apprised that there was no 
power outside of the Grand Orient which could 
confer the high degrees of any Rite. 

An attempt having been made, in 1872, to 
establish the Rite in England, Bro. Mon- 
tague, the Secretary-General of the Supreme 
Council, wrote to Bro. Thevenot, the Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Orient of France, for 
information as to its validity. From him he 
received a letter containing the following 
statements, from which official authority we 
gather the fact that the Rite of Memphis is a 
dead Rite, and that no one has authority in 
any country to propagate it. 

"Neither in 1866, nor at any other period, 
has the Grand Orient of France recognized 
'the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Masonry, 1 
concerning which you inquire, and which has 
been recently mtroduced m Lancashire. 

"At a particular time, and with the inten- 
tion of causing the plurality of Rites to dis- 
appear, the Grand Orient of France annexed 
and absorbed the Rite of Memphis, under the 
express condition that the Lodges of that. Rite, 
which were received under its jurisdiction, 
should confer only the three symbolic degrees 
of Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, and Master, ad- 



MEMPHIS 

cording to its special rituals, and refused to 
recognize any other degree, or any other title, 
belonging to such Rite. 

"At the period when this treaty was nego- 
tiated with the Supreme Chief of this Rite by 
Bro. Maroonis de Negre, Bro. H. J. Seymour 
was at Paris, and seen by us, but no power was 
conferred on him by the Grand Orient 
of France concerning this Rite; and, what is 
more, the Grand Orient of France does not 
give, and has never Riven, to any single per- 
son the right to make Masons or to create 
Lodges. 

"Afterwards, and in consequence of the bad 
faith of Bro. Maroonis de Negre, who pre- 
tended he had ceded his Rite to the Grand 
Orient of France for France alone, Bro. Harry 
J. Seymour assumed the title of Grand Master 
of the Rite of Memphis in America, and 
founded in New York a Sovereign Sanctuary 
of this Rite. A correspondence ensued be- 
tween this new power and the Grand Orient of 
France, and even the name of this Sovereign 
Sanctuary appeared in our Calendar for 1867. 
But when the Grand Orient of France learned 
that this power went beyond the three sym- 
bolic degrees, and that its confidence had been 
deceived, the Grand Orient broke off all con- 
nection with this power, and personally with 
Bro. Harry J. Seymour; and, in fact, since 
that period, neither the name of Bro. Harry J. 
Seymour, as Grand Master, nor the Masonic 
power which he founded, have any longer ap- 
peared in the Masonic Calendar of the Grand 
Orient. 

"Your letter leads me to believe that Bro. 
Harry J. Seymour is endeavoring, I do not 
know with what object, to introduce a new 
Rite into England, in that country of the prim- 
itive and only true Masonry, one of the most 
respectable that I know of. I consider this 
event as a misfortune. 

"The Grand Orient of France has made the 
strongest efforts to destroy the Rite of Mem- 
phis; it has succeeded. The Lodges of the 
Rite, which it at first received within its juris- 
diction, have all abandoned the Rite of Mem- 
phis to work according to the French Rite. I 
sincerely desire that it may be the same in the 
United Kingdom, and you will ever find me 
ready to second your efforts. 

"Referring to this letter, I have, very illus- 
trious brother, but one word to add, and that 
is. that the Constitution of the Grand Orient 
ot France interdicts its founding Lodges in 
countries where a regular Masonic power al- 
ready exists; and if it cannot found Lodges 
6 fortiori, it cannot grant charters to establish 
Grand Masonic Powers: in other terms, the 
Grand Orient of France never has given to 
Bro. Harry J. Seymour, nor to any other per- 
son, powers to constitute a Lodge, or to create 
a Rite, or to make Masons. Bro. Harry J. 
Seymour may perfectly well have the signa- 
tures of the Grand Master and of the Chief of 
the Secretary's office of the Grand Orient of 
France on a diploma, as a fraternal visi; but 
certainly he has neither a charier nor a power. 
I also beg you to make every effort to obtain 
82 



MERIT 481 

the textual copy of the documents of which 
Bro. Harry J. Seymour takes advantage. It 
is by the inspection of this document it will be 
necessary to judge the question, and I await 
new communications on this subject from your 
fraternal kindness." 

Menatzchlm. In 2 Chron. ii. 18, it is 
said that at the building of the Temple there 
were "three thousand and six hundred over- 
seers to set the people awork." The word 
translated "overseers 1 ' is, in the original, 
ffmtttt, MeNaTZCHIM. Anderson, in his 
catalogue of workmen at the Temple, calls 
these Menatzchim "expert Master Masons"; 
and so they have been considered in all sub- 
sequent rituals. 

Mental Qualifications. See Qualifier 
Hone. 

Menu* In the Indian mythology, Menu is 
the son of Brahma, and the founder of the 
Hindu religion. Thirteen other Menus are 
said to exist, seven of whom have already 
reigned on earth. But it is the first one whose 
instructions constitute the whole civil and 
religious polity of the Hindus. The code at- 
tributed to him by the Brahmans has been 
translated by Sir William Jones, with the title 
of The Institutes of Menu. 

Mercy. The point of a Knights Templar's 
sword is said to be characterized by the 
quality of "mercy unrestrained"; which re- 
minds us of the Shakespearian expression — 
"the quality of mercy is not strained." In the 
days of chivalry, mercy to the conquered foe 
was an indispensable quality of a knight. An 
act of cruelty in battle was considered infa- 
mous, for whatever was contrary to the laws 
of generous warfare was also contrary to the 
laws of chivalry. 

Mercy, Prince of. See Prince of Mercy. 

Mercy-Seat. The lid or cover of the ark 
of the covenant was called the Mercy-seat or 
the Propitiatory, because on the day of the 
atonement the High Priest poured on it the 
blood of the sacrifice for the sins of the people. 

Meridian Sun. The sun in the South is 
represented in Masonry by the Junior Warden, 
for this reason: when the sun has arrived at 
the zenith, at which time he is in the South, 
the splendor of his beams entitles him to the 
appellation which he receives in the ritual as 
"the beauty and glory of the day." Hence, as 
the Pillar of Beauty which supports the Lodge 
is referred to the Junior Warden, that officer is 
said to represent "the sun in the South at High 
Twelve, at which hour the Craft are called by 
him to refreshment, and therefore is he also 
placed in the South that he may the better 
observe the time and mark the progress of the 
shadow over the dial-plate as it crosses the 
meridian line. 

Merit. The Old Charges say, "all prefer- 
ment among Masons is grounded upon real 
worth and personal merit only; that so the 
Lords may be well served, the Brethren not 
put to shame, nor the Royal Craft despised. 
Therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by 
seniority, but for his merit." (See Prefer 
merit.) 



482 MER-SKER 



Mer-Sker. The space in which the sun 
moves, as an Egyptian penoiiincation, signi- 
fying the habitation of Home. 

Mendorf, J. L« T. A learned Qerman 
Mason, born in 1812. Initiated in Apollo 
Lodge, at Leipedc. in 1834. He resuscitated the 
Lodge "Zum goldenen Hirsch," Oldenburg, 
and was for years Deputy Master. He pub- 
lished Die Symbole, etc., Leipeic, 1836, and 
later several other works. 

Meshla* Meshlane. Corresponding to 
Adam and: Eve, in accordance with Persian 
cosmogony. 

M earner, Frtedrtch Anton. A German 
physician who was born in Suabia, in 1734, and, 
after a long life, a part of which was passed in 
notoriety and the closing years in obscurity, 
died in 1815. He was the founder of the doc- 
trine of animal magnetism, called after him 
Mesmerism. He visited Paris, and became 
there in some degree intermixed with the 
Masonic charlatanism of Cagliostro, who used 
the magnetic operations of M earner's new 
science in his initiations. (See Mesmeric 
Masonry.) 

Mesmeric Masonry. In the year 1782, 
M earner established in Paris a society which 
he called "the Order of Universal Harmony." 
It was based on the principles of animal mag- 
netism or mesmerism, and had a form of initi- 
ation by which the rounder claimed that its 
adepts were purified and rendered more fit 
to propagate the doctrines of his science. 
French writers have dignified this Order by the 
title of "Mesmeric Masonry." 

Mesopolyte. The Fourth Degree of the 
German Union of XXII. 

Mesouraneo. A Greek word, /ttrov- 
mdw, signifying, I am in the center of heaven. 
Hutchinson fancifully derives from it the 
word Masonry, which he says is a corruption 
of the Greek, and refers to the constellation 
Magaroth mentioned by Job; but he fails to 

S've a satisfactory reason for his etymology, 
evertheless, Oliver favors it. 
Metals. In the divestiture of metals as a 
preliminary to initiation, we are symbol- 
ically taught that Masonry regards no man on 
account of his wealth. The Talmudical 
treatise "Beracoth," with a like spirit of sym- 
bolism, directs in the Temple service that no 
man shall go into the mountain of the house, 
that is, into the Holy Temple, "with money 
tied up in his purse." 

Metal Tools. We are told in Scripture 
that the Temple was "built of stone made 
ready before it was brought thither: so that 
there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any 
tool of iron heard in the house while it was in 
buildinc." (1 Kings vi. 7.) Masonry has 
adopted this as a symbol of the peace and har- 
mony which should reign in a Lodge, itself a 
type of the world. But Clarke, in his com- 
mentary on the place, suggests that it was in- 
tended to teach us that the Temple was a type 
of the kingdom of God. and that the souls of 
men are to be prepared here for that place of 
blessedness. There is no repentance, tears, 
nor prayers: the stones must be all squared, 



MEZUZA 



and fitted here for their place in the New Jeru- 
salem; and, being living etonee, must be built 
up a holy temple for the habitation of God. 

Metropolitan Chapter of Franee. There 
existed in France, toward the end of the last 
century, a body calling itself the Grand Chap- 
ter General of France. It was formed out of 
the (Ubris of the Council of Emperors of the 
East and West, and the Council of Knights of 
the East, which had been founded by Pirlet. 
In 1786, it united with the schismatic Grand 
Orient, and then received the title of the Met- 
ropolitan Chapter of France. It possessed in 
its archives a large collection of manuscript 
cahiert of degrees, most of them being mere 
Masonic curiosities. 

MetasaeL The name given to the Hebrew 
quarryman, who is represented in some leg- 
ends as one of the assassins, Fanor and A mm 
being the other two. 

Mexico. Masonry was introduced into 
Mexico, in the Scottish Rite, some time prior to 
1810, by the civil and military officers of Spain, 
but the exact period of its introduction is un- 
known. The first Work Charters were granted 
for a Lodge at Vera Crux in 1816, and one at 
Campeche in 1817. by the Grand Lodge of 
Louisiana, followed by a Charter for a Lodge at 
Vera Cms in 1823 by the "City " Grand Lodge 
of New York, and one in the same city in 
1824 from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. 
February 10, 1826 { five Charters were granted 
for Lodges in the City of Mexico by the 71 Coun- 
try " Grand Lodge of New York, on the rec- 
ommendation of Joel R. Poinsett. Past Dep- 
uty Grand Master of South Carolina, at that 
time United States Minister to Mexico, who 
constituted the Lodges and organised them 
into a Grand Lodge with Jose Ignacio Esteva 
as Grand Master. 

The Masonic bodies, both York and Scot- 
tish Rite, however, soon degenerated into 
rival political clubs, and the bitter factional- 
ism became so strong that in 1833 the authori- 
ties issued an edict suppressing all secret soci- 
eties. The bodies met, however, secretly, and 
about 1834 the National Mexican Rite was 
organised with nine degrees copied after the 
Scottish Rite. In 1843 a Lodge was char- 
tered at Vera Cms, and in 1845 at Mexico by 
the Grand Orient of France. In 1850 a Su- 
preme Council 33°, with jurisdiction over the 
Symbolic degrees, was organised by authority 
of Albert Pike, and for a time the Supreme 
Council dominated all the bodies. In 1865 
the Grand Lodge Valle de Mexico was organ- 
ised as a York Rite Grand Lodge, and worked 
as such until 1011, when a number of the 
Lodges, under the leadership of Past Grand 
Masters Levi and Pro. left the Grand Lodge 
and organised a rival body, under the obedi- 
ence of the Supreme Council. [W. J. A.] 

Mexusa* The third fundamental principle 
of Judaism, or the sign upon the door-post. 
The precept is founded upon the command, 
"And thou shalt write them upon the posts 
of thy house, and on thy gates." (Deut. vi. 
4-0; xi. 13-21.) The door-posts must be 
those of a dwelling; synagogues are excluded. 



MICHAEL 



MIDDLE 



483 



The Karaite Jews affix Mezuzas to synagogues, 
and not to private houses. The Mezuza is con- 
structed as follows: the two above-mentioned 
portions of Scripture are written on ruled vel- 
lum prepared according to Rabbinical rules, 
then rolled and fitted into 
a metallic tube. The word 
Shaddai (Almighty) is writ- 
ten on the outside of the roll, 
and can be read, when in the 
tube, through a slot. The 
Mezuza is then nailed at each 
end on the right-hand door- 
post, while the following 
prayer is being said: "Blessed 
art thou, O Lord our God! 
King of the Universe, who 
hath sanctified us with His 
laws, and commanded us to 
fix the Mezuza." Under the 
word Shaddai some Jews 
write the three angelic names 
Coozu, Bemuchsaz, Coozu. 
To these some pray for suc- 
cess in business. 

The Talmud estimates the 
virtue of the Talith, the Phy- 
lacteries, and the Mezuza in 
the following terms: "Who- 
soever has the phylacteries 
bound to his head and arm, 
and the fringes thrown over 
his garments, and the Mezuza 
fixed on his door-post, is safe from sin; for 
these are excellent memorials, and the angels 
secure him from sin; as it is written, 'The 
angel of the Lord encamped round about 
them that fear Him, and delivereth them. 1 " 
(Ps. xxxiv. 7.) , [C. T. McClenachan.] 

Michael. 7Kr&. Who is like unto God. 
The chief of the seven archangels. He is the 
leader of the celestial host, as Lucifer is of the 
infernal spirits, and the especial protector of 
Israel. He is prominently referred to in the 
Twenty-eighth Degree of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, or Knight of the Sun. 

Michigan. A Charter was issued by the 
Prov. Grand Master of New York under date 
of April 27, 1764, for a Lodge at Detroit, and 
upon this foundation it has been customary to 
rest the claim that Michigan Masonry dates 
from 1764. In fact, there is no evidence that 
any work was ever clone under the Charter of 
1764, and if a Lodge ever came into existence 
thereunder, as is probable, it is certain that it 
was short-lived, and differed in no respect 
from several other Lodges known to have been 
temporarily held at Detroit at various times 
prior to 1794 by British soldiers and other 
sojourners. 

In 1794 Detroit was still garrisoned by Brit- 
ish soldiers and it was British soldiers who 
were founders of the Lodge of 1794. After- 
ward, when the British Government had 
tardily turned the Dost over to the Americans, 
and the British solaiers had been removed ana 
the region had become somewhat American- 
ized, a sentiment arose in favor of building 
under some American Grand Lodge in prefer- 



ence to a Canadian, and in Ottober, 1803, 
the members of the Lodge voted to petition 
the Grand Lodge of New York for a Charter, 
proposing to surrender their Canadian Char- 
ter. Chiefly on account of the slowness of com- 
munication in those days, this transaction was 
not brought to a close until the session of the 
Grand Lodge of New York, held in September, 
1806. Zion Lodge died in 1812, owing to the 
capture of Detroit by the British, but after 
the war the Grand Lodge of New York gave 
the members a new Charter. 

Other Lodges were subsequently estab- 
lished, and on July 31, 1826, a Grand Lodge 
was organized by them, and Lewis Cass elected 
Grand Master. In consequence of the political 
pressure of the anti-Masonic party at that 
time, the Grand Lodge suspended its labors 
in 1829, and remained in a dormant condition 
until 1841. when, at a general meeting of the 
Masons ot the State, it was resolved that the 
old Grand Officers who were still alive should, 
on the principle that their prerogatives had 
never ceased, but only been in abeyance, 
grant dispensations for the revival of the 
Lodges and the renewal of labor. But this 
course having been objected to as irregular 
by most of the Grand Lodges of the United 
States, delegates of a constitutional number of 
Lodges met in September, 1844, and organ- 
ized the Grand Lodge, electing John Mufiett 
Grand Master. 

The Grand Chapter was organised in 1848, 
the Grand Commandery in 1857. and the 
Grand Council in 1858. [A. G. Pitts.] 

Microcosm. See Man. 

Middle Ages. These are supposed by 
the best historians to extend from the time 
Theodoric liberated Rome (493) to the end 
of the fifteenth century, the important events 
being the fall of Constantinople in 1453, 
the discovery of America in 1492, and the 
doubling of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. 
This period of ten centuries is one of great 
importance to the Masonic student, because it 
embraces within its scope events intimately 
connected with the history of the Order, such 
as the diffusion throughout Europe of the 
Roman Colleges of Artificers, the establish- 
ment of the architectural school of Como, the 
rise of the gilds, the organization of the 
building corporations of Germany, and the 
company of Freemasons of England, as well as 
many customs and usages which have de- 
scended with more or less modification to the 
modern Institution. 

Middle Chamber. There were three 
stories of side chambers built around the 
Temple on three sides; what, therefore, is 
called in the authorized version a middle cham- 
ber was really the middle story of those three. 
The Hebrew word is W\ yateang. They are 
thus described in 1 Kings vi. 5, 6. 8. "And 
against the wall of the house he built chambers 
round about, against the walls of the house 
round about, both of the temple and of the 
oracle: and ne made chambers round about. 
The nethermost chamber was five cubits 
broad, and the middle was six cubits broad, 



484 MILES 



and the thud was seven cubits broad: for 
without in the wall of the house he made 
narrowed rests round about, that the beams 
should not be fastened in the walls of the 
house. The door for the middle chamber was 
in the right side of the house: and they went 
up with winding stairs into the middle cham- 
ber, and out of the middle into the third." 

These chambers, after the Temple was com- 
pleted, served for the accommodation of the 
priests when upon duty; in them they de- 
posited their vestments and the sacred vessels. 
But the knowledge of the purpose to which the 
middle chamber was appropriated while the 
Temple was in the course of construction, is 
only preserved in Masonic tradition. This 
tradition is, however, altogether mythical and 
symbolical in its character, and belongs to the 
symbolism of the Winding Stairs, which see. 

Miles* 1. In pure Latin, miles means a 
soldier; but in Medieval Latin the word was 
used to designate the military knights whose 
institution began at that period. Thus a 
Knight Templar was called Miles Templarius, 
and a Knight Banneret, Miles Banneret tus. 
The pure Latin word eques, which signified a 
knight in Rome, was never used in that sense 
in the Middle Ages. (See Knighthood.) 

2. The Seventh Degree of the Rite of Afri- 
can Architects. 

Military Lodges. Lodges established in 
an armv. They are of an early date, having 
long existed in the British armv. In America, 
the first Lodge of this kind of which we have 
any record was one the Warrant for which was 
granted by the Grand Lodge of Massachu- 
setts, in 1738, to Abraham Savage, to be used 
in the expedition against Canada. A similar 
one was granted by the same authority, in 
1756, to Richard Gridlev, for the expedition 
against Crown Point. In both of these in- 
stances the Warrants were of a general charac- 
ter, and might rather be considered as deputa- 
tions, as they authorised Savage and Gridley 
to congregate Masons into one or more Lodges. 
In 1770, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania 
granted a Warrant to Col. Proctor, of the ar- 
tillery, to open a Military Lodge, which in the 
Warrant is called a " Movable Lodge." In the 
Civil War in the United States between 1861 
and 1865, many Military Lodges were estab- 
lished on both sides; but it is questionable 
whether they had a good effect. They met, 
certainly, with much opposition in many juris- 
dictions. In England, the system of Mili- 
tary Lodges is regulated by special provisions 
of the Grand Loage Constitution. They are 
strictly limited to the purposes for which the 
Warrants were granted, and no new Lodge can 
be established in a regiment without the con- 
currence of the commanding officer. They 
cannot make Masons of any mit military men 
who have attained some rank in the army 
above that of a private soldier, although the 
latter may by dispensation be admitted as 
Serving Brethren; and they are strictly en- 
Joined not to interfere with the Masonic juris- 
diction of any country in which they may be 
stationed. Military Lodges also exist on the 



MISCONDUCT 



Continent of Europe. We find one at Berlin, 
in Prussia, as far back as 1775, under the name 
of the "Military Lodge of the Biasing Star," 
of which Wadseck, the Masonic writer, was 
the orator. 

MUltU. In Medieval Latin, this word 
signifies chivalry or the body of knighthood. 
Hence Militia Templi. a title sometimes given 
to Knights Templar, does not signify, as it has 
sometimes been improperly translated, the 
army of the Temple, but the chivalry of the 
Temple. 

Millln de Grand Malson, A. L. Born, 
1759; died, 1818. Founder of the Magarin 
Encyclopadioue. He was a Mason under the 
Rite Ecossais, and also belonged to the " Mere 
Lose" of the "Rite Ecossais Philosophique." 

Mlnerval. The Third Degree of the II- 
luminati of Bavaria. 

Minister of State. An officer in the Su- 
preme Councils, Grand Consistories, and some 
of the high degrees of the Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Scottish Rite. 

Minnesota* Masonry was introduced into 
this State in 1840 by the constitution in the 
city of St. Paul of a Lodge under a Warrant is- 
sued by the Grand Lodge of Ohio. Two other 
Lodges were subsequently constituted by the 
Grand Lodges of Wisconsin and Illinois. A 
convention of delegates from these Lodges 
was held at St. Paul, and a Grand Lodge or- 
ganised on February 12, 1853. A. E. Ames 
was elected Grand Master. The Grand Chap- 
ter was organised December 17, 1850, and the 
Grand Commandery was organised in 1866. 

Minor. The Fifth Degree of the German 
Rose Croix. 

Minor Illuminate. (IUuminatu* Minor.) 
The Fourth Degree of the Uluminati of Ba- 
varia. 

Mlnute-Book. The records of a Lodge are 
kept by the Secretary in a journal, which is 
called the Minute-Book. The French call it 
Planche trade, and the Minutes a Morceau 
d 1 Architecture. 

Minutes. The records of a Lodge are 
called its minutes. The minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of the Lodge should always be read 
just before closing, that any alterations or 
amendments may oe proposed by the breth- 
ren; and again immediately after opening at 
the next communication, that they may be 
confirmed. But the minutes of a regular com- 
munication are not to be read at a succeeding 
extra one, because, as the proceedings of a 
regular communication cannot be discussed at 
an extra, it would be unnecessary to read them, 
for, if incorrect, they could not be amendea 
until the next regular communication. 

Mlschchan, Mlschaphereth, Mlschtal, 
rWH pfftt, Tent of Testimony. 1013? pTO, 
Tent of Festival. (See Twenty-fourth Degree 
of the Scottish Rite.) is used in the Thir- 

tieth Degree. 

Misconduct. The Constitution of the 
Grand Lodge of England provides that "if 
any brother behave m such a manner as to 
disturb the harmony of the Lodge, he shall be 
thrice formally admonished by the Master; 



MISERABLE 

and If he persist in his irregular conduct, he 
shall be punished according to the by-laws of 
that particular Lodge, or the case may be re- 
ported to higher Masonic authority. 1 ' A sim- 
ilar rule prevails wherever Masonry exists. 
Every Lodge may exercise instant discipline 
over any member or visitor who violates the 
rules of order and propriety, or disturbs the 
harmony of the Lodge, by extrusion from 
the room. 

Miserable Scald Masons. See Scald 
Miserables. 

Mlshna. See Talmud. 

Mississippi. Masonry was introduced 
into this State at least as far back as 1801, in 
which year the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 
chartered a Lodge at Natchez, which became 
extinct in 1814. The Grand Lodge of Ken- 
tucky subsequently granted charters to two 
other Lodges in 1812 and 1815. Two Lodges 
were also constituted by the Grand Lodge of 
Tennessee. The delegates of three of these 
Lodges met in convention at the city of Nat- 
chez in July and August, 1818, and on the 
25th of the latter month organized the Grand 
Lodge of Mississippi, Henry Tooley being 
elected Grand Master. The Grand Chapter 
was organized at Vicksburg. May 18, 1846; 
the Grand Council of R. ana S. Master, Jan- 
uary 19, 1856; and the Grand Commandery, 
January 22, 1857. Scottish Masonry was in- 
troduced into the State in 1815 by the estab- 
lishment of a Grand Council of Princes of 
Jerusalem under the obedience of the South- 
ern Supreme Council. 

Missouri. Masonry was introduced into 
this State in 1807 by the constitution of a 
Lodge in the town of St. Genevieve, under a 
charter granted by the Grand Lodge of Penn- 
sylvania, which body granted a charter for 
another Lodge in 1809. Several charters were 
subsequently granted by the Grand Lodge of 
Tennessee. In 1821 there appear to have been 
but three Lodges in the State. Delegates from 
these organized, April 23. 1821, a Grand Lodge 
at St. Louis, and elected Thomas F. Riddick 
Grand Master. The Grand Chapter was or- 
ganized May 18, 1846, and the Grand Com- 
mandery May 22, 1860. 

Mistletoe. (Viscum Album.) A sacred 
plant among the Druids. It was to them a 
symbol of immortality, and hence an analogue 
of the Masonic Acacia. "The mistletoe," 
says Vallancey, in his Grammar of the Irish 
Language^ "was sacred to the Druids, because 
not only its berries but its leaves also grow in 
clusters of three united to one stock. The 
Christian Irish hold the shamrock (clover, 
trefoil) sacred, in like manner, because of the 
three leaves united to one stalk. 1 ' 

In Scandinavian countries it is called Mistel. 
It is a parasitic evergreen plant bearing a 
glutinous fruit. It was from a fragment of 
this plant that the dart was made which cost 
the life of Balder, according to the Scandina- 
vian Mysteries. (See Balder.) 

The Mistletoe, to the Scandinavian, is the 
coincident symbol of the acacia to the Mason, 
the ivy to those of the Mysteries of Dionysius, 



MITHRAS 485 

the myrtle to those of Ceres, the erica or heath 
to those of the Osirian, the lettuce to those of 
the Adonisian, and the lotus or waterMly to 
those of India and Egypt. The Mistletoe 
that caused the death of Balder was deemed 
sacred as the representative of the number 
three. The berries and leaves of the plant or 
vine grow in clusters of three united on one 
stalk. It was profanation to touch it. It 
was gathered with ceremony, and then con- 
secrated, when it was reputed to possess every 
sanative virtue, and denominated "All Heal. 

Mitchell, James W. S. A Masonic writer 
and journalist, was born in the State of Ken- 
tucky, in the year 1800. He was initiated 
into Masonry in Owen Lodge, at Port William, 
now Carrollton, Kentucky, m the year 1821. 
He subsequently removed to the State of Mis- 
souri, where he took a prominent position in 
the Masonic Fraternity, and held the offices. of 
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, Grand 
High Priest of the Grand Chapter, and Grand 
Commander of the Grand Commandery of 
Knights Templar. In 1848 he established, in 
the city of St. Louis, a monthly journal en- 
titled the Masonic Signet and Literary Mirror, 
which he removed to Montgomery, Alabama, 
in 1852, where it lasted for a short time, ana 
then was discontinued for want of patronage. 
In 1858 he published The History of Free- 
masonry ana Masonic Digest, in two vol- 
umes, octavo. Bro. Mitchell was a warm- 
hearted and devoted Mason, but, unfortu- 
nately for his reputation as an author, not an 
accomplished scholar, hence his style is de- 
ficient, not only in elegance, but even in 
grammatical puritv. His natural capacity, 
however, was good, and his arguments as a 
controversialist were always trenchant, if the 
language was not polished. As a Masonic 
jurist his decisions nave been considered gen- 
erally, but by no means universally, correct. 
His opinions were sometimes eccentric, and 
his History possesses much less value than 
such a work should have, in consequence of 
its numerous inaccuracies, and the adoption 
by its author of all the extravagant views of 
earlier writers on the origin of Masonry. He 
died at Griffin, Georgia, November 12, 1873, 
having been for many years a great sufferer 
from illness. 

Mithras, Mysteries of. There are none 
of the Ancient Mysteries which afford a more 
interesting subject of investigation to the 
Masonic scholar than those of the Persian god 
Mithras. Instituted, as it is supposed, by 
Zeradusht or Zoroaster, as an initiation into 
the principles of the religion which he had 
founded among the ancient Persians, they in 
time extended into Europe, and lasted so long 
that traces of them have been found in the 
fourth century. "With their penances," 
says Mr. King (Gnostics, p. 47), "and tests of 
the courage of the candidate for admission, 
they have Deen maintained by a constant tra- 
dition through the secret societies of the Mid- 
dle Ages ana the Rosicrucians down to the 
modern faint reflex of the latter— the Free- 
masons. 11 



486 MITHRAS 



Of the identity of Mithras with other deities 
there have been various opinions. Herodotus 
says he was the Assyrian Venus and the Arab- 
ian Alitta: Porphyry calls him the Demi- 
urgos ; and Lord of Generation; the Greeks 
identified him with Phoebus; and Higgins 
supposed that he was generally consideredthe 
same as Osiris. But to the Persians, who first 
practised his mysteries, he was a sun god, and 
worshiped as the God of Light. He was rep- 
resented as a young man covered with a Phryg- 
ian turban, and clothed in a mantle and 
tunic. He presses with his knee upon a bull, 
one of whose horns he holds in his left hand, 
while with the right he plunges a dagger into 
his neck, while a dog standing near laps up 
the dripping blood. 

This symbol has been thus interpreted: His 
piercing the throat with his dagger signifies 
the penetration of the solar rays into the 
bosom of the earth, by which action all nature 
is nourished; the last idea being expressed by 
the dog licking up the blood as it flows from the 
wound. But it will be seen hereafter that this 
last symbol admits of another interpretation. 

The mysteries of Mithras were always cele- 
brated in oaves. They were divided into seven 
stages or degrees (Suidas says twelve), and 
consisted of the most rigorous proofs of forti- 
tude and courage. Nonnus the Greek poet 
says, in his Dionysiaca, that these proofs were 
eighty in number, gradually increasing in se- 
verity. No one. says Gregory Naziansen, 
could be initiated into the mysteries of Mith- 
ras unless he had passed through all the trials, 
and proved himself passionless and pure. 
The aspirant at first underwent the purifica- 
tions by water, by fire, and by fasting; after 
which he was introduced into a cavern repre- 
senting the world, on whose walls and roof 
were inscribed the celestial signs. Here he 
submitted to a species of baptism, and re- 
ceived a mark on his forehead. He was pre- 
sented with a crown on the point of a sword, 
which he was to refuse, declaring at the same 
time, " Mithras alone is my crown." He was 
prepared, by anointing him with oil, crowning 
him with okve, and clothing him in enchanted 
armor, for the seven stages of initiation 
through which he was about to pass. These 
commenced in the following manner: In the 
first cavern he heard the howling of wild 
beasts, and was enveloped in total darkness, 
except when the cave was illuminated by the 
fitful glare of terrific flashes of lightning. He 
was hurried to the spot whence the sounds 
proceeded, and was suddenly thrust by his 
silent guide through a door into a den of wild 
beasts, where he was attacked by the initiated 
in the disguise of lions, tigers, hyenas, and 
other ravenous beasts. Hurried through this 
apartment, in the second cavern he was again 
shrouded in darkness, and for a time in fearful 
silence, until it was broken by awful peals of 
thunder, whose repeated reverberations shook 
the very walls of the cavern, and could not 
fail to inspire the aspirant with terror. He 
was conducted through four other caverns, in 
which the methods of exciting astonishment 



MITHRAS 



and fear were ingeniously varied. He was 
made to swim over a raging flood; was sub- 

iected to a rigorous fast; exposed to all the 
lorrors of a dreary desert; and finally, if we 
may trust the authority of Nicaetas, after 
being severely beaten with rods, was buried 
for many days up to the neck m snow. In 
the seventh cavern or Sacellum, the darkness 
was changed to light, and the candidate was 
introduced into the presence of the Archi- 
magus, or chief priest, seated on a splendid 
throne, and surrounded by the assistant dis- 
pensers of the mysteries. Here the obliga- 
tion of secrecy was administered, and he was 
made acquainted with the sacred words. He 
received also the appropriate investiture, 
which, says Maurice (fnd. Anliy., V., ch. i.). 
consisted of the Kara or corneal cap. ana 
candya or loose tunic of Mithras { on which was 
depicted the celestial constellations, the sone, 
or belt, containing a representation of the fig- 
ures of the sodiac ; the pastoral staff or crosier, 
alluding to the influence of the sun in the 
labors of agriculture, and the golden serpent, 
which was placed in his bosom as an emblem 
of his having been regenerated and made a dis- 
ciple of Mithras, because the serpent, by cast- 
ing its skin annually, was considered in these 
mysteries as a symbol of regeneration. 

He was instructed in the secret doctrines of 
the rites of Mithras, of which the history of 
the creation, already recited, formed a part. 
The mysteries of Mithras passed from Persia 
into Europe, and were introduced into Rome 
in the time of Pompey. Here they flourished, 
with various success, until the year 378, when 
they were proscribed by a decree of the Sen- 
ate, and the sacred cave, in which they had 
been celebrated, was destroyed by the pre- 
torian prefect. 

The Mithraic monuments that are still 
extant in the museums of Europe evidently 
show that the immortality of the soul was one 
of the doctrines taught in the Mithraic initia- 
tion. The candidate was at one time made to 
personate a corpse, whose restoration to life 
dramatically represented the resurrection. 
Figures of this corpse are found in several of 
the monuments and talismans. There is 
circumstantial evidence that there was a Mith- 
raic death in the initiation, just as there was a 
Carbiric death in the mysteries of Samothrace, 
and a Dionysiac in those of Eleusis. Corn- 
modus, the Roman emperor, had been initi- 
ated into the Mithraic mysteries at Rome, and 
is said to have taken great pleasure in the cere- 
monies. Lampridius, in his Lives of the 
Emperors, records, as one of the mad freaks of 
Commodus, that during the Mithraic cere- 
monies, where " a certain thing was to be done 
for the sake of inspiring terror, he polluted the 
rites by a real murder"; an expression which 
evidently shows that a scenic representation 
of a fictitious murder formed a part of the cere- 
mony of initiation. The dog swallowing the 
blood of the bull was also considered as a sym- 
bol of the resurrection. 

It is in the still existing talismans and gems 
that we find the most interesting memorials 



MITER 



MTZRAIM 



487 



of the old Mithraic initiation. One of these 
is thus described by Mr. C. W. Kins, in his 
valuable work on the Gnostic* and their Re- 
mains (London, 1864): 

"There is a talisman which, from its fre- 
quent repetition, would seem to be a badge of 
some particular degree amongst the initiated, 
perhaps of the first admission. A man blind- 
folded, with hands tied behind his back, is 
bound to a pillar, on which stands a gryphon 
holding a wheel; the latter a most ancient 
emblem of the sun. Probably it was in this 
manner that the candidate was tested by the 
appearance of imminent death when the 
bandage was suddenly removed from his eyes." 

As Mithras was considered as synonymous 
with the sun, a great deal of solar symbolism 
clustered around his name, his doctrines, and 
his initiation. Thus, MEI6PA2 was found, by 
the numerical value of the letters in the Greek 
alphabet, to be equal to 365, the number of 
days in a solar year; and the decrease of the 
solar influence in the winter, and its revivifi- 
cation in the summer, was made a symbol of 
the resurrection from death to life. 

Miter. The head-covering of the high priest 
of the Jews was called riB3Xtt, meUnephet, 
which, coming from the verb NAPHAT. 
to roll around, signified something rolled 
around the head, a turban; and this was really 
the form of the Jewish miter. It is described 
by Leusden, in his Philolo- 
gus Hebrcco-Mixttts, as being 
made of dark linen twisted 
in many folds around the 
head. Many writers con- 
tend that the miter was 
peculiar to the high priest; 
but Josephus and the Mishna assert that it 
was worn by all the priests, that of the high 
priest being distinguished from the rest by the 
golden band, or holy crown, which was at- 
tached to its lower rim and fastened around 
the forehead, and on which was inscribed the 
words mm; mp, KADOSH L'YEHOVAH, 
H? u '~£ss to J ehovah, or, as it is commonly trans- 
lated, Holiness to the Lord. The miter is worn 
by the High Priest of a Royal Arch Chapter, 
because he represents the Jewish high priest; 
but the form is inaccurate. The vestment, as 
usually made, is a representation rather of the 
modern Episcopal than of the Jewish miter. 

The modern miter — which is but an imita- 
tion of the Phrygian cap. and peculiar to 
bishops of the Christian Church, and which 
should therefore be worn by the 
Prelate of a Commandery of 
Knights Templar, who is sup- 
posed to hold Episcopal rank — 
differs in form from the Jewish 
vestment. It is a conical cap, 
divided in the middle so as to 
come to two points or horns, 
one in front and one behind, 
which. Durandus says, are 
symbolic of the two laws of the Old ana New 
Testament. 

Mizraim. Often by Masonic writers im- 
properly spelled Misraim. It is the ancient 





Hebrew name of Egypt, and was adopted as the 
name of a Rite to indicate the hypothesis that 
it was derived from the old Egyptian initiation. 

Misraim, Rite of. This Rite originated, 
says Gavel, at Milan, in the year 1805, in con- 
sequence of several brethren having been re- 
fused admission into the Supreme Council of 
the Ancient and Accepted Rite, which had 
just been established in that city. One Lech- 
anaeur has the credit of organising the Rite 
and selecting the statutes by which it was to 
be governed. It consisted at first of only 
eighty-seven degrees, to which three others 
were subsequently added. Sixty-six of the 
ninety degrees thus formed are said to have 
been taken from the Ancient and Accepted 
Rite, while the remaining twenty-four were 
either borrowed from other systems or were 
the invention of Lechangeur and his colleagues, 
Joly and Bedarride. The system of Mizraim 
spread over Italy, and in 1814 was introduced 
into France. Dissensions in the Rite soon 
took place, and an attempt was unsuccess- 
fully made to obtain the recognition of the 
Grand Orient of France. This having been 
refused, the Supreme Council was dissolved 
in 1817; but the Lodges of the Rite still con- 
tinued to confer the degrees, although, accord- 
ing to the constitution of French Masonry, 
their non-recognition by the Grand Orient 
had the effect of making them illegal. But 
eventually the Rite ceased altogether to exist 
as an active and independent system, and its 
place in Masonic history seems only to be 
preserved by two massive volumes on the 
subject, written by Mark Bedarride, the most 
intelligent and indefatigable of its founders, 
who published at Paris, in 1835, a history of 
the Rite, under the title of De VOrdre de 
Misraim. 

The Rite of Mizraim consisted of 90 degrees, 
divided into 4 series and 17 classes. Some of 
these degrees are entirely original, but many 
of them are borrowed from the Scottish Rite. 

For the gratification of the curious in- 
spector, the following list of these degrees 
is subjoined. The titles are translated as 
literally as possible from the French. 

I. Series — Sthbouo. 

1st Class: 1, Apprentice: 2, Fellow-Craft; 
3, Master. 2d Class: 4, Secret Master; 5, 
Perfect Master; 6, Master through Curiosity; 
7, Provost and Judge or Irish Master; 8, 
English Master. 3d Class: 9, Elect of Nine; 
10, Elect of the Unknown : 1 1 , Elect of Fifteen ; 
12, Perfect Elect; 13. Dlustrious Elect. 4th 
Class: 14, Scottish Trinitarian; 15, Scottish 
Fellow-Craft; 16, Scottish Master; 17, Scottis i 
panisiere; 18, Master Ecossais; 19, Ecossais 
of the three J. J. J.; 20, Ecossais of the Sacred 
Vault of James VI.; 21. Ecossais of St. 
Andrew, bth Class: 22. Little Architect; 23, 
Grand Architect; 24, Architecture: 25, Ap- 
prentice Perfect Architect; 26, Fellow-Craft 
Perfect Architect; 27, Master rerfect Archi- 
tect; 28, Perfect Architect; 29, Sublime Ecos- 
sais; 30, Sublime Ecossais of Heroden. Gth 
Class: 31, Grand Royal Arch; 32, Grand Ax; 



488 MIZRAIM 



83, Sublime Knight of Election, Chief of the 
First Symbolic Series. 

II. Series— Philosophic. 

7th Class: 34, Knight of the Sublime Elec- 
tion; 35, Prussian Knight; 36, Knight of the 
Temple: 37, Knight of the Eagle; 38, Knight 
of the Black Eagle: 39, Knight of the Red 
Eagle; 40, White Knight of the East; 41, 
Knight of the East. 8th Class: 42, Comman- 
der of the East; 43, Grand Commander of the 
East: 44, Architecture of the Sovereign Com- 
manders of the Temple; 45, Prince of Jeru- 
salem. 9th Class: 46, Sovereign Prince Rose 
Croix of Kilwinning and Heroden; 47. Knight 
of the West; 48, Sublime Philosopher; 40, 
Chaos the first, discreet; 50, Chaos the second, 
wise; 51, Knight of the Sun. 10th Class: 52, 
Supreme Commander of the Stars; 53, Sub- 
lime Philosopher; 54, First Degree of the Key 
of Masonry, Minor; 55, Second Degree, 
Washer; 56, Third Degree, Bellows-blower; 
57. Fourth Degree, Caster; 58, True Mason 
Adept; 59, Sovereign Elect; 60, Sovereign of 
Sovereigns; 61, Grand Master of Symbolic 
Lodges; 62, Most High and Most Powerful 
Grand Priest Sacrificer; 63, Knight of Pales- 
tine; 64, Grand Knight of the White and 
Black Eagle: 65, Grand Elect Knight Kadosh: 
66, Grand Inquiring Commander, Chief of 
the Second Series. 

III. Series — Mystical. 

11th Class: 67, Benevolent Knight; 68, 
Knight of the Rainbow; 69, Knight Cha- 
nuka, called Hynaroth; 70, Most Wise Is- 
raelitish Prince. 12th Class: 71, Sovereign 
Princes Talmudim; 72, Sovereign Prince 
Zadkim; 73, Grand Haram. IZth Class: 74, 
Sovereign Princes Haram; 75, Sovereign 
Princes Hasidim; 77, Grand Inspector Ln- 
tendant. Regulator General of the Order, 
Chief of the Third Series. 

IV. Series — Kabbalistic. 

15th and 167A Classes: 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83. 
84, 85, 86, degrees whose names are concealed 
from all but the possessors. 17th Class: 87. 
Sovereign Grand Princes, constituted Grand 
Masters, and legitimate representatives of 
the order for the First Series; 88, Ditto for 
the Second Series; 89, Ditto for the Third 
Series; 90, Absolute Sovereign Grand Master. 
Supreme Power of the Order, and Chief of 
the Fourth Series. 

The chiefs of this Rite demanded the 
privilege — which, of course, was never con- 
ceded to them — of directing and controlling 
all the other Rites of Freemasonry, as their 
common source. Its friends claimed for it 
an eminently philosophical character. The 
organisation of the Rite is, however, too com- 
plicated and diffuse to have ever been prac- 
tically convenient. Many of its degrees were 
founded upon, or borrowed from, the Egyp- 
tian rites, and its ritual is a very close imita- 
tion of the ancient system of initiation. 

The legend of the Third Degree in this Rite 
is abolished. HAB is said to have returned 



MOERA 



to his family, after the completion of th« 
Temple, and to have passed the remainder of 
his days in peace and opulence. The legend, 
substituted by the Rite of Mizraim for that 
admitted by all the other rites, is carried 
back to the days of Lamech, whose son Jubal, 
under the name of Hario-Jubal-Abi, is re- 
ported to have been slain by three traitors, 
Hagava, Hakina, and Heremda. 

Lenning calls the Rite of Mizraim "one 
of the latest of the monstrous visionary 
schemes introduced into Freemasonry"; and 
Ragon characterises it as a "fantastical con- 
nection of various rites and degrees." 
. Moablte Stone. A relic of black basalt, 
rounded at the top, two by four feet, across 
it being an inscription of thirty-four lines in 
the letters of the Hebrew-Phoenician alphabet, 
discovered in the ruins of ancient Dibon, by 
Dr. Klein, a German missionary, in 1869. A 
record of Mesha, King of Moab, who (2 
Kings iii. 5), after Ahao's death, "rebelled 
against the King of Israel." Chemosh was 
the national god of the Moabites. The cov- 
enant name of the God of Israel occurs in the 
inscription, showing that the name was not 
then unpronounceable, or unknown to the 
neighboring nations. The described wars 
date in the tenth century B.C. 

Moabon C)2KTO). He whom the Junior 
Warden represents in the Fourteenth Degree 
of the A. A. Scottish Rite, as the tried and 
trusty friend of Hiram the Builder. (See 
Gen. xix. 36.) 

Moabon* This word is found in some of 
the high degrees according to the French 
ritual, where it is explained as expressing 
"Praised be God that the crime and the 
criminal are punished." (Les plus secrets des 
hauls erodes, etc., p. 33.) There is no such 
word in Hebrew, and the explanation is a 
fanciful one. The word is undoubtedly a 
Gallic corruption, first in sound and then in 
letters, of the Master's Word. 

Mock Masons. A name given, says 
Noorthouck, to the unfaithful brethren and 
profanes who, in 1747, got up a procession in 
ridicule of that made at the Grand Feast. 
(Constitutions, 1784, p. 252.) (See Scald 
Miserables.) 

Modern Site. (Rile Moderns.) See 
French Rite. 

Moderns* The Irish Masons who formed 
a rival Grand Lodge in London in 1751, called 
the supporters of the original Grand Lodge 
established in 1717 Modems, while for them- 
selves they assumed the title of Ancients. 
(See Ancients.) 

Mohammed. See Koran. 

Mohrlms. Initiates, pilgrims, those en- 
tering upon an important undertaking. 

Molra, Francis Rawdon, Baron. Born 
1754, died 1826. A distinguished statesman 
and Mason. He was Acting Grand Master 
of England from 1790 to 1812. Also Grand 
Master of Scotland in 1806. As a Mason he 
was always energetic Dr. Oliver says, "To 
no person had Masonry for many years been 
more indebted than to the Earl of Moira, now 



MOLART 



MONITORIAL 



489 



Marquess Hastings." He died while Gov« 
ernor of Malta. 

Molart, Wtlllam. Anderson (Constitu- 
tions. 1738, p. 74) writes: "Nay, even during 
this King's (Henry VI.) Minority, there was a 
good Lodge under Grand Master Chicheley 
Held at Canterbury, as appears from the 
Latin Register of William Molart (entitled 
LiberaHs oeneralis Domini Gvlielmi Prions 
Ecclesice Ckristi Cantuariensis erga Festum 
Natalia Domini 1/&9) Prior of Canterbury, in 
Manuscript, pap. 88, in which are named 
Thomas Stapylton the Master, and John 
Morris Custos de la Lodge Latnomorum or 
Warden of the Lodge of Masons, with fifteen 
Fellow Crafts, and three Enter'd Prentices all 
named there/ 1 

What appears to be the register alluded to 
by Anderson is among the Tanner MSS. (165) 
in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and proves 
to be merely a list kept by William Molossh 
or Molessh (the name occurs in both forms, 
but not as Molart), the Prior, of persons con- 
nected with the Priory and receiving livery 
from it. On page 133 there is a list of persons 
for 1429, which contains "Magr Thorn 
Mapylton Mgr Lathamorum, Morys custos 
de la loygge Lathamorum" and a list headed 
"Lathaml" with 16 names including Mapyl- 
ton and below "Apprenticii idem" followed 
by three names. Similar lists are given for 
subsequent years, and thus it is plain that 
there was an organized body of Operative 
Masons attached to the Priory at that time. 

[E. L. H.] 

Molay, James de. The twenty-second 
and last Grand Master of the Templars at the 
destruction of the Order in the fourteenth 
century. He was born about the year 1240. 
at Besancon, in Burgundy, being descended 
from a noble family. He was received into 
the Order of Knights Templar in 1265, by 
Imbert de Peraudo, Preceptor of France, 
in the Chapel of the Temple at Beaune. He 
immediately proceeded to Palestine, and 
greatly distinguished himself in the wars 
against the infidels, under the Grand Master- 
ship of William de Beaujeu. In 1208, while 
absent from the Holy Land, he was unan- 
imously elected Grand Master upon the death 
of Theobald Gaudinius. In 1305, he was 
■ summoned to France by Pope Clement V.. 
upon the pretense of a desire, on the part of 
the Pontiff, to effect a coalition between the 
Templars and the Hospitalers. He was 
received by Philip the Fair, the treacherous 
King of France, with the most distinguished 
honors, and even selected by him as the god- 
father of one of his children. In April, 1307, 
he repaired, accompanied by three of his 
knights, to Poitiers, where the Pope was 
then residing, and as he supposed satisfac- 
torily exculpated the Order from the charges 
which had been preferred against it. But 
both Pope and King were guilty of the most 
infamous deceit. 

On the 12th of September, 1307, the order 
was issued for the arrest of the Templars, and 
De Molay endured an imprisonment for five 



years and a half, during which period he was 
subjected to the utmost indignities and 
sufferings for the purpose of extorting from 
him a confession of the guilt of his Order. 
But he was firm and loyal, and on the 11th 
of March, 1314, he was publicly burnt in front 
of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, in Paris. 
When about to die, he solemnly affirmed the 
innocence of the Order, and, it is said, sum- 
moned Pope Clement to appear before the 
judgment-seat of God in forty days and the 
King of France within a year, and both, it is 
well known, died within the periods specified. 
(See Transactions of the Quatuor CoronaU 
Lodge, Vol. 20.) 

Moloch. (Heb. Molech, king.) The chief 
god of the Phoenicians, and a god of the 
Ammonites. Human sacrifices were offered 
at his shrine, and it was chiefly in the valley 
of Tophet, to the east of Jerusalem, that this 
brutal idolatry was perpetrated. Solomon 
built a temple to Moloch upon the Mount of 
Olives, and Manasseh, long after, imitated 
his impiety by making his son pass through 
the fire kindled in honor of this deity. Wierus 
calls Moloch Prince of the realm of tears. 

First Moloch, horrid king, besmeared with blood 
Of human sacrifice and parents' tears; 
Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud. 
Their children's cries unheard, that passed 
through fire 

To his grim idol. • . . Nor content with such 
Audacious neighborhood, the wisest heart 
Of Solomon he led, by fraud, to build 
His temple -right against the temple of God, 
On that opprobrious hill* and made his grove, 
The pleasant valley of Hinnom, Tophet thence 
And black Gehenna called, the type of Hell. 

—•Par. Lost, B. 1. 

Monad* The Monad in the Pythagorean 
system of numbers was unity or tne number 
one. (See Numbers and One.) 

Monitor* Those manuals published for 
the convenience of Lodges, and containing 
the charges, general regulations, emblems, 
and account of the public ceremonies of the 
Order, are called Monitors. The amount 
of ritualistic information contained in these 
works has gradually increased: thus the 
monitorial instructions in Preston's Illus- 
trations, the earliest Monitor in the English 
language, are far more scanty than those con- 
tained in Monitors of the present day. As 
a general rule, it may be said that American 
works of this class give more instruction than 
English ones, but that the French and German 
manuals are more communicative than either. 

Of the English and American manuals 
published for monitorial instruction, the 
first was by Preston, in 1772. This has been 
succeeded by the works of the following au- 
thors: Webb, 1797; Dalcho, 1807; Cole, 1817; 
Hardie, 1818; Cross, 1819: Tannehill, 1824; 
Parmele, 1825; Charles W. Moore, 1846; 
Cornelius Moore, 1846: Dove, 1847; Davis, 
1849; Stewart, 1861; Mackey, 1862; Macoy, 
1853; Sickels, 1866. 

Monitorial Instruction. The instruc- 
tion contained in Monitors is called monitorial, 
to distinguish it from esoteric instruction, 



490 



MONITORIAL 



MONUMENT 



which is not permitted to be written, and can 
be obtained only in the precincts of the Lodge. 

Monitorial Sign. A sign given in the 
English system, but not recognised in this 
country. Oliver says of it that it " reminds 
us of the weakness of human nature, unable of 
itself to resist the power of Darkness, unless 
aided by that Light which is from above." 
Monitor, Secret. See Secret Monitor. 
Monogram. An abbreviation of a name 
by means of a cipher composed of two or 
more letters intertwined with each 
Wj other. The Constantinian mono- 
W^^i gram of Christ is often used by 
Knights Templar. The Triple Tau, 
*^T^ or Royal Arch badge, is also a mono- 
■ gram; although there is a difference 
of opinion as to its real meaning, some sup- 

R posing that it is a monogram of 
Templum Hierosolymae or the Tem- 
ple of Jerusalem, others of Hiram 
of Tyre, and others, again, bestow- 
ing on it different significations. 
Montana. April 27, 1865, the Grand 
Lodge of Nebraska granted a Warrant for 
a Lodge at Bannack, in Montana; but in 
consequence of the removal of the petitioners, 
the Lodge was never organised. Three other 
Lodges were subsequently established by 
Warrants from the Grand Lodges of Kansas 
and Colorado. On January 24, 1866, three 
Lodges met in convention at Virginia City, 
and organised the Grand Lodge of Montana, 
John J. Hull being elected Grand Master. 

Royal Arch Masonry and Templarism were 
introduced, the one by the General Grand 
Chapter, and the other by the Grand Encamp- 
ment of the United States. 

Montfaupon, Prior of. One of the two 
traitors on whose false accusations was based 
the persecution of the Templars. (See Squin 
ds Flexian.) 

Months, Hebrew. Masons of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite use in their 
documents the Hebrew months of the civil 
year. Hebrew months commence with the 
full moon; and as the civil year began about 
the time of the autumnal equinox, the first 
Hebrew month must have begun with the new 
moon in September, which is also used by Scot- 
tish Masons as the bemnningof their year. An- 
nexed is a table of the Hebrew months, and 
their correspondence with our own calendar. 



ne>n 
ran 

fVD 

non 



Tisri, 
Khesvan, 

Kislev, 

Tebeth, 

Schebet, 

Ad&r, 

Nisan, 

Ijar, 
Sivan, 

Tamuz, 

Ab, 

Elul, 



Sept. and Oct. 
Oct. and Nov. 

Nov. and Dec. 
Dec. and Jan. 
Jan. and Feb. 
Feb. and March. 
March and ApriL 

April and May. 
May and June. 

June and July. 

July and Aug. 

August and Sept* 



As the Jews computed time by the appear- 
ance of the moon, it is evident that there soon 
would be a confusion as to the keeping of these 
feasts, if some method had not been taken 
to correct it; since the lunar year is only 364 
days, 8 hours, and 48 minutes, and the solar 
year is 365 days, 6 hours, 15 minutes, and 20 
seconds. Accordingly, they intercalated i 
month after their 12th month. Adar, when* 
ever they found that the 15th day of the 
following month, Abib, would fall before the 
vernal equinox. This intercalated month 
was named "TOO, Ve-adar, or "the second 
Adar," and was inserted every second or third 
year, as they saw occasion; so that the differ- 
ence between the lunar and solar year could 
never, in this way, be more than a month. 

Months, Masonic. In the French Rite 
the old calendar is retained, and the year 
begins with the month of March, the months 
being designated numerically and not by 
their usual names. Thus we find in French 
Masonic documents such dates as this: "Le 
lOme jour du 3me mois Maconnique," that is, 
the 10th day of the 3d Masonic month, or the 
10th of May. 

Montpellier, Hermetic Bite of. The 
Hermetic Rite of Pernetty, which had been 
established at Avignon in 1770, was in 1778 
transported to Montpellier, in France, by a 
Past Master, and some of the members of the 
Lodge of Persecuted Virtue in the former 
place, who laid the foundations of the Acad" 
emy of True Masons, which see. Hence the 
degrees given in that Academy constituted 
what is known as the Hermetic Rite of 
Montpellier. 

Monument. It is impossible to say 
exactly at what period the idea of a monu- 
ment in the Third Degree was first intro- 
duced into the symbolism of Freemasonry. 
The early expositions of the eighteenth 
century, although they refer to a funeral, 
make no allusion to a monument. The 
monument adopted in the American sys- 
tem, and for which we are indebted, it is 
said, to the inventive genius of Cross, con- 
sists of a weeping virgin, holding in one 
hand a sprig of acacia ana in the other an 
urn; before her is a broken column, on 
which rests a copy of the Book of Constitu- 
tions, while Time behind her is attempting to 
disentangle the ringlets of her hair. The 
explanation of these symbols will be found 
in their proper places m this work. Oliver, 
in his Landmarks (ii., 146), cites this monu- 
ment without any reference to its American 
origin. Early in the last century the Master's 
monument was introduced into the French 
system, but its form was entirely different 
from the one adopted in this country. It is 
described as an obelisk, on which is inscribed 
a golden triangle, in the center of which the 
Tetragrammaton is engraved. On the top 
of the obelisk is sometimes seen an urn pierced 
by a sword. In the Scottish Rite an entire 
degree has been consecrated to the subject 
of the Hiramic monument. Altogether, the 
monument is simply the symbolic expression 



MOON 

of the idea that vemeration should always 
be paid to the memory of departed worth. 

Moon* The adoption of the moon in 
the Masonic system as a symbol is analogous 
to, but could hardly be derived from, the em- 
ployment of the same symbol in the ancient 
religions. In Egypt, Osiris was the sun, 
and Isis the moon; in Syria, Adonis was the 
sun, and Ashtoroth the moon; the Greeks 
adored her as Diana, and Hecate; in the 
mvsteries of Ceres, while the hierophant or 
chief priest represented the Creator, and the 
torch-bearer the sun, the fotjtf/uoi, or 
officer nearest the altar, represented the moon. 
In short, moon-worship was as widely dis- 
seminated as sun-worship. Masons retain 
her image in their Rites, Decause the Lodge 
is a representation of the universe, where, 
as the sun rules over the day, the moon pre- 
sides over the night; as the one regulates 
the vear, so does the other the months, and 
as the former is the king of the starry hosts 
of heaven, so is the latter their queen; but 
both deriving their heat, and light, and 
power from mm, who, as the third and the 
greatest light, the master of heaven and 
earth, controls them both. 

Moore, Charles Whltloek. A distin- 
guished American Masonic journalist born 
m Boston, Mass., March 29, 1801. His own 
account of his initiation into Masonry is in 
the following words: "In February, 1822, I 
was proposed for the degrees of Masonry in 
Massachusetts Lodge, then, as now, one of 
the three oldest in Boston, and but for the 
intervention of business engagements, I should 
have been received into Masonry on the 
evening of my coming of age. Before that 
evening arrived, however, I was called tem- 
porarily to the State of Maine, where, in May 
following, I was admitted into Kennebec 
Lodge, at Hallowell, with the consent and 
approbation of the Lodge in which I had been 
originally proposed. I received the third 
degree on the evening of the 12th of June." 

On October 10, 1822, he affiliated with the 
Lodge St. Andrew. In October, 1872, that 
Lodge celebrated his semicentennial mem- 
bership by a festival. 

In 1825 he took the Capitular Degrees in 
St. Andrew's Chapter, and was elected High 
Priest in 1840, and subsequently Grand High 
Priest of the Grand Chapter. He was made 
a Knights Templar in Boston Encampment 
about the year 1830, and was Eminent Com- 
mander in 1837. In 1841 he was elected Grand 
Master of the Grand Encampment of Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island, which office he held 
for three years. In 1832 he received the Royal 
and Select degrees in Boston Council, over 
which he presided for twelve years. He was 
elected General Grand Captain-General of the 
Grand Encampment of the United States in 
1847, and General Grand Generalissimo in 
1850. In 1844 be was received into the Ancient 
Accepted Scottish Rite, and in the same year 
was elected Secretary-General of the Holy 
Empire in the Supreme Council for the 
Northern Jurisdiction of the United States, 



MOPSES 491 



an office which he held until his resignation 
in 1862. 

"When he was elected R. G. Secretary 
of the Grand Lodge in 1834," says Bro. 
John T. Heard, in his Historical Account of 
Columbian Lodge (p. 472). "it was the mo- 
ment when the anti-Masonic excitement 
was raging with its greatest violence in this 
State, and his first official act was to attest 
the memorial written by him, surrendering to 
the Legislature the act of incorporation of 
the Grand Lodge. 11 

The Grand Lodge surrendered its charter 
and its corporate powers that it might escape 
the persecution of an anti-Masonic Legis- 
lature. The memorial, however, boldly 
stated that "by divesting itself of its corporate 
powers, the Grand Lodge has relinquished 
none of its Masonio attributes or preroga- 
tives." In Masonio authorship, Bro. Moore 
is principally distinguished as a journalist. 
In 1825 he established the Masonic Mirror, 
which was merged in 1834 in the Bunker Hill 
Aurora, a paper with whose Masonic depart- 
ment he was associated. In 1841 he com- 
menced the publication of the Freemasons* 
Monthly Magazine, which he published for 
thirty-threeyears; in fact, until nis death. In 
1828 and 1820 he published the Amaranth, or 
Masonic Garland, and in 1843 the Masonic 
Trestle-Board. Bro. Moore died at Boston, 
Mass., of pneumonia, on December 12, 1873. 

[C. T. McClenachan.] 

Moore, James. He was, in 1808, the 
Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge 
of Kentucky, and in conjunction with Carey 
L. Clarke compiled, by order of that body, 
the Masonic Constitutions or Illustrations of 
Masonry, Lexington, 1808 ; pp. 101, 12mo. 
This was the first Masonic work published 
in the Western States. With the exception 
of the Constitution of the Grand Lodge, 
it is little more than a compilation taken 
from Anderson, Preston, and Webb. It was 
adopted by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky 
as its official Book of Constitutions. 

Mopses. In 1738 Pope Clement XII. 
issued a bull, condemning and forbidding 
the practise of the rites of Freemasonry. 
Several brethren in the Catholic States of 
Germany, unwilling to renounce the Order, 
and yet fearful of offending the ecclesiastical 
authority, formed at Vienna, September 22, 
1738, under the name of Mopses, what was 
pretended to be a new association, but which 
was in truth nothing else than an imitation of 
Freemasonry under a less offensive appella- 
tion. It was patronized by the most illus- 
trious persons of Germany, and many 
Princes of the Empire were its Grand Masters; 
the Duke of Bavaria especially took it under 
his protection. The title is derived from the 
German word mops, signifying a pug-dog. 
and was indies tive of the mutual fidelity ana 
attachment of the brethren, these virtues 
being characteristic of that animal. The 
alarm made for entrance was to imitate the 
barking of a dog. 

The Mopses were an androgynous Order, 



492 MORALITY 



and admitted females to all the offices, except 
that of Grand Master, which was held lor 
life. There was, however, a Grand Mistress, 
and the male and female heads of the Order 
alternately assumed, for six months each, 
the supreme authority. With the revival 
of the spirit of Masonry, which had been 
in some degree paralysed by the attacks of 
the Church, the society of Mopses ceased to 
exist. 

Morality. In the American system it is 
one of the three precious Jewels of a Master 
Mason. 

Morality of Freemasonry. No one who 

reads our ancient Charges can fail to see that 
Freemasonry is a strictly moral Institution, 
and that the principles which it inculcates 
inevitably tend to make the brother who obeys 
their dictates a more virtuous man. Hence 
the English lectures very properly define 
Freemasonry to be "a system of morality." 

Moral Law. "A Mason," say the old 
Charges of 1722, "is obliged by his tenure to 
obey the moral law." Now, this moral law 
is not to be considered as confined to the 
decalogue of Moses, within which narrow 
limits the ecclesiastical writers technically 
restrain it, but rather as alluding to what is 
called the lex naturae, or the law of nature. 
This law of nature has been defined, by an 
able but not recent writer on this subject, to 
be " the will of God, relating to human actions, 
grounded on the moral differences of things; 
and because discoverable by natural light, 
obligatory upon all mankind." (Grove, Sys- 
tem of Moral Philosophy, vol. ii., p. 122. Lon- 
don, 1749.) This is the "moral law," to 
which the old Charge already cited refers, 
and which it declares to be the law of Masonry. 
And this was wisely done, for it is evident that 
no law less universal could have been appro- 
priately selected for the government of an 
Institution whose prominent characteristic is 
its universality. 

Morana. The Bohemian goddess of winter 
and death, Maryana of Scandinavia. 

Moravian Brethren. The religious sect 
of Moravian Brethren, which was founded 
in Upper Lusatia, about 1722, by Count 
Zinsendorf , is said at one time to have formed 
a society of religious Freemasons. For an 
account of which, see Mustard Seed, Order of. 

Morgan, William. Born in Culpeper 
County, in Virginia, in 1775. He published 
in 1826 a pretended Exposition of Masonry, 
which attracted at the time more attention 
than it deserved. Morgan soon after disap- 
peared, and the Masons were charged by some 
enemies of the Order with having removed 
him by foul means. What was the real fate 
of Morgan has never been ascertained. There 
are various myths of his disappearance, and 
subsequent residence in other countries. 
They may or may not be true, but it is certain 
that there is no evidence of his death that 
would be admitted in a Court of Probate. 
He was a man of questionable character and 
dissolute habits, and his enmity to Masonry is 
said to have originated from the refusal of 



MORIN 

the Masons of Le Roy to admit him to mem- 
bership in their Lodge and Chapter. 

Moriah, Mount. An eminence situated 
in the southeastern part of Jerusalem. In 
the time of David it must have been culti- 
vated, for it is called "the threshing-floor 
of Oman the Jebusite," from whom that 
monarch purchased it for the purpose of plac- 
ing there an altar. Solomon subseauently 
erected there his magnificent Temple. Mount 
Moriah was always profoundly venerated 
by the Jews, among whom there is an early 
tradition that on it Abraham was directed to 
offer up his son. The truth of this tradition 
has. it is true, been recently denied by some 
Biblical writers, but it has been as strenuously 
maintained by others. The Masons, however, 
have always accepted it, and to them, as the 
site of the Temple, it is especially sacred, and, 
combining with this the Abrahamic legend, 
they have given to Mount Moriah the appella- 
tion of the ground floor of the Lodge, and as- 
sign it as the place where what are called "the 
three grand offerings were made." 

Morln, Stephen. The founder of the 
Scottish Rite m America. On the 27th of 
August. 1761, the "Deputies General of the 
Royal Art, Grand Wardens, and officers of the 
Grand Sovereign Lodge of St. John of Jeru- 
salem established at Paris " (so reads the docu- 
ment itself) granted a Patent to Stephen 
Morin, by which he was empowered "to mul- 
tiply the sublime degrees of High Perfection, 
and to create Inspectors in all places where the 
sublime degrees are not established." This 
Patent was granted, Thory, Ragon, Clavel. 
and Lenning say, by the Grand Council of 
Emperors of the East and West. Others say 
by the Grand Lodge. Dalcho says by the 
Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal 
Secret at Paris. Bro. Albert Pike, who has 
very elaborately investigated the question, 
says that the authority of Morin was "a joint 
authority " of the two then contending Grand 
Lodges of France and the Grand Council, 
which is, I suppose, what Dalcho and the 
Supreme Council of Charleston call the Grand 
Consistory. From the Grand Lodge he re- 
ceived the power to establish a Symbolic 
Lodge, and from the Grand Council or 
Consistory the power to confer the higher 
degrees. 

Not long after receiving these powers. 
Morin sailed for America, and established 
Bodies of the Scottish Rite in St. Domingo 
and Jamaica. He also appointed M. M. 
Hayes a Deputy Inspector-General for North 
America. Hayes, subsequently, appelated 
Isaac da Costa a Deputy for South Carolina, 
and through him the Sublime degrees were 
disseminated among the Masons of the United 
States. (See Scottish Rile.) After appointing 
several Deputies and establishing some Bodies 
in the West India Islands, Morin is lost sight 
of. We know not anything of his subsequent 
history, or of the time or place of his death. 
Ragon, Thory, and Clavel say that Morin was 
a Jew; but as these writers h*ve judaized all 
the founders of the Scottish Rite m America, 



MORITZ 

we have no right to place any confidence in 
their statements. The name of Morin has 
been borne by many French Christians of lit- 
erary reputation, from Peter Morin. a learned 
ecclesiastical writer of the sixteenth century, 
to Stephen Morin, an antiquary and Protes- 
tant clergyman, who died in 1700, and his son 
Henry, who became a Catholic, and died in 
1728. 

Mortis, Carl Phlllpp. A Privy Council- 
lor, Professor, and Member of the Academy of 
Sciences in Berlin, was born at Hameln on the 
15th of September, 1757, and died the 26th of 
June, 1793. Gadicke says that he was one of 
the most celebrated authors of his age, and 
distinguished by his works on the German 
language. He was the author of several Ma- 
sonic works, among which are his Contribu- 
tions to the Philosophy of Life and the Diary of a 
Freemason, Berlin, 1793, and a Book of Masonic 
Songs. 

Mormon Faith. See Book of Mormon. 

Morphey. The name of one of the twelve 
Inspectors in the Eleventh Degree of the An- 
cient and Accepted Scottish Rite. This name, 
like the others in the same catalogue, bids 
defiance to any Hebraic derivation. They 
are all either French corruptions, worse even 
than Jakinai for Shekinah, or they have some 
allusion to names or events connected with the 
political intrigues of the exiled house of Stuart, 
which had, it is known, a connection with some 
of the higher degrees which sprang up at Arras, 
and other places where Masonry is said to 
have been patronized by the Pretender. This 
word Morphey may, for instance, be a cor- 
ruption of Murray. James Murray, the 
second son of Lord Stormont, escaped to the 
court of the Stuarts in 1715. He was a de- 
voted adherent of the exiled family, and be- 
came the governor of the young prince and the 
chief minister of bis father, who conferred 
upon him the empty title of Earl of Dunbar. 
He died at Avignon in 1770. But almost 
every etymology of this kind must be entirely 
conjectural. 

Morris, Robert, LL.D. Born August 31, 
1818. Was first brought to Masonic light 
March 5, 1846, in Oxford Lodge, at a place of 
the same name in Mississippi. The life of 
Bro. Morris was so active and untiring for the 
benefit of the Institution of Masonry, that he 
had the opportunity of filling very many posi- 
tions in all the departments of Masonry, and 
was Grand Master of Masons of the Grand 
Lodge of Kentucky in 1858-59. His writings 
cover Masonic jurisprudence, rituals and 
handbooks, Masonic belles-lettres, history 
and biography, travels, and contributions to 
The Review, Keystone, Advocate, N. Y. Dis- 
patch, and other papers and periodicals. His 
Masonic songs and poetic effusions stand out 
in prominent volumes. He was the author of 
We Meet upon the Level, which is sufficient to 
render his name immortal. A complete 
biography of Bro. Robert Morris would fill 
volumes. He died in 1888. 

Mortality, Symbol of. The ancient 
Egyptians introduced a skeleton at their 



MOSAIC 493 

feasts, to impress the idea of the evanescence of 
all earthly enjoyments; but the skeletons or 
deaths' heads did not make their appearance 
in Grecian art, as symbols of mortality, until 
later times, and on monuments of no artistic 
importance. In the earliest periods of ancient 
art, the Greeks and Romans employed more 
pleasing representations, such as the flower 
plucked from its stem, or the inverted torch. 
The moderns have, however, had recourse to 
more offensive symbolization. In their hatch- 
ments or funeral achievements the heralds 
employ a death's head and crossed bones, to 
denote that the deceased person is the last of 
his family. The Masons have adopted the 
same symbol, and in all the degrees wnere it is 
necessary to impress the idea of mortality, a 
skull, or a skull and crossed bones, are used 
for that purpose. 

Mortar, Untempered. See Untempered 
Mortar. 

Mosaic Pavement. Mosaic work consists 
properly of many little stones of different col- 
ors united together in patterns to imitate a 
painting. It was much practised among the 
Romans, who called it musivum, whence the 
Italians get their musaico, the French their 
mosaique, and we our mosaic. The idea that 
the work is derived from the fact that Moses 
used a pavement of colored stones in the 
tabernacle has been long since exploded by 
etymologists. The Masonic tradition is that 
the floor of the Temple of Solomon was deco- 
rated with a mosaic pavement of black and 
white stones. There is no historical evidence 
to substantiate this statement. Samuel Lee, 
however, in his diagram of the Temple, rep- 
resents not only the floors of the building, but 
of all the outer courts, as covered with such a 
pavement. The Masonic idea was perhaps 
first suggested by this passage in the Gospel of 
St. John (xix. 13). "when Pilate, therefore, 
heard that saving, he brought Jesus forth, and 
sat down in the judgment-seat in a place that 
is called the Pavement, tmt in the Hebrew, 
Gabbatha." The word here translated Pave- 
ment is in the original Lithostroton, the very 
word used by Pliny to denote a mosaic pave- 
ment. The Greek word, as well as its Latin 
equivalent, is used to denote a pavement 
formed of ornamental stones of various colors, 
precisely what is meant by a mosaic pave- 
ment. 

There was, therefore, a part of the Temple 
which was decorated with a mosaic pavement. 
The Talmud informs us that there was such a 
pavement in the conclave where the Grand 
Sanhedrim held its sessions. 

By a little torsion of historical accuracy, the 
Masons have asserted that the ground floor 
of the Temple was a mosaic pavement, and 
hence, as the Lodge is a representation of the 
Temple, that the floor of the Lodge should 
also be of the same pattern. 

The mosaic pavement is an old symbol of 
the Order. It is met with in the earliest rit- 
uals of the last century. It is classed among 
the ornaments of the Lodge in combination 
with the indented tessel and the blazing star. 



404 MOSAIC 

Its party-oolored stones of black and white 
have been readily and appropriately inter- 

Ereted as symbols of the evil and good of 
uman life. 

Mosaic Symbolism. In the religion of 
Moses, more than in any other which preceded 
or followed it, is symbolism the predominating 
idea. From the tabernacle, which may be con- 
sidered as the central point of the whole system, 
down to the vestments which clothed the serv- 
ants at the altar, there will be found an un- 
derlying principle of symbolism. Long before 
the days of Pythagoras the mystical nature of 
numbers had been inculcated by the Jewish 
lawgiver, and the very name of God was con- 
structed in a symbolical form, to indicate his 
eternal nature. Much of the Jewish ritual of 
worship, delineated in the Pentateuch with 
so much precision as to its minutest details, 
would almost seem puerile were it not for 
the symbolic idea that is conveyed. So the 
fringes of the garments are patiently described, 
not as decorations, but that by them the peo- 
ple, in looking upon the fringe, might "remem- 
ber all the commandments of the Lord and 
do them. 1 ' Well, therefore, has a modern 
writer remarked, that in the symbolism of the 
Mosaic worship it is only ignorance that can 
find the details trifling or the prescriptions 
minute; for if we recognise the worth and 
beauty of symbolism, we shall in vain seek in 
the Mosaic symbols for one superfluous enact- 
ment or one superstitious idea. To the Mason 
the Mosaic symbolism is very significant, be- 
cause from it Freemasonry has derived and 
transmitted for its own uses many of the most 
precious treasures of its own symbolical art. 
Indeed, except in some of the higher, and 
therefore more modern degrees, the symbolism 
of Freemasonry is almost entirely deduced 
from the symbolism of Mosaism. Thus the 
symbol of the Temple, which persistently 
pervades the whole of the ancient Masonic 
system, comes to us directly from the symbol- 
ism of the Jewish tabernacle. If Solomon is 
revered by the Masons as their traditional 
Grand Master, it is because the Temple con- 
structed by him was the symbol of the Divine 
life to be cultivated in every heart. And this 
symbol was borrowed from the Mosaic taber- 
nacle; and the Jewish thought, that every 
Hebrew was to be a tabernacle of the Lord, 
has been transmitted to the Masonic system, 
which teaches that every Mason is to be a 
temple of the Grand Architect. The Papal 
Church ; from which we get all ecclesiastical 
symbolism, borrowed its symbology from the 
ancient Romans. Hence most of the high 
degrees of Masonry which partake of a Chris- 
tian character are marked by Roman sym- 
bolism transmuted into Christian. But Craft 
Masonry, more ancient and more univer- 
sal, finds its symbolic teachings almost ex- 
clusively in the Mosaic symbolism instituted 
in the wilderness. 

If we inquire whence the Jewish lawgiver 
derived the symbolic system which he intro- 
duced into his religion, the history of his 
life will readily answer the question. Philo- 



MOST 

Judaeus says that " Moses was instructed by 
the Egyptian priests in the philosophy of sym- 
bols and hieroglyphics as well as m the mys- 
teries of the sacred animals. 1 ' The sacred his- 
torian tells us that he was "learned in all the 
wisdom of the Egyptians"; and Manetho and 
other traditionary writers tell us that he was 
educated at Heliopolis as a priest, under his 
Egyptian name of Osarsiph, and that there he 
was taught the whole range of literature and 
science, which it was customary to impart to 
the priesthood of Egypt. When, then, at the 
head of his people, ne passed away from the 
servitude of Egyptian taskmasters, and began 
in the wilderness to establish his new religion, 
it is not strange that he should have given a 
holy use to the symbols whose meaning he had 
learned in his ecclesiastical education on the 
banks of the Nile. 

Thus is it that we find in the Mosaic symbol- 
ism so many identities with the Egyptian 
ritual. Thus the Ark of the Covenant, the 
Breastplate of the High Priest, the Miter, 
and many other of the Jewish symbols, will 
find their analogies in the ritualistic ceremo- 
nies of the Egyptians. Reghellini, who has 
written an elaborate work on Masonry con- 
sidered as the result of the Egyptian, Jewish, 
and Christian Religions, says on the subject: 
"Moses, in his mysteries, and after him Sol- 
omon, adopted a great part of the Egyptian 
symbols, which, after them, we Masons nave 
preserved in our own." 

Moses, HVtt, which means drawn out; but 
the true derivation is from two Egyptian 
words, po, mo, and ourt, oushee, signifying 
saved from the water. The lawgiver of the 
JewB, and referred to in some of the higher 
degrees, especially in the Twenty-fifth Degree, 
or Knight of the Brasen Serpent in the Scot- 
tish Rite, where he is represented as the pre- 
siding officer. He plays also an important 
part m the Royal Arch of the York and Amer- 
ican Rites, all of whose ritual is framed on the 
Mosaic symbolism. 

Mossdorf, Friedrlch. An eminent Ger- 
man Mason, who was born March 2, 1757, at 
Eckartsberge, and died about 1830. He re- 
sided in Dresden, and took an active part in 
the affairs of Masonry. He was a warm sup- 
porter of Fessler's Masonic reforms, and made 
several contributions to the Freyberg Freir 
rnawrerischen Taschenbuche in defense of Fess- 
ler's system. He became intimately con- 
nected with the learned Krause, the author of 
The Three Most Ancient Records of the Masonic 
Fraternity, and wrote and published in 1800 a 
critical review of the work, in consequence of 
which the Grand Lodqe commanded him to 
absent himself for an indefinite period from 
the Lodges. Mosdorf then withdrew from 
any further connection with the Fraternity. 
His most valuable contributions to Masonic 
literature are his additions and emendations 
to Lenning's Encyclopddie der Freimaurerei. 
He is the author also of several other works 
of great value. 

Most Excellent. The title given to a 
Royal Arch Chapter, and to its presiding offi- 



MOST 



oer, the High Priest; also to the presiding 
officer of a Lodge of Most Excellent Mas- 
ters. 

Most Excellent Blaster. The Sixth De- 
gree in the York Rite. Its history refers to 
the dedication of the Temple by King Solo- 
mon, who is represented by its presiding officer 
under the title of Most Excellent. Its officers 
are the same as those in a Symbolic Lodge. 
There are, however, some rituals in which the 
Junior Warden is omitted. This degree is 
peculiarly American, it being practised in no 
other country. It was the invention of Webb, 
who organised the capitular system of Ma- 
sonry as it exists in America^ and established 
the system of lectures which is the foundation 
of all subsequent systems taught there. 

Most Puissant. The title of the presiding 
officer of a Grand Council of Royal and Select 
Masters. 

Most Worshipful. The title given to a 
Grand Lodge and to its presiding officer, the 
Grand Master. The title of Grand Master of 
Pennsylvania is Right Worshipful. 

Mot 4e Semestre. Half yearly word. 
Every six months the Grand Orient of France 
sends to each of the Lodges of its obedience a 
password, to be used by its members as an 
additional means of gaining admission into a 
Lodge. Each Mason obtains this word only 
from the Venerable of his own Lodge. It was 
instituted October 28, 1773, when the Duke 
of Chartres was elected Grand Master. 

Mother Council. The Supreme Council 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite for 
the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States 
of America, which was organized in 1801, at 
Charleston, is called the "Mother Council of 
the World," because from it have issued di- 
rectly or indirectly all the other Supreme 
Councils of the Rite which are now in exist- 
ence, or have existed since its organisation. 

Mother Lodge. In the last century 
certain Lodges in France and Germany as- 
sumed an independent position, and issued 
Charters for the constitution of Daughter 
Lodges claiming the prerogatives of Grand 
Lodges. Thus we find the Mother Lodge of 
Marseilles, in France, which constituted many 
Lodges. In Scotland the Lodge of Kilwinning 
took the title of Mother Lodge, and issued 
Charters until it was merged in the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland. The system is altogether 
irregular, and has no sanction in the present 
laws of the Fraternity. 

Motion. A motion when made by a 
member cannot be brought before the Lodge 
for deliberation unless it is seconded by an- 
other member. Motions are of two kinds, 
principal and subsidiary; a principal motion 
is one that presents an independent propo- 
sition for discussion. Subsidiary motions are 
those which are intended to affect the prin- 
cipal motion — such as to amend it. to lay it on 
the table, to postpone it definitely or indefi- 
nitely, or to reconsider it, all of which are gov- 
erned by the parliamentary law under certain 
modifications to suit the spirit and genius of 
the Masonic organisation. (See Dr. Mackey's 



MOURNING 495 

Treatise on Parliamentary Law as applied to 
Masonic Bodies.) 

Motto* In imitation of the sentences ap- 
pended to the coats of arms and seals of the 
gilds and other societies, the Masons have for 
the different branches of their Order mottoes, 
which are placed on their banners or put at 
the head of their documents, which are ex- 
pressive of the character and design, either of 
the whole Order or of the particular branch to 
which the motto belongs. Thus, in Ancient 
Craft Masonry, we have as mottoes the sen- 
tences, Ordo ab Chao, and Lux e tenebris; in 
Capitular Masonry, Holiness to the Lord; in 
Templar Masonry, In hoc signo vinces; in 
Scottish Masonry. Ne plus ultra is the motto 
of the Thirtieth Degree, and Sves mea in deo 
est of the Thirty-eecond; while the Thirty- 
third has for its motto Deus meumque Jus. 
All of these will be found with their significa- 
tion and origin in their appropriate places. 

Mold. This word is very common in the 
Old Constitutions, where it is forbidden that a 
Freemason should give a mold to a rough 
Mason, whereby, of course, he would be im- 
parting to him the secrets of the Craft. Thus, 
m the Harleian MS., No. 2054: "Alsoe that 
noe Mason make moulds, square or rule to 
any rough layers. Also, that no Mason set 
noe laves within a lodge or without to haue 
Mould Stones with one Mould of his worke- 
ing." We find the word in Piers Plough- 
man's Vision: 

" If eny Mason there do makede a molde 
With alls here wyse castes." 

Parker (Gloss. Architect., p. 313) thus defines 
it: "The model or pattern used by workmen, 
especially by Masons, as a guide in working 
mouldings and ornaments. It consists of a 
thin board or plate of metal, cut to represent 
the exact section of the mouldings to be 
worked from it." In the Cooke MS. the word 
maters is used, which is evidently a corruption 
of the Latin matrix. 

Mold Stone* In the quotation from the 
Harleian MS. in the preceding article, the ex- 
pression mould stones occurs, as it does in 
other Constitutions and in many old contracts. 
It means, probably, large and peaked stones 
for those parts of the building which were to 
have moldings cut upon them, as window 
and door jambs. 

Mount Calvary. See Calvary. 

Mount Cel. In the Mohammedan myth- 
ology, a fabulous mountain which encircles the 
earth. The home of the giants and fairies, 
and rests upon the sacred stone Sakhral, of 
which a single grain gives miraculous powers. 
It is of an emerald color, and its reflected light 
is the cause of the tints of the sky. 

Mount Moriah. See Morion. 

Mount Sinai. See Sinai. 

Mourning. The mourning color has been 
various in different times and countries. 
Thus, the Chinese mourn in white; the Turks 
in blue or in violet; the Egyptians in yellow; 
the Ethiopians in gray. Tn all the degrees 
and rites of Masonry, with a single exception 



496 MOUTH 



black is the symbol of grief, and therefore the 
mourning color. But in the highest degrees of 
the Scottish Rite the mourning color, like that 
used by the former kings of France, is violet. 

Mouth to Ear. The Mason is taught by 
an expressive symbol, to whisper good counsel 
in his brother's ear, and to warn him of ap- 
proaching danger. "It is a rare thing." says 
Bacon, "except it be from a perfect and entire 
friend, to have counsel given that is not bowed 
and crooked to some ends which he hath that 
giveth it." And hence it is an admirable 
lesson, which Masonry here teaches us, to use 
the lips and the tongue only in the service of a 
brother. 

Movable Jewels. See Jewels of a Lodge. 

Mozart, J. C. W. G. Born in 1756 at 
Salzburg, and died December 5, 1701, at Vi- 
enna. One of the greatest and most delight- 
ful of musical composers. He first saw the 
Masonic light about 1780, and was a member 
of the Lodge "Zur gekrdnten Hoffnung." 
There were many musical compositions and 
dedications to Masonry by this eminent com- 
poser. 

Muenter, Frlederlch. Born in 1761, and 
died in 1830. He was Professor of Theology 
in the University of Copenhagen, and after- 
ward Bishop of Seeland. He was the author 
of a treatise On the Symbols and Art Repre- 
sentations of the Early Christians. In 1704 he 
published his Statute Book of the Order of 
Knights Templar, "Statutenbuch des Ordens 
der Tempelher^en ,, ; a work which is one of 
the most valuable contributions that we have 
to the history of Templarism. 

Munkhouse, D.D., Rev. Richard. The 
author of A Discourse in Praise of Freemasonry , 
8vo, Lond., 1805; An Exhortation to the Prac- 
tice of those Specific Virtues which ought to pre- 
vail in the Masonic Character, with Historical 
Notes, 8vo, Lond., 1805; ana Occasional Dis- 
courses on Various Subjects, with Copious An- 
notations, 3 vols., 8vo, Lond., 1805. This last 
work contains many discourses on Masonic 
subjects. Dr. Munkhouse was an ardent ad- 
mirer and defender of Freemasonry, into which 
he was initiated in the Phoenix Lodge of Sun- 
(Jedand. On his removal to Wakefield, where 
he was rector of St. John the Baptist's Church, 
he united with the Lodge of Unanimity, under 
the Mastership of Richard Linnecar, to whose 
virtues and Masonic knowledge he has paid 
a high tribute. Dr. Munkhouse died in the 
early part of this century. 

Marat, Joachim. Born in 1771, executed 
in 1815. The great cavalry general of Napo- 
leon, and titular king of Naples. In 1803 he 
was appointed S. G. Warden in the Grand 
Orient of France. When the fifth Supreme 
Council of the World was established at 
Naples, on June 11, 1809, by the Supreme 
Council at Milan, a concordat became 
necessary, and was executed May 3, 1811. 
between the Grand Orient which was created 
June 24, 1809, and the Supreme Council of 
Naples, whereby the latter should have sole 
control over the degrees beyond the eighteenth, 
in like manner as signified in the concordat of 



MUSICAL 

France. King Joachim Murat accepted the su- 
preme command of both bodies. The change 
m his political surroundings allowed him no 
permanent rest. 

Marat. Joachim, Prince. Son of the 
King of Naples. Was appointed Grand Mas- 
ter of the Grand Orient of France, and initi- 
ated February 26, 1825. He resigned the 
office in 1861. 

Murr, Chiistoph Gottlieb tod. A dis- 
tinguished historical and archeological writer, 
who was born at Nuremberg, in 1733, ana 
died April 8, 1811. In 1760 he published an 
Essay on the History of the Greek Tragic Poets, 
in 1777-82, six volumes of Antiquities of Her' 
culanctum, and several other historical works. 
In 1803 he published an essay On the True 
Origin of the Orders of Rosicrucianism and 
Freemasonry, with an Appendix on the His- 
tory of the Order of Temptarc. In this work, 
Murr attempts to trace Freemasonry to the 
times of Oliver Cromwell, and maintains that 
it and Rosicrucianism had an identical origin, 
and the same history until the year 1633, 
when they separated. 

Muscu8 Domus. In the early rituals of 
the last century, the tradition is given, that 
certain Fellow-Crafts, while pursuing their 
search, discovered a grave covered with green 
moss and turf, when they exclaimed, Muscus 
Domus. Deo gratias, which was interpreted, 
"Thanks be to God, our Master has a mossy 
house." Whence a Mason's grave came to be 
called Muscus Domus. But both the tradi- 
tion and its application have become obsolete 
in the modern rituals. 

Music One of the seven liberal arts and 
sciences, whose beauties are inculcated in 
the Fellow-Craft's Degree. Music is recom- 
mended to the attention of Masons, because as 
the "concord of sweet sounds" elevates the 
generous sentiments of the soul, so should the 
concord of good feeling reign among the breth- 
ren, that by the union of friendship and 
brotherly love the boisterous passions may 
be lulled and harmony exist throughout the 
Craft. 

Musical Instruments, Ancient. As in 

the Fellow-Craft's Degree, music is dilated 
upon as one of the liberal arts, the sweet and 
harmonious sounds being the representative 
of that harmony which should ever exist 
among the brethren, we are apt to inquire 
what were the instruments used by the an- 
cients in their mystical service. The oldest 
ever discovered, we believe, is a small clay 
pipe not over three inches in length, found by 
Captain Willock among the presumed ruins of 
Babylon; if so, it must be 2,600 years old. 
By the use of the two finger holes, the intervals 
of the common chord, C, E, ana G, are pro- 
duced, or the harmonic triad. From the ruins 
of Nineveh we have countless representations 
of the harp, with strings varying from ten to 
twenty-six; the lyre, identical in structure 
with that of the Greeks; a harp-shaped in- 
strument held horizontally, and the six to ten 
strings struck with a plectrum, which has 
been termed the Asor, from its resemblance to 



MUSTARD 

the Hebrew instrument of that name. There 
is also the guitar-shaped instrument, and a 
double pipe with a single mouthpiece and 
finger-holes on each pipe. The Assyrians used 
musical bells, trumpets, flutes, drums, cym- 
bals, and tambourines. The Abyssinians 
call their lyre the Kissar (Greek, kithara). 
There is also the flute, called Monaulos, which 
is of great antiquity, and named by the 
Egyptians Photins, or curved flute. The 
crooked horn or trumpet, called Buccina, and 
the Cithara, held sacred m consequence of its 
shape being that of the Greek delta. 

Mustard-Seed, Order of. (Der Orden 
vom Senfkom.) This association, whose mem- 
bers also called themselves " The Fraternity of 
Moravian Brothers of the Order of Religious 
Freemasons," was one of the first innovations 
introduced into German Freemasonry. It 
was instituted in the year 1730. Its mys- 
teries were founded on that passage in the 
fourth chapter of St. Mark's Gospel in which 
Christ compares the kingdom of heaven to a 
mustard-seed. The brethren wore a ring, on 
which was inscribed Keiner von uns lebt ihm 
eelber, i. e., "No one of us lives for himself. 11 
The jewel of the Order was a cross of gold sur- 
mounted by a mustard-plant in full bloom, 
with the motto. Quod fidi ante nihil, i. e., 
"What was before nothing." It was sus- 
pended from a green ribbon. The professed 
object of the association was, through the in- 
strumentality of Freemasonry, to extend the 
kingdom of Christ over the world. It has 
long been obsolete. 
Muta* The Roman goddess of silence. 
Muttra or Mathunu The birthplace of 
the Hindu Redeemer. Krishna. The capital 
of a district in the Northwest Provinces of 
British India. 

Myrrh. A resinous gum of a tree growing 
in Arabia, valued from the most ancient times. 
(Gen. xxxvii. 25.) It was among the presents 
Jacob sent to Egypt, and those brought to the 
infant Jesus by the wise men of the East. 

Myrtle* The sacred plant of the Eleusin- 
ian mysteries, and analogous in its symbol- 
ism to the acacia of the Masons. 

Mystagogue. The one who presided at 
the Ancient Mysteries, and explained the 
sacred things to the candidate. He was also 
called the hierophant. The word, which is 
Greek, signifies literally one who makes or 
conducts an initiate. 
Mysteries, Ancient. Each of the Pagan 
says Warburton (EHv. Leg., I., ii., 4), had, 
es the public and open, a secret worship 
paid to him. to which none were admitted but 
those who nad been selected by preparatory 
ceremonies called Initiation. This secret wor- 
ship was termed the Mysteries. And this is 
supported by Strabo (lib. x., cap. 3), who says 
that it was common, both to the Greeks and 
the Barbarians, to perform their religious cere- 
monies with the observance of a festival, and 
that they are sometimes celebrated publicly, 
and sometimes in mysterious privacy. Noel 
{Did. de la Fable) thus defines them: Secret 
eeremonies which were practised in honor of 

83 



MYSTERIES 497 

certain gods, and whose secret was known to 
the initiates alone, who were admitted only 
after long and painful trials, which it was more 
than their life was worth to reveal. 

As to their origin, 'Warburton is probably 
not wrong in his statement that the first of 
which we have any account are those of Isis 
and Osiris in Egypt: for although those of 
Mithras came into Europe from Persia, they 
were, it is supposed, carried from Egypt by 
Zoroaster. 

The most important of these mysteries were 
the Osiric in Egypt, the Mithraic in Persia, 
the Cabiric in Thrace, the Adonisian in Syria, 
the Dionysiac and Eleusinian in Greece, the 
Scandinavian among the Gothic nations, and 
the Druidical among the Celts. 

In all these mysteries we find a «i*Tigii1ai» 
unity of design, clearly indicating a common 
origin, and a purity of doctrine as evidently 
proving that this common origin was not to 
be sought for in the popular theology of the 
Pagan world. The ceremonies of initiation 
were all funereal in their character. They 
celebrated the death and the resurrection of 
some cherished being, either the object of 
esteem as a hero, or of devotion as a god. 
Subordination of degrees was instituted, and 
the candidate was subjected to probations 
varying in their character and severity; the 
rites were practised in the darkness of night, 
and often amid the gloom of impenetrable 
forests or subterranean caverns; and the full 
fruition of knowledge, for which so much labor 
was endured, and so much danger incurred, 
was not attained until the aspirant, well tried 
and thoroughly purified, had reached the place 
of wisdom and of light. 

These mysteries undoubtedly owed their 
origin to the desire to establish esoteric phi- 
losophy, in which should be withheld from 
popular approach those sublime truths which 
it was supposed could only be entrusted to 
those who had been previously prepared for 
their reception. Whence these doctrines were 
originally derived it would be impossible to 
say; but I am disposed to accept Creuzer's 
hypothesis of an ancient and highly instructed 
body of priests, having their origin either in 
Egypt or in the East, from whom was derived 
religious, physical, and historical knowledge, 
under the veil of symbols. 

By this confinement of these doctrines to a 
system of secret knowledge, guarded by the 
most rigid rites, could they only expect to pre- 
serve them from the superstitions, innovations, 
and corruptions of the world as it then existed. 
"The o^inguished few," says Oliver (Hist. 
Init., p. 2), 'who retained their fidelity, un- 
oontaminated by the contagion of evil exam- 
ple, would soon be able to estimate the su- 
perior benefits of an isolated institution, 
which afforded the advantage of a select soci- 
ety, and kept at an unapproachable distance 
the profane scoffer, whose presence might pol- 
lute their pure devotions and social converse, 
by contumelious language or unholy mirth." 
And doubtless the prevention of this intrusion, 
and the preservation of these sublime truths. 




498 MYSTERIES 

was the original object of the institution of the 
ceremonies of initiation, and the adoption of 
other means by which the initiated could be 
recognised, and the uninitiated excluded. 
Such was the opinion of Warburton, who says 
that "the mysteries were at first the retreats 
of sense and virtue, till time corrupted them in 
most of the gods." 

The Abb£ Robin in a learned work on this 
subject entitled Recherche* star le$ Initiations 
Anciens el Modernea (Paris, 1870), places the 
origin of the initiations at that remote period 
when crimes first began to appear upon earth. 
The vicious, he remarks, were urged by the 
terror of guilt to seek among the virtuous for 
intercessors with the Deitv. The latter, re- 
tiring into solitude to avoid the contagion of 

Sowing corruption, devoted themselves to a 
e of contemplation and the cultivation of 
several of the useful sciences. The periodical 
return of the seasons, the revolution of the 
stars, the productions of the earth, and the 
various phenomena of nature, studied with 
attention, rendered them useful guides to men, 
both in their pursuits of industry and in their 
social duties. These recluse students in- 
vented certain signs to recall to the remem- 
brance of the people the times of their festi- 
vals and of their rural labors, and hence the 
origin of the symbols and hieroglyphics that 
were in use among the priests of all nations. 
Having now become guides and leaders of the 
people, these sages, in order to select as asso- 
ciates of their learned labors and sacred func- 
tions only such as had sufficient merit and 
capacity, appointed strict courses of trial and 
examination, and this, our author thinks, 
must have been the source of the initiations of 
antiquity. The Magi, Brahmans. Gymnoso- 
phists, Druids, and priests of Egypt, lived 
thus m sequestered habitations ana subter- 
ranean caves, and obtained great reputation 
by their discoveries in astronomy, chemistry, 
and mechanics, by their purity of morals, and 
by their knowledge of the science of legislation. 
It was in these schools, says M. Robin, that 
the first sages and legislators of antiquity were 
formed, and in them he supposes the doctrines 
taught to have been the unity of God and the 
immortality of the soul ; and it was from these 
mysteries, and their symbols and hieroglyph- 
ics, that the exuberant fancy of the Greeks 
drew much of their mythology. 

Warburton deduces from the ancient writ- 
ers—from Cicero and Porphyry, from Origen 
and Celsus, and from others — what was the 
true object of the mysteries. They taught 
the dogma of the unity of God in opposition 
to the polytheistic notions of the people, and 
in connection with this the doctrine of a future 
life, and that the initiated should be happier 
in that state than all other mortals; that while 
the souls of the profane, at their leaving the 
body, stuck fast in mire and filth and re- 
mained in darkness, the souls of the initiated 
winged their flight directly to the happy 
islands and the habitations of the gods. 
"Thrice happy they," says Sophocles, "who 
descended to the shades below after having 



MYSTERIES 

beheld these rites; for they alone have life in 
Hades, while all others suffer there every kind 
of eviL" And Isocrates declares that "those 
who have been initiated in the mysteries, en- 
tertain better hopes both as to the end of life 
and the whole of futurity." 

Others of the ancients have given us the 
same testimony as to their esoteric character. 
"All the mysteries/' says Plutarch, "refer to a 
future life and to the state of the soul after 
death." In another place, addressing his 
wife, he says, "We have been instructed, in 
the religious rites of Dionysus, that the soul 
is immortal, and that there is a future state of 
existence." Cicero tells us that, in the mys- 
teries of Ceres at Eleusis, the initiated were 
taught to live happily and to die in the hope of 
a blessed futurity. And, finally, Plato in- 
forms us that the hymns of Musseus, which 
were sung in the mysteries, celebrated the 
rewards and pleasures of the virtuous in an- 
other life, ana the punishments which awaited 
the wicked. 

These sentiments, so different from the de- 
based polytheism which prevailed among the 
uninitiated; are the most certain evidence that 
the mysteries arose from a purer source than 
that which gave birth to the religion of the 
vulgar. 

I must not pass unnoticed Faber's notion of 
their arlrite origin. Finding, as he did, a pro- 
totype for every ancient cultus in the ark of 
Noah, it is not surprising that he should apply 
his theory to the mysteries. " The initiations, 
he says {Orig. Pag. Idol., II., iv., 5). "into the 
mysteries soenically represented the mythic 
descent into Hades and the return from thence 
to the light of day, by which was meant the 
entrance into the ark and the subeeouent lib- 
eration from its dark enclosure. They all 
equally related to the allegorical disappear- 
ance, or death, or descent of the great father, 
at their commencement; and his invention, 
or revival, or return from Hades, at their con- 
clusion." 

D&Uinger (pent, and Jew, i., 126) says, 
speaking of the mysteries, "the whole was a 
drama, the prelude to which consisted in puri- 
fications, sacrifices, and injunctions with re- 
gard to the behavior to be observed. The 
adventures of certain deities, their sufferings 
and joys, their appearance on earth, and rela- 
tions to mankind, their death, or descent to 
the nether world, their return, or their rising 
again— all these, as symbolizing the life of 
nature, were represented in a connected series 
of theatrical scenes. These representations, 
tacked on to a nocturnal solemnity, brilliantly 
got up, particularly at Athens, with all the re- 
sources of art and sensual beauty, and accom- 
panied with dancing and song, were eminently 
calculated to take a powerful hold on the im- 
agination and the heart, and to excite in the 
spectators alternately conflicting sentiments 
of terror, and calm, sorrow, and fear, and 
hope. They worked upon them, now by agi- 
tating, now by soothing, and meanwhile haa a 
strong bearing upon susceptibilities and capac- 
ities of individuals, acoording as their several 




VISHNU. 



MYSTERIES 

dispositions inclined them more to reflection 
and observation, or to a resigned credulity." 

Bunsen (God in History, II., b. iv., ch. 6) 
gives the most recent and the most philo- 
sophic idea of the character of the mysteries. 
They did, he says, "indeed exhibit to the in- 
itiated coarse physical symbols of the genera- 
tive powers of Nature, and of the universal 
Nature herself, eternally, self-sustaining 
through all transformations; but the religious 
element of the mysteries consisted in the rela- 
tions of the universe to the soul ( more espe- 
cially after death. Thus, even without philo- 
sophic proof, we are justified in assuming that 
the Nature symbolism referring to the Zodiac 
formed a mere framework for the doctrines 
relating to the soul and to the ethical theory 
of the universe. So, likewise, in the Samo- 
thracian worship of the Kabiri, the contest 
waged by the orb of day was represented by 
the story of the three brothers (the seasons of 
the year), one of whom is continually slain by 
the other two, but ever and anon arises to life 
again. But here, too. the beginning and end 
of the worship were ethical. A sort of confes- 
sion was demanded of the candidates before ad- 
mission, and at the close of the service the vic- 
torious God (Dionysus) was displayed as the 
Lord of the spirit. Still less, however, did theo- 
rems of natural philosophy form the subject- 
matter of the Eleusinian mysteries, of which, 
on the contrary, psychical conceptions were 
the beginning and the end. The predominat- 
ing idea of these conceptions was that of the 
soul as a Divine, vital force, held captive here 
on earth and sorely tried: but the initiated 
were further taught to look forward to a final 
redemption and blessedness for the good and 
pious, and eternal torment after death for the 
wicked and unjust. 11 

The esoteric character of the mysteries 
was preserved by the most powerful sanctions. 
An oath of secrecy was administered in the 
most solemn form to the initiate, and to vio- 
late it was considered a sacrilegious crime, the 
prescribed punishment for which was imme- 
diate death, and we have at least one Instance 
in Livy of the infliction of the penalty. The 
ancient writers were therefore extremely re- 
luctant to approach the subject, and Lobeck 
gives, in his AglaophamuM (voL 1., app. 131, 
151; iL, 12, 87), several examples of the cau- 
tious manner in which they shrunk from di- 
vulging or discussing any explanation of a 
symbol which had been interpreted to them in 
the course of initiation. I would forbid, savs 
Horace (L. iii., Od. 2, 26), that man who 
would divulge the sacred rites of mysterious 
Ceres from being under the same roof with me, 
or from setting sail with me in the same pre- 
carious bark. 

On the subject of their relation to the rites 
of Freemasonry, to which they bear in many 
respects so remarkable a resemblance, that 
some connection seems necessarily implied, 
there are five principal theories. The first is 
that embraced and taught by Dr. Oliver, 
namely, that they are but deviations from that 
common source, both of them and of Free- 



MYSTERIES 499 



masonry, the patriarchal mode of worship es- 
tablished by God himself. With this pure 
system of truth, he supposes the science of 
Freemasonry to have been coeval and identi- 
fied. But the truths thus revealed by divinity 
came at length to be doubted or rejected 
through the imperfection of human reason, 
and though the visible symbols were retained 
in the mysteries of the Pagan world, their 
true interpretation was lost. 

There is a second theory which, leaving the 
origin of the mysteries to be sought in the 
patriarchal doctrines, where Oliver has placed 
it, finds the connection between them and 
Freemasonry commencing at the building of 
King Solomon's Temple. Over the construc- 
tion of this building, Hiram, the Architect of 
Tyre, presided. At Tyre the mysteries of 
Bacchus had been introduced by the Dio- 
nysian Artificers, and into their fraternity 
Hiram, in all probability, had, it is necessa- 
rily suggested, oeen admitted. Freemasonry, 
whose tenets had always existed in purity 
among the immediate descendants of the 
patriarchs, added now to its doctrines the 
guard of secrecy, which, as Dr. Oliver himself 
remarks, was necessary to preserve them from 
perversion or pollution. 

A third theory has been advanced by the 
Abbe* Robin, in which he connects Freema- 
sonry indirectly with the mysteries, through 
the intervention of the Crusaders. In the 
work already cited, he attempts to deduce, 
from the ancient initiations, the orders of 
chivalry, whose branches, he says, produced 
the Institution of Freemasonry. 

A fourth theory, and this has been recently 
advanced by the Kev. Mr. King in his treatise 
On the Gnostics, is that as some of them, espe- 
cially those of Mithras, were extended beyond 
the advent of Christianity, and even to the 
very commencement of the Middle A$es { they 
were seized upon by the secret societies of 
that period as a model for their organisation, 
and that through these latter they are to be 
traced to Freemasonry. 

But perhaps, after all, the truest theory is 
that which would discard all successive links 
in a supposed chain of descent from the mys- 
teries to Freemasonry, and would attribute 
their close resemblance to a natural coinci- 
dence of human thought. The legend of the 
Third Degree, and the legends of the Eleusin- 
ian. the Cabiric, the Dionysian, the Adonic, 
and all the other mysteries, are identical in 
their object to teach the reality of a future life; 
and this lesson is taught in all by the use of the 
same symbolism, ana, substantially, the same 
scenic representation. And this is not be- 
cause the Masonic rites are a lineal succession 
from the Ancient Mysteries, but because there 
has been at all times a proneness of the human 
heart to nourish this belief in a future life, and 
the proneness of the human mind to clothe 
this belief in a symbolic dress. And if there is 
any other more direct connection between them 
it must be sought for in the Roman Colleges 
of Artificers, who did, most probably, exercise 
some influence over the rising Freemasons of 



500 MYSTERIES 



the early ages, and who, as the contemporaries 
of the mysteries, were, we may well suppose, 
imbued with something of then* organisation. 

I conclude with a notice of their ultimate 
fate. They continued to flourish until long 
after the Christian era; but they at length 
degenerated. In the fourth century, Chris- 
tianity had begun to triumph. The Pagans, 
desirous of making converts, threw open the 
hitherto inaccessible portals of then* mys- 
terious rites. The strict scrutiny of the can- 
didate's past life, and the demand for proofs 
of irreproachable' conduct, were no longer 
deemed indispensable. The vile and the 
vicious were indiscriniinately, and even with 
avidity, admitted to participate in privileges 
which were once granted only to the noble and 
the virtuous. Tne sun of Paganism was set- 
ting, and its rites had become contemptible 
and corrupt. Their character was entirely 
chanced, and the initiations were indiscrim- 
inately sold by peddling priests, who wan- 
dered through the country, to every applicant 
who was willing to pay a trifling fee for that 
which had once been refused to the entreaties 
of a monarch. At length these abominations 
attracted the attention of the emperors, and 
Constantine and Gratian forbade their cele- 
bration by night t excepting, however, from 
these edicts, tne initiations at Eleusis. But 
finally Theodosius, by a general edict of pro- 
scription, ordered the whole of the Pagan mys- 
teries to be abolished, in the four hundred and 
thirty-eighth year of the Christian era, and 
eighteen hundred years after their first estab- 
lishment in Greece. 

Gavel, however, says that they did not en- 
tirely cease until the era of the restoration of 
learning, and that during a part of the Middle 
Ages the mysteries of Diana, under the name 
of the "Courses of Diana/' and those of Pan. 
under that of the "Sabbats," were practised 
in country places. But these were really only 
certain superstitious rites connected with the 
belief in witchcraft. The mysteries of Mith- 
ras, which, continually attacked by the Fath- 
ers of the Church, lived until the beginning of 
the fifth century, were, I think, the last of the 
old mysteries which had once exercised so 
much influence over the Pagan world and the 
Pagan religions. 

Mysteries, Mexican. Instituted among 
the Mexicans (Aztecs), and were of a sacred 
nature. The adherents adopted the worship 
of some special deity, Quetzalcoatl (the Mex- 
ican Savior), under secret rites, and rendered 
themselves seclusive. A similar order was 
that called Tlamacazajotl, also the order 
known as Telpochtliztli. It is understood 
that under the sway of the Aztecs, the Mex- 
ican Mysteries had some Masonic affinities. 
(See Aztec Writings.) 

Mystery. From the Greek fwevnpiovj a 
secret, something to be concealed. The gilds 
or companies of the Middle Ages, out of which 
we trace the Masonic organization, were called 
mysteries, because they had trade-secrets, 
the preservation of which was a primary 
ordination of these fraternities. "Mys- 



MYSTICISM 



tery" and "Craft" came thus to be synony- 
mous words. In this secondary sense we 
speak of the " Mystery of the Stone-Masons 19 
as equivalent to the 1 'Craft of the Stone- 
Masons." But the Mystery of Freemasonry 
refers rather to the primary meaning of the 
word as immediately derived from the Greek. 

Mystes. (From the Greek pfo, to shut 
the eyes.) One who had been initiated into 
the Lesser Mysteries of Paganism. He was 
now blind: but when he was initiated into the 
Greater Mysteries, he was called an Epopt, 
or one who saw. 

The Mystes was permitted to proceed no 
farther than the vestibule or porch of the 
temple. To the Epopts only was accorded 
the privilege of admission to the adytum or 
sanctuary. A female initiate was called a 
Mystis. 

Mystical. A word applied to any lan- 
guage, symbol, or ritual which is understood 
only by the initiated. The word was first 
used by the priests to describe their mysteri- 
ous rites, and then borrowed by the philoso- 
phers to be applied to the inner, esoteric doc- 
trines of their schools. In this sense we speak 
of the mystical doctrines of Speculative Ma- 
sonry. Suidas derives the word from the 
Greek pirn, to close, and especially to dose the 
lips. Hence the mystical is that about which 
the mouth should be closed. 

Mysticism. A word applied in religious 
phraseology to any views or tendencies which 
aspire to more direct communication between 
God and man by the inward perception of the 
mind than can be obtained through revela- 
tion. " Mysticism/ 1 says Vaughan {Hours with 
the Mystics, i., 19). " presents itself in all its 
phases as more or less the religion of internal 
as opposed to external revelation — of heated 
feeling, sickly sentiment, or lawless imagina- 
tion, as opposed to that reasonable belief in 
which the intellect and the heart, the inward 
witness and the outward, are alike engaged. 1 ' 
The Pantheism of some of the ancient philoso- 
phers and of the modern Spinozaists, the Spec- 
ulations of the Neoplatonists, the Anabaptism 
of Munster. the system of Jacob Behmen, the 
Quietism of Madame Guyon, the doctrines of 
the Bavarian IUuminati, and the reveries of 
Swedenborg, all partake more or less of the 
spirit of mysticism. The Germans have two 
words, mystik and mysticismus — the former of 
which they use in a favorable, the latter in an 
unfavorable sense. Mysticism is with them 
only another word for Pantheism, between 
which and Atheism there is but little differ- 
ence. Hence a belief in mysticism is with the 
German Freemasons a disqualification for in- 
itiation into the Masonic rites. Thus the sec- 
ond article of the Statutes of the Grand Lodge 
of Hanover prescribes that "ein Freimaurer 
muss vom Mysticismus und Atheismus gleich 
weit entfernt stehen," i. e., "a Freemason 
must be equally distant from Mysticism and 
Atheism. 91 Gadicke (Freimawrer-Lexicon) thus 
expresses the German sentiment: "Etwas 
mystisch sollte wohl jeder Mensch seyn. aber 
man hute sich vor grobem Mysticismus," i. e* 



MYSTIC 



"Every man ought to be somewhat mystical, 
but should guard against coarse mysticism." 

Mystic Crown, Knights and Compan- 
ions of the* A society formed by the ad- 
herents of M earner, in August, 1787, of a benef- 
icent, non-political and non-sectarian nature, 
to which Master Masons only were admitted. 

Mystic Tie. That sacred and inviolable 
bond which unites men of the most discord- 
ant opinions into one band of brothers, which 
gives but one language to men of all nations 
and one altar to men of all religions, is prop- 
erly, from the mysterious influence it exerts, 
denominated the mystic tie; and Freemasons, 
because they alone are under its influence, or 
enjoy its benefits, are called "Brethren of the 
mystic tie." 

Myth. The word myth, from the Greek 
pffot, a story, in its original acceptation, sig- 
nified simply a statement or narrative of an 
event, without any necessary implication of 
truth or falsehood; but, as the word is now 
used, it conveyB the idea of a personal narra- 
tive of remote date, which, although not neces- 
sarily untrue, is certified only by the internal 
evidence of the tradition itself. This defini- 
tion, which is substantially derived from Mr. 
Grote (Hist, of Greece, vol. i., ch. xvi., p. 295), 
may be applied without modification to the 
myths of Freemasonrv, although intended by 
the author only for the myths of the ancient 
Greek religion. 

The myth, then, is a narrative of remote 
date, not necessarily true or false, but whose 
truth can only be certified by internal evidence. 
The word was first applied to those fables of 
the Pagan gods which have descended from 
the remotest antiquity, and in all of which 
there prevails a symbolic idea, not always, 
however, capable of a positive interpretation. 
As applied to Freemasonry, the words myth 
and legend are synonymous. 

From this definition it will appear that the 
myth is really only the interpretation of an 
idea. But how we are to read these myths 
will best appear from these noble words of 
Max MOller (Science of Lang., 2d Ser., p. 578) : 
"Everything is true, natural, significant, if we 
enter with a reverent spirit into the meaning 
of ancient art and ancient language. Every- 
thing becomes false, miraculous, and unmean- 
ing, if we interpret the deep and mighty words 
of the seers of old in the shallow ana feeble 
sense of modern chroniclers." 

A fertile source of instruction in Masonry is 
to be found in its traditions and mythical 
legends; not only those which are incorpo- 
rated into its ritual and are exemplified in its 
ceremonies, but those also which, although 
forming no part of the Lodge lectures, have 
been orally transmitted as portions of its his- 
tory, and which, only within a comparatively 
recent period, have been committed to writ- 
ing. But for the proper appreciation of these 
traditions some preparatory knowledge of 
the general character of Masonic myths is 
necessary. If all the details of these tradi- 



MYTH 501 



tions be considered as asserted historical facts, 
seeking to convey nothing more nor less than 
historical information, then the improbabili- 
ties and anachronisms, and other violations 
of historical truth which distinguish many of 
them, must cause them to be rejected by the 
scholar as absurd impostures. But there is 
another and a more advantageous view in 
which these traditions are to Be considered. 
Freemasonry is a symbolic institution — every- 
thing in and about it is symbolic — and nothing 
more eminently so than its traditions. Al- 
though some of them — as, for instance, the 
legend of the Third Degree — have in all 
probability a deep substratum of truth lying 
beneath, over this there is superposed a beauti- 
ful structure of symbolism. History has, per- 
haps, first suggested the tradition; but then 
the legend, like the myths of the ancient poets, 
becomes a symbol; which is to enunciate some 
sublime philosophical or religious truth. Read 
in this way, and in this way only, the myths 
or legends and traditions of Freemasonry will 
become interesting and instructive. (See 
Legend.) 

Myth, Historical. An historical myth is a 
myth that has a known and recognised foun- 
dation in historical truth, but with the admix- 
ture of a preponderating amount of fiction in 
the introduction of personages and circum- 
stances. Between the historical myth and 
the mythical history, the distinction cannot 
always be preserved, because we are not al- 
ways able to determine whether there is a pre- 
ponderance of truth or of fiction in the legend 
or narrative under examination. 

Mythical History. A myth or legend, in 
which the historical and truthful greatly pre- 
ponderate over the inventions of fiction, may 
be called a mythical history. Certain por- 
tions of the legend of the Third Degree have 
such a foundation in fact that they consti- 
tute a mythical history, while other portions, 
added evidently for the purposes of symbolism, 
are simply an historical myth. 

Mythology* Literally, the science of 
myths; and this is a very appropriate defini- 
tion, for mythology is the science which treats 
of tne religion of the ancient Pagans, which 
was almost altogether founded on myths or 
popular traditions and legendary tales; and 
hence Eeightly (Mythol. of Ancient Greece and 
Italy, p. 2) says that "mythology may be re- 
garded as the repository of the early religion 
of the people." Its interest to a Masonic 
student arises from the constant antagonism 
that existed between its doctrines and those 
of the Primitive Freemasonry of antiquity and 
the light that the mythological mysteries 
throw upon the ancient organization of Spec- . 
ulative Masonry. 

Myth. Philosophical. This is a myth or 
legend that is almost wholly unhistorical, and 
which has been invented only for the purpose 
of enunciating and illustrating a particular 
thought or dogma. The legend of Euclid is 
clearly a philosophical myth. 



502 



N 



NAME 



N 



N. (Heb. 1) The fourteenth letter in the 
English and Hebrew alphabets; its numerical 
value is 50, and its definition,^/*. As a final. 
Nun is written ), and then is of the value of 
700. The Hebrew Divine appellation is mu, 
or Formidabilis. 

Naamah. The daughter of Lamech. To 
her the "Legend of the Craft" attributes the 
invention of the art of weaving, and she is 
united with her three brothers, by the same 
legend, in the task of inscribing the several 
sciences on two pillars, that the knowledge of 
them might be preserved after the flood. 

Nabaim. See Schools of the Prophets. 

Naharda, Brotherhood of. After the 
destruction of the Solomonial Temple, the 
captives formed an association while slaves at 
Naharda, on the Euphrates, and are there said 
to have preserved the secret mysteries. 

Naked. In Scriptural symbology, naked- 
ness denoted sin, and clothing, protection. 
But the symbolism of Masonry on this sub- 
ject is different. There, to be <7 neither naked 
nor clothed" is to make no claim through 
worldly wealth or honors to preferment m 
Masonry, where nothing but internal merit, 
which is unaffected by the outward appear- 
ance of the body, is received as a recom- 
mendation for admission. 

Name of God. A reverential allusion to 
the name of God, in some especial and peculiar 
form, is to be found in the doctrines and cere- 
monies of almost all nations. This unutter- 
able name was respected by the Jews under the 
sacred form of the word Jehovah. Among the 
Druids, the three letters I. O. W. constituted 
the name of Deity. They were never pro- 
nounced, says Giraldus Cambrensis t but an- 
other and less sacred name was substituted for 
them. Each letter was a name in itself. The 
first is the Word, at the utterance of which in 
the beginning the world burst into existence; 
the second is the Word, whose sound still con- 
tinues, and by which all things remain in exist- 
ence; the third is the Word, by the utterance 
of which all things will be consummated in 
happiness, forever approaching to the imme- 
diate presence of the Deity. The analogy be- 
tween this and the past t present, and future 
significations contained m the Jewish Tetra- 
grammaton will be evident. 

Among the Mohammedans there is a science 
called ISM ALLAH, or the science of the 
name of God. "They pretend," says Nie- 
buhr. "that God is the lock of this science, 
and Mohammed the key; that, consequently, 
none but Mohammedans can attain it; that 
it discovers what passes in different countries; 
that it familiarises the possessors with the 
genii, who are at the command of the initiated, 
and who instruct them; that it places the 
winds and the seasons at their disposal, and 
heals the bites of serpents, the lame, the 
maimed, and the blind." 

In the chapter of the Koran entitled Araaf, 
it is written: "God has many excellent names. 



Invoke him by these names, and separate 
yourselves from them who give him false 
names." The Mohammedans believe that 
God has ninety-nine names, which, with that 
of Allah, make one hundred; and, therefore, 
their chaplets or rosaries are composed of one 
hundred Deads, at each of which they invoke 
one of these names; and there is a tradition, 
that whoever frequently makes this invoca- 
tion will find the gates of Paradise open to 
him. With them ALLAH is the Ism al adhem. 
the Great Name, and they bestow upon it all 
the miraculous virtues which the Jews give to 
the Tetragrammaton. This, they say, is the 
name that was engraven on the stone which 
Japheth gave to his children to bring down 
ram from heaven; and it was by virtue of this 
name that Noah made the ark float on the 
waters, and governed it at will, without the 
aid of oars or rudder. 

Among the Hindus there was the same ven- 
eration of the name of God, as is evinced in 
their treatment of the mystical name AUM. 
The "Institutes of Menu" continually refer 
to the peculiar efficacy of this word, of which it 
is said, "All rites ordained in the Veda, obla- 
tions to fire, and solemn sacrifices pass away; 
but that which passes not away is the syllable 
AUM, thence called aishara t since it is a sym- 
bol of God, the Lord of created beings." 

There was in every ancient nation a sacred 
name given to the highest god of its religious 
faith, besides the epithets of the other and 
subordinate deities. The old Aryans, the 
founders of our race, called their chief god 
DYAUS, and in the Vedas we have the invo- 
cation to Dyaus Pilar, which is the same as 
the Greek Ztv mtnp, and the Latin, Jupiter, 
all meaning the Heaven-Father, and at once 
reminding us of the Christian invocation to 
"Our Father which art in heaven." 

There is one incident in the Hindu mythol- 
ogy which shows how much the old Indian 
heart yearned after this expression of the 
nature of Deity by a name. There was a name- 
less god. to whom, as the "source of golden 
light," there was a worship. This is expressed 
in one of the Veda hymns, where the invoca- 
tion in every stanza closes with the exclama- 
tion, 11 Who is the sod to whom we shall offer 
our sacrifice?" Now, says Bunsen (God in 
History, i., 302) 2 "the Brahmanic expositors 
must needs find m every hymn the name of a 
god who is invoked in it, and so, in this case, 
they have actually invented a grammatical 
divinity, the god Who.' 1 What more preg- 
nant testimony could we have of the tend- 
ency of man to seek a knowledge of the Di- 
vine nature in the expression of a name? 

The Assyrians worshiped Assur, or Asarac, 
as their chief god. On an obelisk, taken from 
the palace of Nimrod, we find the inscription, 
"to Asarac, the Great Lord, the King of all 
the great gods." 

Of the veneration of the Egyptians for the 
name of their supreme god, wenave a striking 



NAME 



evidence in the writing* of Herodotus, the 
Father of History, as he has been called, who 
during a visit to Egypt was initiated into the 
Osurian mysteries. Speaking of these initia- 
tions, he says (B. ii., c. 171), "the Egyptians 
represent by night hie eufferinge, whose name 
I refrain from mentioning ." It was no more 
lawful among the Egyptians than it was 
among the Jews, to gnre utterance aloud to 
that Holy Name. 

At Bybloe the Phoenicians worshiped Eliun, 
the Most High God. From him was de- 
scended El, whom Philo identifies with Saturn, 
and to whom he traces the Hebrew Elohim. 
Of this EL, Max M Oiler says that there was 
undeniably a primitive religion of the whole 
Semitic race, and that the Strong One in 
Heaven was invoked under this name by the 
ancestors of the Semitic races, before there 
were Babylonians in Babylonia, Phoenicians 
in Sidon and Tyre, or Jews in Mesopotamia 
and Jerusalem. If so, then the Mosaic adop- 
tion of Jehovah, with its more precise teach- 
ing of the Divine essence, was a step in the 
progress to the knowledge of the Divine 
Truth. 

In China there is an infinite variety of 
names of elemental powers, and even of an- 
cestral spirits, who are worshiped as subordi- 
nate deities: but the ineffable name is TIEN, 
compounded of the two signs for great and one, 
and which the Imperial Dictionary tells us 
signifies "The Great One— He that dwells on 
high, and regulates all below." 

Drummond (Oriaine*) says that ABAUR 
was the name of the Supreme Deity among 
the ancient Chaldeans. It is evidently the 
Hebrew TO 3K, and signifies "The Father of 
Light." 

The Scandinavians had twelve subordinate 
gods, but their chief or supreme deity was 
Al-Fatkr, or the AU Father. 

Even among the red men of America we 
find the idea of an invisible deity, whose name 
was to be venerated. Garcilasso de la Vega 
tells us that while the Peruvians paid public 
worship to the sun, it was but as a symbol of 
the Supreme Being, whom they called Pachr 
acamac. a word meaning "the soul of the 
world," and which was so sacred that it was 
spoken only with extreme dread. 

The Jews had, besides the Tetragramma- 
ton or four-lettered name, two others: one 
consisting of twelve and the other of forty- 
two letters. But Maimonides. in his More 
Nevochim (p. i., clxii.), remarks that it is 
impossible to suppose that either of these 
constituted a single name, but that each 
must have been composed of several words, 
which must, however, have been significant 
in making man approximate to a knowledge 
of the true essence of God. The Kabbahs- 
tical book called the Sohar confirms this 
when it tells us that there are ten names of 
God mentioned in the Bible, and that when 
these ten names are combined into one word, 
the number of the letters amounts to forty- 
two. But the Talmudists, although they did 
not throw around the forty-two-lettered name 



NAME 503 

the sanctity of the Tetragrammaton. pre- 
scribed that it should be communicatea only 
to men of middle ace and of virtuous habits, 
and that its knowledge would confirm them as 
heirs of the future as well as the present life. 
The twelve-lettered name, although once 
common, became afterward occult; and 
when, on the death of Simon I., the priests 
ceased to use the Tetragrammaton, they 
were accustomed to bless the people with 
the name of twelve letters. Maimonides very 
wisely rejects the idea, that any power was 
derived from these letters or their pronunci- 
ation, and claims that the only virtue of the 
names consisted in the holy ideas expressed 
by the words of which they were composed. 

The following are the ten Kabbalistic 
names of God. corresponding to the ten 
Sephiroth: 1. Eheyeh: 2. Jah; 3. Jehovah; 
4. El; 5. EJoah; 6. Elohim: 7. Jehovah 6a- 
baoth; 8. Elohim Sabaoth; 0. Elhi; 10. 
Adonai. 

Lansi extends his list of Divine names to 
twenty-six, which, with their signification, 
are as follows: 

I. At. The Aleph and Tau, that is, Alpha 
and Omega. A name figurative of the Tetra- 
grammaton. 

2. Ihoh. The eternal, absolute principle of 
creation, and 

3. Hoh. Destruction, the male and fe- 
male principle, the author and regulator of 
time and motion. 

4. Jah. The Lord and Remunerator. 

5. Oh. The severe and punisher. 

6. Jao. The author of life . 

7. Azatel. The author of death. 

8. Jao-Sabaoth. God of the coordinations 
of loves and hatreds. Lord of the solstices 
and the equinoxes. 

0. Bhie. The Being; the Ens. 
10. El The first cause. The principle 
or beginning of all things. 

II. Elo-ht. The good principle. 

12. Elo-ho. The evil principle. 

13. Bl-raccum. The succoring principle. 

14. Bl-cannum. The abhorring principle. 

15. Ell. The most luminous. 

16. 77. The omnipotent. 

17. BUohim. The omnipotent and benefi- 
cent. 

18. Elohim. The most beneficent. 

19. Bio. The Sovereign, the Excelsus. 

20. Adon. The Lord, the Dominator. 

21. Eloi. The illuminator, the most ef- 
fulgent. 

22. Adonai. The most firm, the strongest. 

23. Elion. The most high. 

24. Shaddai. The most victorious. 

25. Yeshurun. The most generous. 

26. Noil. The most sublime. 

Like the Mohammedan I em Allah, Free* 
masonry presents us as its most important 
feature with this science of the names of 
God. But here it elevates itself above Tal- 
mudical and Rabbinical reveries, and be- 
comes a symbol of Divine Truth. Hie 
names of God were undoubtedly intended 
originally to be a means of communicating 



504 NAMES 

the knowledge of God himself. The name 
was, from its construction and its literal 
powers, used to give some idea, however 
scanty, in early times, of the true nature 
and essence of the Deity. The ineffable 
name was the symbol of the unutterable 
sublimity and perfection of truth which 
emanate from the Supreme God, while the 
subordinate names were symbols of the 
subordinate manifestations of truth. Free- 
masonry has availed itself of this system, 
and, in its reverence for the Divine Name, 
indicates its desire to attain to that truth 
as the ultimate object of all its labor. The 
significant words of the Masonic system, 
which describe the names of God wherever 
they are found, are not intended merely as 
words of recognition, but as indices, point- 
ing — like the symbolic ladder of Jacob of 
the First Degree, or the winding stairs of 
the Second, or the three gates of the Third 
— the way of progress from darkness to 
light, from ignorance to knowledge, from 
the lowest to the highest conceptions of Di- 
vine Truth. And this is, after all, the real 
object of all Masonic science. 

Names of Lodges. The precedency of 
Lodges does not depend on their names, 
but on their numbers. The rule declaring 
that "the precedency of Lodges is grounded 
on the seniority of their Constitution " was 
adopted on the 27th of December, 1727, 
(Constitutions, 1738, p. 154.) The number 
of the Lodge, therefore, by which its prece- 
dency is established, is always to be given by 
the Grand Lodge. 

In England, Lodges do not appear to have 
received distinctive names before the latter 
part of the last century. Up to that period 
the Lodges were distinguished simply by 
their numbers. Thus, in the first edition 
of the Book of Constitutions, published in 
1723, we find a list of twenty Lodges, reg- 
istered by their numbers, from "No. 1" to 
"No. 20," inclusive. Subsequently, they 
were further designated by the name of 
the tavern at which they held their meetings. 
Thus, in the second edition of the same work, 
published in 1738, we meet with a list of one 
Hundred and six Lodges, designated some- 
times, singularly enough, as Lodge No. 6, at 
the Rummer Tavern, in Queen Street; No. 84, 
at the Black Dog An Castle Street: or No. 98, 
at the Bacchus Tavern, in Little bush Lane. 
With such names and localities, we are not to 
wonder that the "three small glasses of 
punch," of which Dr. Oliver so feelingly 
speaks in his Book of the Lodge, were duly 
appreciated; nor, as he admits, that "there 
were some brethren who displayed an anxiety 
to have the allowance increased." 

In 1766 we read of four Lodges that were 
erased from the Register, under the similar 
designations of the Globe, Fleet Street; 
the Red Cross Inn, Southwark; No. 85, at 
the George. Ironmongers 1 Lane; and the 
Mercers 1 Arms K Mercers' Street. To only 
one of these, it will be perceived, was a 
number annexed. The name and locality 



NAMES 

of the tavern was presumed to be a sufficient 
distinction. It was not until about the 
close of the eighteenth century, as has 
been already observed, that we find distinc- 
tive names beginning to be given to the 
Lodges: for in 1793 we hear of the Shah- 
speare Lodge, at Stratford-on-Avon; the Royal 
Brunswick, at Sheffield; and the Lodge of 
Apollo, at Alcester. From that time it 
became a usage among our English brethren, 
from which they have never since departed. 

But a better taste began to prevail at a 
much earlier period in Scotland, as well as 
in the continental and colonial Lodges. In 
Scotland, especially, distinctive names ap- 
pear to have been used from a very early 
period, for in the very old charter granting 
the office of Hereditary Grand Masters to 
the Barons of Rosslyn, of which the date can- 
not be more recent than 1600. we find among 
the signatures the names of the officers of 
the Lodge of Dunfermline and the Lodge of 
St. Andrew's. Among the names in the list 
of the Scotch Lodges, in 1736 are those of 
St. Mary's Chapel, Kilwinning, Aberdeen, etc. 
These names were undoubtedly borrowed 
from localities; but in 1763, while the English 
Lodges were still content with their numerical 
arrangement only, we find in Edinburgh such 
designations as St. Luke's, St. Giles s, and 
St. David's Lodges. 

The Lodges on the Continent, it is true, 
at first adopted the English method of 
borrowing a tavern sign for their appella- 
tion; whence we find the Lodge at the Golden 
Lion, in Holland, in 1734, and before that 
the Lodge at Hurt's Tavern, in Paris ; in 1725. 
But they soon abandoned this inefficient 
and inelegant mode of nomenclature; and 
accordingly, in 1739, a Lodge was organized 
in Switzerland under the appropriate name of 
Stranger's Perfect Union. Tasteful names, 
more or less significant, began thenceforth 
to be adopted by the continental Lodges. 
Among them we may meet with the Lodge 
of (he Three Globes, at Berlin, in 1740; the 
Minerva Lodge, at Leipsic, in 1741 ; Absalom 
Lodge, at Hamburg, in 1742; St. George's 
Lodge, at the same place, in 1743; the Lodge 
of (he Crowned Column, at Brunswick, in 
1745; and an abundance of others, all with 
distinctive names, selected sometimes with 
much and sometimes with but little taste. 
But the worst of them was undoubtedly 
better than the Lodge at the Goose and Grid- 
iron, which met in London in 1717. 

In America, from the very introduction 
of Masonry into the continent, significant 
names were selected for the Lodges; and 
hence we have, in 1734, St. John's Lodge, at 
Boston; a Solomon's Lodge, in 1735, at both 
Charleston and Savannah; and a Union Kil- 
winning, in 1754, at the former place. 

This brief historical digression will serve 
as an examination of the rules which should 
govern all founders in the choice of Lodge 
names. The first and most important rule 
is that the name of a Lodge should be tech- 
nically significant; that is, it must allude 



NAMES 



to some Masonic fact or characteristic; in 
other words, there must be something 
Masonic about it. Under this rule, all names 
derived from obscure or unmasonic localities 
should be rejected as unmeaning and in- 
appropriate. Dr. Oliver, it is true, thinks 
otherwise, and says that "the name of a 
hundred, or wahpentake, in which the Lodge 
is situated, or of a navigable river, which 
confers wealth and dignity on the town, 
are proper titles for a Lodge." But a 
name should alwavs convey an idea, and 
there can be conceived no idea worth treas- 
uring in a Mason's mind to be deduced 
from bestowing such names as New York, 
Philadelphia, or Baltimore, on a Lodge. 
The selection of such a name shows but 
little originality in the chooser; and, be- 
sides, if there be two Lodges in a town, 
each is equally entitled to the appellation; 
and if there be but one, the appropriation 
of it would seem to indicate an intention 
to have no competition in the future. 

Yet, barren of Masonic meaning as are 
such geographical names, the adoption of 
them is one of the most common faults in 
American Masonic nomenclature. The ex- 
amination of a very few Registers, taken at 
random, will readily evince this fact. Thus, 
eighty-eight, out of one hundred and sixty 
Lodges in Wisconsin, are named after towns 
or counties; of four hundred and thirty- 
seven Lodges in Indiana, two hundred and 
fifty-one have names derived from the 
same source: geographical names are found 
in one hundred and eighty-one out of four 
hundred and three Lodges in Ohio, and in 
twenty out of thirty-eight in Oregon. But, 
to compensate for this, we have seventy-one 
Lodges in New Hampshire, and only two 
local geographical appellations in the list. 

There are, however, some geographical 
names which are admissible, and, indeed, 
highly appropriate. These are the names 
of places celebrated in Masonic history. 
Such titles for Lodges as Jerusalem, Tyre, 
Lebanon, and Joppa are unexceptionable. 
Patmos, which is the name of a Lodge in 
Maryland, seems, as the Ions residence of 
one of the patrons of the Order, to be un- 
objectionable. So, too. Bethel, because it 
signifies "the house of God"; Mount Mo- 
riah, the site of the ancient Temple; Cal- 
vary, the small hill on which the sprig of 
acacia was found; Mount Ararat, where the 
ark of our father Noah rested; Ophir, whence 
Solomon brought the gold and precious 
stones with which he adorned the Temple; 
Tadmor, because it was a city built by King 
Solomon; and Salem and Jebus, because they 
are synonyms of Jerusalem, and because the 
latter is especially concerned with Oman 
the Jebusite, on whose " threshing-floor " 
the Temple was subsequently built — are all 
excellent and appropriate names for Lodges. 
But all Scriptural names are not equally 
admissible. Cabul, for instance, must be 
rejected, because it was the subject of con- 
tention between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre; 



NAMES 505 

and Babylon, because it was the place where 
"language was confounded ana Masonry 
lost/' and the scene of the subsequent cap- 
tivity of our ancient brethren: Jericho, be- 
cause it was under a curse; and Misgab and 
Tophet, because they were places of idol 
worship. In short, it may be adopted as a 
rule, that no name should be adopted whose 
antecedents are in opposition to the prin- 
ciples of Masonry. 

The ancient patrons and worthies of Free- 
masonry furnish a very fertile source of 
Masonic nomenclature, and have been very 
liberally used in the selection of names of 
Lodges. Among the most important may 
be mentioned St. John, Solomon, Hiram, 
King David, Adoniram, Enoch, Archimedes, 
and Pythaooras. The Widow'* Son Lodqe, 
of which there are several instances in the 
United States, is an affecting and significant 
title, which can hardly be too often used. 

Recourse is also to be had to the names 
of modern distinguished men who have 
honored the Institution by their adherence 
to it, or who, by their learning in Masonry, 
and by their services to the Order, have 
merited some marks of approbation. And 
hence we meet, in England, as the names 
of Lodges, with Sussex, Moira, Frederick, 
Zetland, and Robert Burns; and in this 
country with Washington, Lafayette, Clinton, 
Franklin, and Clay. Care must, however, be 
taken that no name be selected except of 
one who was both a Mason and had distin- 
guished himself, either by services to his 
country, to the world, or to the Order. 
Oliver says that "the most appropriate titles 
are those which are assumed from the name 
of some ancient benefactor or meritorious 
individual who was a native of the place 
where the Lodge is held; as, in a city, the 
builder of the cathedral church." In this 
country we are, it is true, precluded from a 
selection from such a source; but there are 
to be found some of those old benefactors 
of Freemasonry, who, like Shakespeare and 
Milton, or Homer and Virgil, have ceased 
to belong to any particular country, and 
have now become tne common property of 
the world-wide Craft. There are, tor instance, 
Carausius, the first royal patron of Masonry 
in England; and St. Alban, the first Grand 
Master; and Athelstan and Prince Edwin, 
both active encouragers of the art in the same 
kingdom. There are Wykeham, Gundulph. 
Giffard, Langham, Yevele (called, in the old 
records, the King's Freemason), and Chicheley, 
Jermyn.&nd Wren, all illustrious Grand Mas- 
ters of England, each of whom would be well 
entitled to the honor of giving name to a 
Lodge, and any one of whom would be better, 
more euphonious, and more spirit-stirring 
than the unmeaning, and oftentimes crabbed, 
name of some obscure village or post-office, 
from which too many of our Locfges derive 
their titles. 

And, then, again, among the great bene- 
factors to Masonic literature and laborers 
in Masonic science there are such names aa 



506 NAMES 



Anderson, Dunckerley, Preston, HtUchinaon, 
Town, Webb, and a host of others, who, 
though dead, still live by their writings in our 
memories. 

The virtues and tenets— the inculcation 
and practise of which constitute an impor- 
tant part of the Masonic system — form very 
excellent and appropriate names for Lodges, 
and hare always been popular among correct 
Masonic nomenclature. Thus we every- 
where find such names as Charity, Concord, 
Equality, Faith, Fellowship, Harmony, Hope, 
Humility, Mystic Tie, Relief, Truth, Union, 
and Virtue. Frequently, by a transposition 
of the word "Lodge" and the distinctive 
appellation, with the interposition of the 
preposition "of/' a more sonorous and 
emphatic name is given by our English and 
European brethren, although the custom is 
but rarely followed in this country. Thus 
we have by this method the Lodge of Regu- 
larity, the Lodoe of Fidelity, the Lodge of 
Industry, and the Lodge of Prudent Brethren, 
in England; and in France, the Lodge of 
Benevolent Friends, the Lodge of Perfect Union, 
the Lodae of the Friends of Peace, and the cele- 
brated Lodge of the Nine Sisters. 

As the names of illustrious men will some- 
times stimulate the members of the Lodges 
which bear them to an emulation of their 
characters, so the names of the Masonic 
virtues may serve to incite the brethren to 
their practise, lest the inconsistency of their 
names and tneir conduct should excite the 
ridicule of the world. 

Another fertile and appropriate source of 
names for Lodges is to be found in the sym- 
bols and implements of the Order. Hence, 
we frequently meet with such titles as Level, 
Trowel, Rising Star, Rising Sun, Olive Branch, 
Evergreen, Doric, Corinthian, Delta, and Cor- 
ner-Stone Lodges. Acacia is one of the most 
common, and at the same time one of the most 
beautiful, of these symbolic names; but, un- 
fortunately, through gross ignorance, it is 
often corrupted into Cassia — an insignificant 
plant, which has no Masonic or symbolic 
meaning. 

An important rule in the nomenclature of 
Lodges, and one which must at once recom- 
mend itself to every person of taste, is that 
the name should be euphonious. This prin- 
ciple of euphony has been too little attended 
to in the selection of even geographical names 
in this country, where names with imprac- 
ticable sounds, or with ludicrous associations, 
are often affixed to our towns and rivers. 
Speaking of a certain island, with the un- 
pronounceable name of "Srh," Lieber says, 

If Homer himself were born on such an 
island, it comld not become immortal, for the 
best-disposed scholar would be unable to 
remember the name": and he thinks that it 
was no trifling obstacle to the fame of many 
Polish heroes in the revolution of that country, 
that they had names which left upon the 
mind of foreigners no effect but that of utter 
confusion. An error like this must always 
be avoided in bestowing a name upon a Lodge. 



NAMTJR 



The word selected should be soft, vocal— 
not too long nor too short — and, above all, 
be accompanied in its sound or meaning by 
no low ; indecorous, or ludicrous association. 
For this reason sucn names of Lodges should 
be rejected as Sheboygan and Oconomowoc 
from the registry of Wisconsin, because of 
the uncouthness of the sound; and Rough and 
Ready and Indian Diggings from that of 
California, on account of the ludicrous 
associations which these names convey. 
Again, Pythagoras Lodge is preferable to 
Pythagorean, and Archimedes is better than 
Archimedean, because the noun is more eu- 
phonious and' more easily pronounced than 
the adjective. But this rule is difficult to 
illustrate or enforce; for, after all, this thing 
of euphony is a mere matter of taste, and we 
all know the adage, "de gnustibus." 

A few negative rules, which are, however, 
easily deduced from the affirmative ones 
already given, will complete the topic. 

No name of a Lodge should be adopted 
which is not, in some reputable way { con- 
nected with Masonry. Everybody will ac- 
knowledge that Morgan Locke would be an 
anomaly, and that Cowan Lodge would, if 
possible, be worse. But there are some 
names which, although not quite as bad as 
these, are on principle equally as objection- 
able. Why should any of our Lodges, for 
instance, assume, as many of them have, 
the names of Madison, Jefferson, or Taylor, 
since none of these distinguished men were 
Masons or patrons of the Craft? 

The indiscriminate use of the names of 
saints unconnected with Masonry is for a 
similar reason objectionable. Beside our 
patrons St. John the Baptist and St. John 
the Evangelist, but three other saints can 
lay any claims to Masonic honors, and these 
are St. Alban, who introduced, or is said to 
have introduced, the Order into England, 
and has been liberally complimented m the 
nomenclature of Lodges; and St. Swithin, 
who was at the head of the Craft in the 
reign of Ethel wolf; and St. Benedict, who 
was the founder of the Masonic fraternity 
of Bridge Builders. But St. Mark, St. 
Luke, St. Andrew, all of whom have given 
names to numerous Lodges, can have no 

Sretensions to assist as sponsors in these 
lasonic baptisms, since they were not at 
all connected with the Craft. 

To the Indian names of Lodges there is 
a radical objection. It is true that their 
names are often very euphonious and al- 
ways significant, for the red men of our 
continent are tasteful and ingenious in their 
selection of names — much more so, indeed, 
than the whites, who borrow from them; 
but their significance has nothing to do 
with Masonry. 

What has been said of Lodges may with 
equal propriety be said, mutatis mutandis, 
of Chapters, Councils, and Commanderies. 

Namur. A city of Belgium, where the 
Primitive Scottish Rite was first established; 
hence sometimes called the Rite of Namur. 



NAOS 



NAYMUS GRECUS 507 



Naoa. The ark of the Egyptian gods. 
A cheat or structure with more height than 
depth, and thereby unlike the Israelitish 
Ark of the Covenant. The winced figures 
embraced the lower part of the Naoe. while 
the cherubim of the Ark of Yahveh were 
placed above its lid. Yahveh took up his 
abode above the propitiatory or covering 
between the wings of the cherubim, exte- 
riorly, while the gods of Egypt were reputed 
as hidden in the interior of the Naoe of the 
sacred barks, behind hermetically closed doors. 
(See Cherubim.) 

Naphtali. The territory of the tribe of 
Naphtali adjoined, on its western border, to 
Phoenicia, and there must, therefore, have 
been frequent and easy communication 
between the Phoenicians and the Naphtal- 
ites, resulting sometimes in mtennarriace. 
This will explain the fact that Hiram the 
Builder was the son of a widow of Naphtali 
and a man of Tyre. 

Naples. Freemasonry must have been 
practised in Naples before 1751, for in that 
year King Charles issued an edict forbidding 
it in his dominions. The author of ArUv- 
Saint Nicaise says that there was a Grand 
Lodge at Naples, in 1756. which was in 
correspondence with the Lodges of Germany. 
But ite meetings were suspended by a royal 
edict in September, 1775. In 1777 this edict 
was repealed at the instigation of the Queen, 
and Masonry was again tolerated. This 
toleration lasted, however, only for a brief 
period. In 1781 Ferdinand IV. renewed the 
edict of suppression, and from that time until 
the end of the century Freemasonry was 
subjected in Italy to the combined persecu- 
tions of the Church and State, and the Masons 
of Naples met only in secret. In 1703, after 
the French Revolution, many Lodges were 
openly organised. A Supreme Council of the 
Scottish Kite was established on the 11th of 
June, 1809, of which King Joachim was 
elected Grand Master, and the Grand Orient 
of Naples on the 24th of the same month. 
The fact that the Grand Orient worked 
according to the French Rite, and the Supreme 
Council according to the Scottish, caused 
dissensions between the two bodies, which, 
however, were finally healed. And on the 
23d of May, 1811, a Concordat was estab- 
lished between the Supreme Council and the 
Grand Orient, by which the latter took the 
supervision of the degrees up to the Eight- 
eenth, and the former of those from the 
Eighteenth to the Thirty-third. In October, 
1812, King Joachim accepted the presi- 
dency of the Supreme Council as its Grand 
Commander. Both bodies became extinct 
in 1815, on the accession of the Bourbons. 

Napoleon I. It has been claimed, and 
with much just reason, as shown in his course 
of life, that Napoleon the Great was a 
member of the Brotherhood, and it is said 
was initiated at Malta, between June 12 and 
July 10, 1798. The AbeilUs Magonnique of 
1820, and Clavel, in 1830, aHege that he 
tisited a Lodge incognito in Paris. His life 



indicated favor to the Fraternity, and in 1804 
he appointed Joseph Buonaparte G. Master 
of the Grand Orient. Lucien and Louis 
Buonaparte were of the Fraternity, as also 
Jerome. Louis Napoleon III. was a member 
of the Supreme Council A. A. Scottish Rite of 
France. 

Napoleonic Masonry. An Order under 
this name, called also the French Order of 
Noachites, was established at Paris, in 1816, 
by some of the adherents of the Emperor 
Napoleon. It was divided into three degrees : 
1. Knight; 2. Commander; 3. Grand Elect. 
The last degree was subdivided into three 
points: L Secret Judge; li. Perfect Initiate; 
ui. Knight of the Crown of Oak. The mys- 
tical ladder in this Rite consisted of eight 
steps or stages, whose names were Adam, 
Eve, Noah, Lamech, Naamah, Peleg, Oubal, 
and Orient. The initials of these words, 
properly transposed, compose the word Na- 
poleon, and this is enough to show the char- 
acter of the system. General Bertrand was 
elected Grand Master, but, as he was then 
in the island of St. Helena, the Order was 
directed by a Supreme Commander and two 
Lieutenants. It was Masonic in form only, 
and lasted but for a few years. 

Narbonne, Bite of. See Primitive Rite. 

National Grand Lodge of Germany. 
The Royal Mother Lodge of the Three 
Globes, which had been established at Berlin 
in 1740. and recognised as a Grand Lodge 
by Frederick the Great in 1744, renounced 
the Rite of Strict Observance in 1771, and. 
declaring itself free and independent, assumed 
the title of "The Grand National Mother 
Lodge of the Three Globes/ 1 by which appella- 
tion it is still known. 

The Grand Orient of France, among its 
first acts, established, as an integral part 
of itself, a National Grand Lodge of France, 
which was to take the place of the old Grand 
Lodge, which, it declared, had ceased to 
exist. But the year after, in 1773, the Na- 
tional Grand Lodge was suppressed by the 
power which had given it birth; and no such 
power is now recognized in French Masonry. 

Naymus Grecus. The Grand Lodge, 
No. 1., MS. contains the following passage: 
" Y* befell that their was on' curious Masson 
that height [was called] Naymus Grecus 
that had bvn at the making of Sallomon's 
Temple, ana he came into ffraunce, and there 
he taught the science of Massonrey to men of 
ffraunce." Who was this " Naymus Grecus "? 
The writers of these old records of Masonry 
are notorious for the way in which they 
mangle all names and words that are in a 
foreign tongue. Hence it is impossible to 
say who or what is meant by this word. It is 
differently spelled in the various manuscripts: 
Namas Greeting in the Lansdowne, Naymus 
Grcecue in the Sloane, Grecus alone in the 
Edinburgh-Kilwinning, and Maymus Grecus 
in the Dowland.* Anderson, in the second 



* For a table of the various spelling^ see Are 
Quatuor Cortmatorum, iii, 103. 



508 NAZARETH 

edition of his Constitutions (1738, p. 16), 
calls him Ninus. Now, it would not be 
an altogether wild conjecture to sup- 
pose that some confused idea of Magna 
Gnecia was floating in the minds of these 
unlettered Masons, especially since the 
Leland Manuscript records that in Magna 
Graecia Pythagoras established his school, and 
then sent Masons into France. Between 
Magna Grcecia and Maynus Grecus the bridge 
is a short one, not greater than between 
Tubal-cat'n and Wackan. which we find in 
a German Middle Age document. The one 
being the name of a place and the other of a 
person would be no obstacle to these accom- 
modating record writers; nor must we flinch 
at the anachronism of placing one of the 
disciples of Pythagoras at the building of 
the Solomonic Temple, when we remember 
that the same writers make Euclid and 
Abraham contemporaries. 

Nazareth. A city of Galilee, in which 
our Savior spent his childhood and much 
of his life, and whence he is often called, 
in the New Testament, the Nazarene, or 
Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus Nazarenus was a 

rrtion of the inscription on the cross. (See 
AT. R. J.) In the Rose Croix, Nazareth 
is a significant word, and Jesus is designated 
as "our Master of Nazareth," to indicate 
the origin and nature of the new dogmas 
on which the Order of the Rosy Cross was 
instituted. 

Nebraska. Masonry was introduced into 
Nebraska in October, 1855, by a Charter 
from the Grand Lodge of Illinois to Nebraska 
Lodge. Two other Lodges were subsequently 
chartered by the Grand Lodges of Missouri 
and Iowa. In September, 1857, the Grand 
Lodge of Nebraska was organized by a con- 
vention of delegates from these three Lodges, 
and R. C. Jordan was elected Grand Master. 
The Grand Chapter was organized March 
19, 1867. The Grand Commandery of Ne- 
braska was instituted at Omaha, December 
28. 1871. 

Nebuehadneuar. About 630 years b. c. 
the empire and city of Babylon were con- 
quered Dy Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the 
Chaldeans, a nomadic race, who, descending 
from their homes in the Caucasian mountains, 
had overwhelmed the countries of Southern 
Asia. Nebuchadnezzar was engaged during 
his whole reign in wars of conquest. Among 
other nations who fell beneath his victorious 
arms was Judea, whose king, Jehoiakim, was 
slain by Nebuchadnezzar, and his son, 
Jehoiachin, ascended the Jewish throne. 
After a reign of three years, he was deposed 
by Nebuchadnezzar, and his kingdom given 
to his uncle, Zedekiah, a monarch distin- 
guished for his vices. Having repeatedly 
rebelled against the Babylonian king, Nebu- 
chadnezzar repaired to Jerusalem, and, after 
a siege of eighteen months, reduced it. The 
city was leveled with the ground, the Temple 
pillaged and burned, and the inhabitants 
carried captive to Babylon. These events 
are commemorated in the first section of 



NEGRO LODGES 



the English and American Royal Arch sys- 
tem. 

Nebusaradan. A captain, or, as we 
would now call him, a general of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who oomnianaed the Chaldean 
army at the siege of Jerusalem, and who 
executed the orders of his sovereign by 
the destruction of the city and Temple, and 
by carrying the inhabitants, except a few 
husbandmen, as captives to Babylon. 

Negro Lodges. The subject of Lodges 
of colored persons, commonly called "Negro 
Lodges," was for many years a source of 
agitation in the United States, not on account, 
generally, of the color of the members of these 
Lodges, but on account of the supposed 
illegality of their Charters. The history of 
then* organization was thoroughly investi- 
gated, many years ago. by Bro. Philip S. 
Tucker, of Vermont, and Charles W. Moore, 
of Massachusetts, and the result is here 

Siven, with the addition of certain facts 
erived from a statement made by the officers 
of the Lodge in 1827. 

Prince Hall and thirteen other negroes were 
made Masons in a military Lodge in the Brit- 
ish Army then at Boston, on March 6, 1775. 
When the Army was withdrawn these negroes 
applied to the Grand Lodge of England for 
a Charter and on the 20th of September, 
1784, a Charter for a Master's Lodge was 
granted, although not received until 1787, to 
Prince Hall and others, all colored men, under 
the authority of the Grand Lodge of England. 
The Lodge bore the name of "African Lodge, 
No. 429, and was situated in the city of 
Boston. This Lodge ceased its connection 
with the Grand Lodge of England for many 
years, and about the oeginning of the present 
century its registration was stricken from the 
rolls of the United Grand Lodge of England, 
when new lists were made as were many other 
Lodges in distant parts of the world, its legal 
existence, in the meantime, never having been 
recognized by the Grand Lodge of Massa- 
chusetts, to which body it had always refused 
to acknowledge allegiance. 

After the death of Hall and his colleagues, 
to whom the Charter had been granted" the 
Lodge, for want of some one to conduct its 
affairs, fell into abeyance, or, to use the tech- 
nical phrase, became dormant. After some 
years it was revived, but by whom, or under 
what process of Masonic law, is not stated, 
and information of the revival given to the 
Grand Lodge of England, but no reply or rec- 
ognition was received from that body. After 
some hesitation as to what would be the 
proper course to pursue, they came to the con- 
clusion, as they have themselves stated, "that, 
with what knowledge they possessed of Ma- 
sonry, and as people of color by themselves, 
they were, and ought by rights to be, free ana 
independent of other Lodges." Accordingly, 
on the 18th of June, 1827, they issued a proto- 
col, in which they said: "We publicly declare 
ourselves free and independent of any Lodge 
from this day, and we will not be tributary or 
governed by any Lodge but that of our own." 



NEIGHBOR 

They soon after assumed the name of the 
"Prince Hall Grand Lodge." and issued Char- 
ters for the constitution of subordinates, and 
from it have proceeded all the Lodges of col- 
ored persons now existing in the United States. 

Admitting even the legality of the English 
Charter of 1784 — it will be seen that there was 
already a Masonic authority in Massachu- 
setts upon whose prerogatives of jurisdiction 
such Charter was an invasion — it cannot be 
denied that the unrecognized self-revival of 
1827, and the subsequent assumption of 
Grand Lodge powers, were illegal, and ren- 
dered both the Prince Hall Grand Lodge and 
all the Lodges which emanated from it clan- 
destine. And this has been the unanimous 
opinion of all Masonic jurists in America. 

[However, Masonry has spread among the 
negroes until now they have Lodges and 
Grand Lodges in most of the States and in 
Canada and Liberia. As they wear emblems 
of all the other bodies it is presumable they 
have them as well.] 

Neighbor. All the Old Constitutions have 
the charge that "every Mason shall keep true 
counsel of Lodge and Chamber." (Sloane MS., 
No. 3848.) This is enlarged in the Anderson- 
ian Charges of 1722 thus: "You are not to let 
your family, friends, and neighbours know the 
concerns of the Lodge." (Constitutions, 1723, 
p. 55.) However loquacious a Mason may be 
m the natural confidence of neighborhood in- 
tercourse, he must be reserved m all that re- 
lates to the esoteric concerns of Masonry. 

Nelth. The Egyptian synonym of the 
Greek Athene 1 or Minerva. 

Nekam. Dpi But properly according to 
the Masoretic pointing, NAKAM. A Hebrew 
word signifying Vengeance, and a significant 
word in the high degrees. (See Vengeance.) 

Nekamah. HftpJ. Hebrew, signifying 
Vengeance, and, like Nakam, a significant 
word in the high degrees. 

Nembroth. A corruption of Nimrod, fre- 
quently used in the Old Records. 

Nemesis* According to Hesiod, the daugh- 
ter of Night, originally the personificationof the 
moral feeling of right and a just fear of crimi- 
nal actions; in other words, Conscience. A tem- 
ple was erected to Nemesis at Attica. She was 
at times called Adrastea and Rhamnusia, and 
represented in the earliest days a young virgin 
like unto Venus; at a later period, as older 
and holding a helm and wheel. At Khamnus 
there was a statue of Nemesis of Parian marble 
executed by Phidias. The festival in Greece 
held in her honor was called Nemesia. 

Neocorus. A name of the guardian of the 
Temple. 

Neophyte. Greek, whfvm, newly planted. 
In the primitive church, it signified one who 
had recently abandoned Judaism or Pagan- 
ism and embraced Christianity; and in the 
Roman Church those recently admitted into 
its communion are still so called. Hence it 
has also been applied to the young disciple of 
any art or science. Thus Ben Jonson calls a 
young actor, at his first entrance "on the 



NETHERLANDS 509 

boards," a neophyte player. In Freemasonry 
the newly initiated and uninstructed candi- 
date is sometimes so designated. 

Neoplatonlsm. A philosophical school, 
founded at Alexandria in Egypt, which added 
to the theosophic theories ofPlato many mys- 
tical doctrines borrowed from the East. The 
principal disciples of this school were Philo- 
Judffius, Plotinus, Porphyry, Jamblichus, 
Proclus, and Julian the Apostate. Much 
of the symbolic teaching of the higher de- 
grees of Masonry has been derived from the 
school of the Neoplatonists, especially from 
the writings of Jamblichus and Philo-Judaeus. 

Nephafliu Festivals, without wine, cele- 
brated in honor of the lesser deities. 

Nergal. (Heb. tail) The synonym of 
misfortune and ill-luck. The Hebrew name 
for Mars: and in astrology the lesser Malefic. 
The word in Sanskrit is Nrigal. 

Ne plus ultra. Latin. Nothing more be- 
yond. The motto adopted for the degree of 
Kadoeh by its founders, when it was sup- 
posed to be the summit of Masonry, beyond 
which there was nothing more to be sought. 
And, although higher degrees have been since 
added, the motto is still retained. 

Netherlands* Speculative Masonry was 
first introduced in the Netherlands by the 
opening at The Hague, in 1731, of an occa- 
sional Lodge under a Deputation granted by 
Lord Lovel, G. M. of England, of which Dr. 
Desaguliers was Master, for the purpose of 
conferring the First ana Second degrees on 
the Duke of Lorraine, afterward the Em- 
peror Francis I. He received the Third De- 
gree subsequently in England. But it was 
not until September 30, 1734, that a regular 
Lodge was opened by Bro. Vincent de la 
Chapelle, as Grand Master of the United 
Provinces, who may therefore be regarded as 
the originator of Masonry in the Netherlands. 
In 1735, this Lodge received a Patent or Dep- 
utation from the Grand Lodge of England. 
John Cornelius Rademaker being appointee! 
Provincial Grand Master, and several daugh- 
ter Lodges were established by it. In the 
same year the States General prohibited all 
Masonic meetings by an edict issued Novem- 
ber 30, 1735. The Roman clergy actively per- 
secuted the Masons, which seems to have pro- 
duced a reaction, for in 1737 the magistrates 
repealed the edict of suppression, and forbade 
the clergy from any interference with the 
Order, after which Masonry flourished in the 
United Provinces. The Masonic innovations 
and controversies that had affected the rest 
of the continent never successfully obtruded 
on the Dutch Masons, who practised with 
great fidelity the simple rite of the Grand 
Lodge of England, although an attempt had 
been made in 1757 to introduce them. In 
1798, the Grand Lodge adopted a Book of 
Statutes, by which it accepted the three Sym- 
bolic degrees, and referred the four high 
degrees of the French Rite to a Grand Chap- 
ter. In 1816, Prince Frederick attempted a 
reform in the degrees, which was, however, 
only partially successful. The Grand Lodge 



510 NETWORK 



NEW JERSEY 



of the Netherlands, whose Orient m at The 
Hague, tolerates the high degrees without ac- 
tually recognizing them. Most of the Lodges 
confine themselves to the Symbolic degrees 
of St. John's Masonry, while a few practise 
the reformed system of Prince Frederick. 

Network. One of the decorations of the 
pillars at the porch of the Temple. (See PU- 
lars of the Porch.) 

Nevada. Nevada was originally a part of 
California, and when separated from it in 
1865, there were eight Lodges in it working 
under Charters from the Grand Lodge of Cal- 
ifornia. These Lodges in that year held a 
convention at Virginia, and organised the 
Grand Lodge of Nevada. 

Ne Varietur. Latin. Lett it should be 
changed. These words refer to the Masonic 
usage of requiring a Brother, when he receives 
a certificate from a Lodge, to affix his name, 
in his own handwriting, in the margin, as a 

Erecautionary measure, which enables distant 
rethren, by a comparison of the handwriting, 
to recognise the true and original owner of the 
certificate, and to detect any impostor who 
mav surreptitiously have obtained one. 

Sew Brunswick. Freemasonry was in- 
troduced into this province about the middle 
of the last century by both the Grand Lodges 
of Scotland and England, and afterward by 
that of Ireland. The former two bodies ap- 
pointed, at a later period, Provincial Grand 
Masters, and in 1844 the Provincial Grand 
Lodge of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick 
was organised on the registry of Scotland. 
The province of New Brunswick becoming an 
independent portion of the Dominion of Can- 
ada, a Grand Lodge was established in Oc- 
tober, 1867, by a majority of the Lodges of 
the territory, and B. Lester Peters was elected 
Grand Master. Capitular, Cryptic, and Tem- 
plar Masonry each have bodies in the Province. 

Newfoiiatlaad. The Ancient Colony of 
Newfoundland still remains without the Con- 
federation of the Canadian Provinces. Ma- 
sonry in this island dates back to 1746, the 
first Warrant being granted by the Provincial 
Grand Lodge at Boston. Bro. J. Lane's list 
gives six Lodges warranted in the eighteenth 
century. The Grand podge of the Ancients 
(England) is credited with four — one in 1774 
and three in 1788— and the Grand Lodge of 
England (Moderns) with two— -one each in 
1784 and 1785. Nine others were chartered 
by the present Grand Lod$e of England up 
to 1881, a number still remaining active. 

New Hampshire. Freemasonry was in- 
troduced into New Hampshire in June, 1734, 
by the constitution of St. John's Lodge at 
Portsmouth, under a Charter from the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts. Several other Lodges 
were subsequently constituted by the same au- 
thority. In 1789 a convention of these Lodges 
was held at Dartmouth, and the Grand Lodge 
of New Hampshire organised, and John Sulli- 
van, the President of the State, was elected 
Grand Master. A Grand Chapter was or- 
ganized in 1819, and a Grand Commandery in 
1860. 



New Jersey. The history of freemasonry 
in New Jersey prior to the establishment of 
the Grand Lodge m i.D. 1786, was involved 
m such obscurity that only by the diligence 
and perseverance of the late Grand Secretary 
Joseph H. Hough, and the cooperation of an 
intelligent historical committee, has it been 
possible to ascertain and collate the fragmen- 
tary and scanty data into a sequent, albeit 
incomplete, narrative. 

The general upturning due to the Revolu- 
tionary War, the unsettled conditions which 
prevailed for many years, and the infrequency 
of opportunity for Masonic meetings, must 
account for the dispersion of such records as 
were kept, and suggest why it was that the 
information contained in the earlier works 
purporting to be Masonio history was so brief 
ana unsatisfactory as to appear to be tradi- 
tional rather than authentic. The researches 
of this committee of the Grand Lodge of New 
Jersey have removed much of the obscurity 
surrounding the few obtainable facts. 

It proved the issue of the first deputation 
by the Duke of Norfolk, then Grand Master 
of England, to Daniel Coxe, on June 5. 
1730, empowering the latter as "Provincial 
Grand Master of the Provinces of New York. 
New Jersey and Pensihrania, in America/ 1 
Diligent search in the archives of the Grand 
Lodge of England, and thorough mquiry for 
the letters and papers bearing upon the sub- 
ject among the descendants of Bro. Coxe. 
tailed to disclose any testimony whatever of 
the exercise by him, or by anyone acting 
under his authority, of ^prerogatives con- 
tained in that deputation* The chronological 
fact remains, however, that Daniel Coxe was 
the first appointed Provincial Grand Master 
of Masons in the new world. 

The establishment of the first Lodges in 
New Jersey appears to be recorded as follows: 
The Provincial Grand Master of New York, 
George Harrison, issued a warrant erecting a 
Lodge in the city of Newark, dated May 13, 
1761, and although the minutes of this Lodge 
are not continuous! and the meetings were 
intermitted, once, apparently for sixteen 
years, yet it survives, venerated and held in 
high regard for its honorable history, as St. 
John's Lodge, No. 1, upon the present register. 

A year later Provincial Grand Master Jer- 
emy Gridley of Massachusetts procured the 
issue of a deputation to erect Temple Lodge, 
No. 1 in Elisabethtown, dated June 24, 1762. 
and on December 27, 1763, the same Grand 
Lodge granted a petition for the erection of a 
Lodge by the name of 8t. John's, at Prince- 
ton. No record of the actual transactions of 
these two Lodges has been discovered, but 
the late Recording Grand Secretary of Massa- 
chusetts, was the sufficient authority for the 
averment that both Lodges had been duly or- 
ganized, and did Masonic work, evidenced by 
documents regarding them, which were sub- 
sequently destroyed in the burning of the 
Masonio Temple in Boston in 1865. After 
an interval of three years, Provincial Grand 
Master Ball of Pennsylvania warranted a 



NEW MEXICO 



NICOLAI 



511 



Lodge at Bajskmgridge, N. J., as No. 10, on 
the register of Pennsylvania, another was 
warranted in 1779 at Middletown, and in 1781 
Burlington Lodge, No. 32, was given existence. 

A word as to the organisation of the Grand 
Lodge of New Jersey. A convention of Free 
and Accepted Masons was held pursuant to 
notice in the city of New Brunswick on De- 
cember 18, 1786. and "being Master Masons, 
as every one of them find upon strict trial and 
due examination, and residing in the state of 
New Jersey, taking into consideration the pro- 
priety and necessity of forming a Grand 
Lodge of P. <fe A. M. of the state of New Jer- 
sey, do hereby unanimously nominate and 
elect the following Master Masons to the sev- 
eral offices following, to wit." 

The civic titles of the respective officers fol- 
low: Chief Justice, Vice President of New 
Jersey, late High Sheriff, Representative in 
the Assembly, late Colonel in the Army of 
the U. 8., Clerk of the General Assembly and 
another High Sheriff. 



Individual Masons therefore, not Lodges, 
had the honor of establishing this Grand 
Lodge, the complete records of which, care- 
fully preserved, are in print and available for 
information respecting the growth of the Fra- 
ternity in New Jersey. 

The Grand Chapter was organised at Bur- 
lington, December 30, 1856; the Grand Coun- 
cil, November 26, 1860; and the Grand Com- 
mandery. February 14, 1860. [R. A. S.] 

New Mexico. The Grand Lodge of Mis- 
souri issued warrants to the following Lodges 
in New Mexico, vis.: Aztec Lodge. No. 108; 
Chapman Lodge, No. 05; and Montezuma 
Lodge, No. 109. 

These Lodges met in convention. August 6, 
1877, at Santa Fe*, for the purpose of discussing 
the question of forming a Grand Lodge. 
Bro. Simon B. New comb presided. The 
committee on credentials found the repre- 
sentatives of the three above-mentioned 
Lodges to be present. 

The next day a Constitution and By-Laws 
were adopted, the Grand Officers were elected 
and installed, Bro. Wm. W. Griffin being 
M. W. Grand Master, and David J. Miller 
R. W. Grand Secretary. 

New Templars. An Order of five degrees 
instituted in France in the early part of this 
century. The degrees were termed — Initiati; 
Intimi Initiati; Adepti; Orientales Adepti; 
and Magna acjuilae nigra sancti Johannes 
Apostoli Adepti. 

New York. The first Deputation for the 
American Colonies was that of Daniel Coze by 
the Duke of Norfolk, for the Provinces of 
New York, New Jerseyand Pennsylvania, and 
was for two years. There are no authentic 
records that he exercised his authority. Rich- 
ard Riggs was appointed by the Earl of Darn- 
ley, November 15, 1737, but, as with his pred- 
ecessor, there are no records extant except 
newspaper notices of meetings of "the 
Lodge. Francis Goelet was appointed by 
Lord Byron in 1751, and was succeeded by 
George Harrison, appointed June 0, 1753, by 



Lord Carvsfort. Harrison chartered Lodges 
in New York t New Jersey, Connecticut, and 
Michigan. Sir John Johnson was appointed 
by Lord Blany in 1767, but did not assume 
office until 1771. and was the last of the " Mod- 
ern' 1 Provincial Grand Masters. The pres- 
ent Grand Lodge was organised December 15, 
1782, under a Provincial Grand Warrant from 
the "Atholl" Grand Lodge, dated September 
5, 1781, declared its independence June 6. 
1787, and assumed the title of the "Grand 
Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the 
State of New York." Tnere have been four 
schisms, all of which were creditably adjusted. 
A Grand Chapter was organised in 1783, which 
had but a short existence and was succeeded 
by the present Grand Chapter March 4, 1798. 
The Grand Commandery was organised June 
18. 1814, and the Grand Council Royal and 
Select Masters January 25, 1823. The Su- 
preme Council, Northern Jurisdiction, A. A. 
S. R. was organised by Emmanuel De La 
Motta in New York City in 1813, but was pre- 
ceded by a Lodge of Perfection at Albany. 
N. Y., in 1767. [W. J* A.] 

Nick. (Danish, Nikken.) The spirit of the 
waters, an enemy of man, the devil, or in the 
vulgate "Old Nick." 

Nicolai, Christoph Friedrich. Chris- 
topher Frederick Nicolai. author of a very in- 
teresting essay on the origin of the Society of 
Freemasons, was a bookseller of Berlin, and 
one of the most distinguished of the German 
savants of that Augustan age of German liter- 
ature in which he lived. He was born at Ber- 
lin on the 18th of March. 1733, and died in the 
same city on the 8th or January, 1811. He 
was the editor of. and an industrious con- 
tributor to, two German periodicals of high 
literary character, a learned writer on various 
subjects of science and philosophy, and the 
intimate friend of Leasing, whose works he 
edited, and of the illustrious Mendelssohn. 

In 1782-3, he published a work with the fol- 
lowing title: Vereuch Hber die Betchmldigwv- 
gen welche dem Tempelherrnorden gemacht 
warden und Hber deesen Gtheimniis; nebet 
einem Anhange mber doe Bntstehen der Freir 
maurergeselhchaft; i. e., "An Essay on the 
accusations made against the Order of Knights 
Templars and their mystery; with an Appen- 
dix on the origin of the Fraternity of Free- 
masons." In this work Nicolai advanced his 
peculiar theory on the origin of Freemasonry, 
which is substantially as follows: 

Lord Bacon, taking certain hints from the 
writings of Andrea, the founder of Rosicru- 
cianism and his English disciple, Fludd, on 
the subject of the regeneration of the world, 
proposed to accomplish the same object, but 
by a different and entirely opposite method. 
For, whereas, they explained everything eso- 
terically. Bacon's plan was to abolish all dis- 
tinction between the esoteric and the exoteric, 
and to demonstrate everything by proofs 
from nature. This idea he first promulgated 
in his Instauratio Magna, but afterward more 
fully developed in his New Atlantis. In this 
latter work, he introduced his beautiful apo- 



612 NICOTIATES 



logue, abounding in Masonic ideas, in which he 
described the unknown island of Bensalem. 
where a king had built a large edifice, called 
after himself, Solomon's House. Charles I., 
it is said, had been much attracted by this 
idea, and had intended to found something of 
the kind upon the plan of Solomon's Temple, 
but the occurrence of the Civil War prevented 
the execution of the project. 

The idea lay for some time dormant, but 
was subsequently revived, in 1646. by Wallis, 
Wilkins. and several other learned men, who 
established the Royal Society for the purpose 
of carrying out Bacon's plan of communicating 
to the world scientific and philosophical truths. 
About the same time another society was 
formed by other learned men, who sought to 
arrive at truth by the investigations of al- 
chemy and astrology. To this society such 
men as Ashmole and Lily were attached, and 
they resolved to construct a House of Solo- 
mon in the island of Bensalem, where they 
might communicate their instructions by 
means of secret symbols. To cover their 
mysterious designs, they got themselves ad- 
mitted into the Masons 1 Company, and held 
their meetings at Masons' Hall, in Masons' 
Alley, Basinghall Street. As freemen of 
London, they took the name of Freemasons, 
and naturally adopted the Masonic imple- 
ments as symbols. Although this association, 
like the Royal Society, sought, but by a differ- 
ent method, to inculcate the principles of nat- 
ural science and philosophy, it subsequently 
took a political direction. Most of its mem- 
bers were strongly opposed to the puritanism 
of the dominant party and were m favor of 
the royal cause, and hence their meetings, 
ostensibly held for the purpose of scientific 
investigation, were really used to conceal their 
secret political efforts to restore the exiled 
house of Stuart. From this society, which 
subsequently underwent a decadence, sprang 
the revival in 1717, which culminated m the 
establishment of the Grand Lodge of England. 

Such was the theory of NicoLai. Few will 
be found at the present day to concur in all his 
views, yet none can refuse to award to him the 
praise of independence of opinion, originality 
of thought, and an entire avoidance of the 
beaten paths of hearsay testimony and unsup- 

§orted tradition. His results may be rejected, 
ut his method of attaining them must be 
commended. 

Nlcotlates, Order of. A secret order 
mentioned by Clavel, teaching the doctrines 
of Pythagoras. 

Night. Lodges, all over the world, meet, 
except on special occasions, at night. In this 
selection of the hours of night and darkness for 
initiation, the usual coincidence will be found 
between the ceremonies of Freemasonry and 
those of the Ancient Mysteries, showing their 
evident derivation from a common origin. 
Justin says that at Eleusis, Triptolemus in- 
vented the art of sowing corn, and that, in 
honor of this invention, the nights were con- 
secrated to initiation. The application is, 
however, rather abstruse. 



NILE 

In the Batches of Euripides, that author in- 
troduces the god Bacchus, the supposed in- 
ventor of the Dionysian mysteries, as replying 
to the question of King Pentheus in the fol- 
lowing words: 

DEN. Tl ftcpi nfcrwp, % n*f wipa* rcAatf; 
A9I. VvKTwp r« woXXi, o^Mr^nfT* 5*«i **«roc. 

Eurxp. Bacch. Act II., 1. 485. 

"Pentheus. — By night or day, these sacred rites 
perform'st thou? 
Bacchus, — Mostly by night, for venerable is 
darkness' 1 ; 

and in all the other mysteries the same reason 
was assigned for nocturnal celebrations, since 
night and darkness have something solemn 
and august in them which is disposed to fill 
the mind with sacred awe. And hence black, 
as an emblem of darkness and night, was con- 
sidered as the color appropriate to the myster- 
ies. 

In the mysteries of Hindustan, the candi- 
date for initiation, having been duly prepared 
by previous purifications, was led at the dead 
of night to the gloomy cavern, in which the 
mystic rites were performed. 

The same period of darkness was adopted 
for the celebration of the mysteries of Mithras, 
in Persia. Among the Druids of Britain and 
Gaul, the principal annual initiation com- 
menced at low twelve/' or midnight of the 
eve of May-day. In short, it is indisputable 
that the initiations in all the Ancient Mys- 
teries were nocturnal in their character. 

The reason riven by the ancients for this 
selection of night as the time for initiation, is 
equally applicable to the system of Freema- 
sonry. '^Darkness," says Oliver, "was an 
emblem of death, and death was a prelude to 
resurrection. It will be at once seen, there- 
fore, in what manner the doctrine of the res- 
urrection was inculcated and exemplified in 
these remarkable institutions." 

Death and the resurrection were the doc- 
trines taught in the Ancient Mysteries; and 
night and darkness were necessary to add to 
the sacred awe and reverence which these doc- 
trines ought always to inspire in the rational 
and contemplative mind. The same doc- 
trines form the very groundwork of Free- 
masonry; and as the Master Mason, to use 
the language of Hutchinson, "represents a 
man saved from the grave of iniquity and 
raised to the faith of salvation," darkness and 
night are the appropriate accompaniments to 
the solemn ceremonies which demonstrate 
this profession. 

Nlhongi. ("Chronicles of Nihon.") The 
companion of the Kojiki; the two works to- 
gether forming the doctrinal and historic basis 
of Sintonism. The Japanese adherents of 
Sinsyn are termed Sintus, or Sintoos, who 
worship the gods, the chief of which is Ten-sio- 
dai-yin. The Nihongi was composed about 
720 a.d., with the evident design of giving a 
Chinese coloring to the subject-matter of the 
Kojiki, upon which it is founded. 

Nile. There is a tradition in the old Ma- 
sonic Records that the inundations of the river 



i 



j 



I 



NIL 

rTBe, in Egypt, continually destroying the 
perishable landmarks by which one man could 
distinguish his possessions from those of an- 
other, Euclid instructed the people in the art 
of geometry, by which they might measure 
their lands; and then taught them to bound 
them with walls and ditches, so that after an 
inundation each man could identify his own 
boundaries. 

The tradition is given in the Cooke MS. 
thus: "Euclyde was one of the first founders 
of Geometry, and he gave hit name, for in 
his tyme there was a water in that lond of 
Egypt that is called Nilo, and hit flowid so 
f erre into the londe that men myght not dwelle 
therein. Then this wort hi clerke Enclide 
taught hem to make grete wallys and diches to 
holde owt the watyr. and he by Gemetria 
mesured the londe and departyd hit in divers 
partys, and made every man to close his owne 

§arte with walles and djches." (Lines 455-472.) 
'his legend of the origin of the art of geometry 
was borrowed by the old Operative Masons 
from the Origins* of St. Isidore of Seville, 
where a similar story is told. 

Nil nisi clavls deest. Latin. Nothing but 
the key is wanting. A motto or device often 
attached to the double triangle of Royal Arch 
Masonry. It is inscribed on the Royal Arch 
badge or jewel of the Grand Chapter of Scot- 
land, the other devices being a double triangle 
and a triple tau. 

Nimrod. The legend of the Craft in the 
Old Constitutions refers to Nimrod as one of 
the founders of Masonry. Thus in the York 
MS^. No. 1, we read : "At y« makeing of 
ye Toure of Babell there was Masonrie first 
much esteemed of, and the King of Babilon 
yt was called Nimrod was A mason himselfe 
and loved well Masons." And the Cooke 
MS. thus repeats the story: "And this same 
Nembroth began the towre of babilon and he 
taught to his werkemen the craft of Masonrie, 
and he had with him many Masons more than 
forty thousand. And he loved and cherished 
them well" (Line 343.) The idea no doubt 
sprang out of the Scriptural teaching that 
Nimrod was the architect of many cities; a 
statement not so well expressed in the author- 
ized version, as it is in the improved one of 
Bochart, which says: "From that land Nim- 
rod went forth to Asshur, and builded Nine- 
veh, and Rehoboth city, and Calah { and Resen 
between Nineveh and Calah, that is the great 
city." 

Nine* If the number three was celebrated 
among the ancient sages, that of three times 
three had no less celebrity; because, according 
to them, each of the three elements which con- 
stitute our bodies is ternary: the water con- 
taining earth and fire; the earth containing 
igneous and aqueous particles; and the fire 
being tempered by globules of water and ter- 
restrial corpuscles which serve to feed it. No 
one of the three elements being entirely sep- 
arated from the others, all material beings 
composed of these three elements, whereof 
each is triple, may be designated by the fig- 
urative number of three times three, which has 
84 



NINEVEH 513 

become the symbol of all formations of bodies. 
Hence the name of ninth envelop given to 
matter. Every material extension, every cir- 
cular line, has for its representative sign the 
number nine among the Pythagoreans, who 
had observed the property which this number 
possesses of reproducing itself incessantly and 
entire in every multiplication; thus offering to 
the mind a very striking emblem of matter, 
which is incessantly composed before our eyes, 
after having undergone a thousand decompo- 
sitions. 

The number nine was consecrated to the 
Spheres and the Muses. It is the sign of every 
circumference; because a circle or 360 degrees 
is equal to 9, that is to say, 3+6 + = 9. 
Nevertheless, the ancients regarded this num- 
ber with a sort of terror; they considered it a 
bad presage: as the symbol of versatility, of 
change, ana the emblem of the frailty of 
human affairs. Wherefore they avoided all 
numbers where nine appears, and chiefly 81, 
the produce of 9 multiplied by itself, and the 
addition whereof, 8 + 1, again presents the 
number 9. 

As the figure of the number 6 was the 
symbol of the terrestrial globe, animated by a 
Divine spirit, the figure of the number 9 sym- 
bolized the earth, under the influence of the 
Evil Principle; and thence the terror it in- 
spired. Nevertheless, according to the Kab- 
balists, the cipher 9 symbolises the generative 
egg, or the image of a little globular being, 
from whose lower side seems to flow its spirit 
of life. 

The Ennead, signifying an aggregate of 
nine things or persons, is the first square of 
unequal numbers. 

Everyone is aware of the singular properties 
of the number 9. which, multiplied by itself or 
any other number whatever, gives a result 
whose final sum is always 9, or always divis- 
ible by 9. 

9, multiplied by each of the ordinary num- 
bers, produces an arithmetical progression, 
each member whereof, composed of two fig- 
ures, presents a remarkable fact; for exam- 
ple: 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 
9 . 18 . 27 . 36 . 45 . 54 . 63 . 72 . 81 . 90 

The first line of figures gives the regular 
series, from 1 to 10. 

The second reproduces this line doubly: 
first ascending from the first figure of 18, siA 
then returning from the secona figure of 81. 

In Freemasonry, 9 derives its value from its 
being the product of 3 multiplied into itself, 
and consequently in Masonic language the 
number 9 is always denoted by the expression 
3 times 3. For a similar reason, 27, which is 
3 times 9, and 81, which is 9 times 9, are es- 
teemed as sacred numbers in the higher de- 
grees. 

Nineveh* The capital of the ancient king- 
dom of Assyria, and built by Nimrod. The 
traditions of its greatness and the magnifi- 
cence of its buildings were familiar to the 



514 NISAN 



NOACHTTES 



Arabs, the Greeks, and the Romans. The 
modern discoveries of Rich, of Botta, and 
other explorers, have thrown mnoh light upon 
its ancient condition, and have shown that it 
was the seat of much architectural splendor 
and of a profoundly symbolical religion, which 
had something of the characteristics of the 
Mithraic worship. In the mythical relations 
of the Old Constitutions, which make up the 
legend of the Craft, it is spoken of as the an- 
cient birthplace of Masonry, where Nimrod. 
who was its builder, and "was a Mason ana 
loved well the Craft," employed 60,000 Ma- 
sons to build it, and gave them a charge "that 
they should be true." and this, says the Har- 
leian MS., No. 1942, was the first time that 
any Mason had anycharge of Craft. 

Nlsan. p*J. The seventh month of the 
Hebrew civil year, and corresponding to the 
months of March and April, commencing with 
the new moon of the former. 

Noachid». The descendants of Noah. 
A term applied to Freemasons on the theory, 
derived from the "legend of the Craft," that 
Noah was the father and founder of the 
Masonic system of theology. And henoe the 
Freemasons claim to be his descendants, be- 
cause in times past they preserved the pure 
principles of his religion amid the corruptions 
of surrounding faiths. 

Dr. Anderson first used the word in this 
sense in the second edition of the Book of Con' 
stitutione: " A Mason is obliged by his tenure 
to observe the moral law as a true Noa- 
chida." But he was not the inventor of the 
term, for it occurs in a letter sent by the Grand 
Lodge of England to the Grand Lodge of Cal- 
cutta in 1735, which letter is preserved among 
the Rawlinson MSS. in the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford. (See Are Quatuor Coronalorum, 
350 

Noachite, or Prussian Knight. (Noachite 
on Chevalier Prueeien.) 1. The Twenty-first 
Degree of the Ancient and Accented Scot- 
tish Rite. The history as well as the charac- 
ter of this degree is a very singular one. It is 
totally unconnected with the series of Masonic 
degrees which are founded upon the Temple of 
Solomon, and is traced to the tower of Babel. 
Hence the Prussian Knights call themselves 
Noachites, or Disciples of Noah, while they 
designate all other Masons as Hiramites, or 
Disciples of Hiram. The early French rit- 
uals state that the degree was translated in 
1757 from the German by M. de Beraye, 
Knight of Eloquence in the Lodge of the 
Count St. Gelaire, Inspector-General of Prus- 
sian Lodges in France. Lenning gives no 
credit to this statement, but admits that the 
origin of the degree must be attributed to 
the year above named. The destruction of the 
tower of Babel constitutes the legend of the 
degree, whose mythical founder is said to have 
been Peleg, the chief builder of that edifice. 
A singular regulation is that there shall be no 
artificial light in the Lodge room, and that the 
meetings snail be held on the night of the full 
moon of each month. 

The degree was adopted by the Council of 



Emperors of the East and West, and in that 
way became subsequently a part of the system 
of the Scottish Rite. But it is misplaced in 
any series of degrees supposed to emanate 
from the Solomonic Temple. It is, as an un- 
fitting link, an unsightly interruption of the 
chain of legendary symbolism substituting 
Noah for Solomon, and Peleg for Hiram Abu. 
The Supreme Council for the Southern Juris- 
diction has abandoned the original ritual and 
made the degree a representation of the Vehm- 
gericht or Westphalian Franc Judges. But 
this by no means relieves the degree of the 
objection of Masonic incompatibility. That 
it was ever adopted into the Masonic system 
is only to be attributed to the passion for high 
degrees which prevailed in France in the mid- 
dle of the last century. 

In the modern ritual the meetings are called 
Grand Chapters. The officers are a lieuten- 
ant Commander, two Wardens, an Orator, 
Treasurer, Secretary, Master of Ceremonies, 
Warder l and Standard-Bearer. The apron is 
yellow, inscribed with an arm holding a sword 
and the Egyptian figure of silenoe. The order 
is black, and the jewel a full moon or a triangle 
traversed by an arrow. In the original ritual 
there is a coat of arms belonging to the degree, 
which is thus emblasoned: Party per fees; 
in chief, asters, seme* of stars, or a full moon, 
argent; in base, socle, an equilateral triangle, 
having an arrow suspended from its upper 
point, barb downward, or. 

The legend of the degree describes the trav- 
els of Peleg from Babel to the north of Europe, 
and ends with the following narrative: ' In 
trenching the rubbish of tne salt-mines of 
Prussia was found in a. d. 653, at a depth of 
fifteen cubits, the appearance of a triangular 
building in which was a column of white mar- 
ble, on which was written in Hebrew the whole 
history of the Noachites. At the side of this 
column was a tomb of freestone on which was 
a piece of agate inscribed with the following 

3>itaph: Here rest the ashes of Peleg, our 
rand Architect of the tower of Babel. The 
Almighty had pity on him because he became 
himible/' 

This legend, although wholly untenable on 
historic grounds, is not absolutely puerile. 
The dispersion of the human race in the time 
of Peleg had always been a topic of discussion 
among the learned. Long dissertations had 
been written to show that all the nations of 
the world, even America, had been peopled by 
the three sons of Noah and their descendants. 
The object of the legend seems, then, to have 
been to impress the idea of the thorough dis- 
persion. The fundamental idea of the degree 
is, under the symbol of Peleg ; to teach the 
crime of assumption and the virtue of humil- 
ity. 

2. The degree was also adopted into the 
Rite of Misraim, where it is the Thirty-fifth. 

Noachite, Sovereign. (Noachite Sou- 
verain.) A degree contained in the nomencla- 
ture of Fustier. 

Noachites. The same as Noachidat, which 
see. 



NOAH 



Noah. In all the old Masonic manuscript 
Constitutions that are extant. Noah and the 
flood play an important part in the "Legend 
of the Craft." Hence, as the Masonic system 
became developed, the Patriarch was looked 
upon as what was called a patron of Masonry. 
And this connection of Noah with the mythic 
history of the Order was rendered still closer by 
the influence of many symbols borrowed from 
the Arkite worship, one of the most predomi- 
nant of the ancient faiths. So intimately were 
incorporated the legends of Noah with the 
legends of Masonry that Freemasons began, 
at length, to be called, and are still called, 
"Noachicfo," or the descendants of Noah, a 
term first applied by Anderson, and very fre- 
quently used at the present day. 

It is necessary, therefore, that every scholar 
who desires to investigate the legendary sym- 
bolism of Freemasonry should make himself 
acquainted with the Noachio myths upon 
which much of it is founded. Dr. Oliver, it is 
true^ accepted them all with a childlike faith; 
but it is not likely that the skeptical inquirers 
of the present day will attribute to them any 
character of authenticity. Yet they are in- 
teresting, because they show us the growth of 
legends out of symbols, and they are instruc- 
tive because they are for the most part sym- 
bolic. 

The "Legend of the Craft 99 tells us that the 
three sons of Lamech and his daughter, 
Naamah, "did know that God would take 
vengeance for sin, either by fire or water; 
wherefore they wrote these sciences which 
they had found in two pillars of stone, that 
they might be found after the flood." Sub- 
sequently, this legend took a different form, 
and to Enoch was attributed the precaution 
of burying the stone of foundation in the 
bosom of Mount Moriah, and of erecting the 
two pillars above it. 

The first Masonic myth referring to Noah 
that presents itself is one which tells us that, 
while he was piously engaged in the task of 
exhorting his contemporaries to repentance, 
his attention had often been directed to the 

Sillars which Enoch had erected on Mount 
loriah. By diligent search he at length de- 
tected the entrance to the subterranean vault, 
and, on pursuing his inquiries, discovered the 
stone of foundation, although he was unable 
to comprehend the mystical characters there 
deposited. Leaving these, therefore, where 
he had found them, he simply took away the 
stone of foundation on which they had been 
deposited, and placed it in the ark as a con- 
venient altar. 

Another myth, preserved in one of the inef- 
fable degrees, informs us that the ark was 
built of cedars which grew upon Mount Leb- 
anon, and that Noah employed the Sidonians 
to cut them down, under the superintendence 
of Japheth. The successors of these Sidoni- 
ans, m after times, according to the same tra- 
dition, were employed by King Solomon to 
fell and prepare cedars on the same mountain 
for his stupendous Temple. 
The record of Genesis lays the foundation 



NOAH 516 

for another series of symbolic myths con- 
nected with the dove, which has thus been in- 
troduced into Masonry. 

After forty days, when Noah opened the 
window of the ark that he might learn if the 
waters had subsided, he despatched a raven, 
which, returning, gave him no satisfactory in- 
formation. He then sent forth a dove three 
several times, at an interval of seven days 
between each excursion. The first time, the 
dove, finding no resting-place, quickly re- 
turned; the second time she came back in 
the evening, bringing in her mouth an olive- 
leaf, which showed that the waters must have 
sufficiently abated to have exposed the tops 
of the trees; but on the third departure, the 
dry land being entirely uncovered, she re- 
turned no more. 

In the Arkite rites, which arose after the 
dispersion of Babel the dove was always con- 
sidered as a sacred bird, in commemoration of 
its having been the first discoverer of land. Its 
name, which in Hebrew is ionah, was given to 
one of the earliest nations of the earth; and. 
as the emblem of peace and good fortune, it 
became the bird of Venus. Modern Masons 
have commemorated the messenger of Noah 
in the honorary degree of "Ark and Dove/' 
which is sometimes conferred on Royal Arch 
Masons. 

On the 27th day of the second month, equiva- 
lent to the 12th of November, in the year of 
the world 1657, Noah, with his family, left the 
ark. It was exactly one year of 365 days, or 
just one revolution of the sun, that the patri- 
arch was enclosed in the ark. This was not 
unobserved by the descendants of Noah, and 
hence, in consequence of Enoch's life of 365 
days, and Noah s residence in the ark for the 
same apparently mystic period, the Noachites 
confounded the worship of the solar orb with 
the idolatrous adoration which they paid to 
the patriarchs who were saved from the del- 
uge. They were led to this, too, from an ad- 
ditional reason, that Noah, as the restorer 
of the human race, seemed, in some sort, to 
be a type of the regenerating powers of the 
sun. 

So important an event as the deluge, must 
have produced a most impressive effect upon 
the religious dogmas and rites of the nations 
which succeeded it. Consequently, we shall 
find some allusion to it in the annals of every 
people and some memorial of the principal 
circumstances connepted with it, m their 
religious observances. At first, it is to be sup- 
posed that a veneration for the character of 
the second parent of the human race must 
have been long preserved by his descendants. 
Nor would they have been unmindful of the 
proper reverence due to that sacred vessel — 
sacred in their eyes — which had preserved 
their great progenitor from the fury of the 
waters. "They would long cherish," says 
Alwood (Lit. Antiq. of Greece, p. 182), "the 
memory of those worthies who were .rescued 
from the common lot of utter ruin; they 
would call to mind, with an extravagance of 
admiration, the means adopted for their pree- 



516 



NOAH 



NOFFODEI 



ervation; they would adore the wisdom which 
contrived, and the goodness which prompted 
to, the execution of such a plan." So pious 
a feeling would exist, and be circumscribed 
within its proper limits of reverential grati- 
tude, while the legends of the deluge continued 
to be preserved in their purity, and while 
the Divine preserver of Noah was remembered 
as the one god of his posterity. But when, 
by the confusion and dispersion at Babel, the 
true teachings of Enoch and Noah were lost, 
and idolatry or polytheism was substituted 
for the ancient faith, then Noah became a 
god, worshiped under different names in dif- 
ferent countries, and the ark was transformed 
into the temple of the Deity. Hence arose 
those peculiar systems of initiations which, 
known under the name of the " Arkite rites/' 
formed a part of the worship of the ancient 
world, ana traces of which are to be found 
in almost all the old systems of religion. 

It was in the six hundredth year of his age, 
that Noah, with his family, was released from 
the ark. Grateful for his preservation, he 
erected an altar and prepared a sacrifice of 
thank-offerings to the Deity. A Masonic 
tradition says, that for this purpose he made 
use of that stone of foundation which he had 
discovered in the subterranean vault of Enoch, 
and which he had carried with him into the 
ark. It was at this time that God made his 
covenant with Noah, and promised him that 
the earth should never again be destroyed by a 
flood. Here, too, he received those command- 
ments for the government of himself and his 
posterity which have been called "the seven 
precepts of the Noachidas." 

It is to be supposed that Noah and his im- 
mediate descendants continued to live for 
many years in the neighborhood of the moun- 
tain upon which the ark had been thrown 
by the subsidence of the waters. There is 
indeed no evidence that the patriarch ever 
removed from it In the nine hundred and 
fiftieth year of his age he died, and, according 
to the tradition of the Orientalists, was buried 
in the land of Mesopotamia. During that 

Seriod of his life which was subsequent to the 
eluge, he continued to instruct his children 
in the great truths of religion. Hence, Ma- 
sons are sometimes called Noachidae, or the 
sons of Noah, to designate them, in a pecu- 
liar manner, as the preservers of the sacred 
deposit of Masonic truth bequeathed to them 
by their great ancestor; and circumstances 
intimately connected with the transactions of 
the immediate descendants of the patriarch 
are recorded in a degree which has been 
adopted by the Ancient and Accepted Scot- 
tish Rite under the name of '"Patriarch 
Noachite." 

The primitive teachings of the patriarch, 
which were simple but comprehensive, con- 
tinued to be preserved in the line of the patri- 
archs and the prophets to the days of Solo- 
mon, but were soon lost to the other descend- 
ants of Noah, by a circumstance to which we 
must now refer. After the death of Noah, 
his sons removed from the region of Mount 



Ararat, where, until then, they had resided, 
and 'Unveiling from the East, found a plain 
in the land of Shinar, and dwelt there." Here 
they commenced the building of a lofty tower. 
This act seems to have been displeasing to 
God, for in consequence of it, he confounded 
their language, so that one could not under- 
stand what another said: the result of which 
was that they separated and dispersed over 
the face of the earth in search of different 
dwelling-places. With the loss of the original 
language, the great truths which that language 
haa conveyed, disappeared from their minds. 
The worship of the one true God was aban- 
doned. A multitude of deities began to be 
adored. Idolatry took the place of pure the- 
ism. And then arose the Arkite rites, or the 
worship of Noah and the Ark. Sabaism, or the 
adoration of the stars, and other superstitious 
observances, in all of which, however, the 
priesthood, by their mysteries or initiations 
into a kind of Spurious Freemasonry, pre- 
served, among a multitude of errors, some 
faint allusions to the truth, and retained just 
so much light as to make their "darkness vis- 
ible." 

Such are the Noachio traditions of Ma- 
sonry, which, though if considered as ma- 
terials of history, would be worth but little, 
yet have furnished valuable sources of sym- 
bolism, and in that way are full of wise in- 
struction. 

Noah, Precepts of. The precepts of the 
patriarch Noah, which were preserved as the 
Constitutions of our ancient brethren, are 
seven in number, and are as follows: 

1. Renounce all idols. 

2. Worship the only true God. 

3. Commit no murder. 

4. Be not defiled by incest. 

5. Do not steal. 

6. Be just. 

7. Eat no flesh with blood in H. 

The "proselytes of the gate," as the Jews 
termed tnose who lived among them without 
undergoing circumcision or observing the cere- 
monial law, were bound to obey the seven pre- 
cepts of Noah. The Talmud says that the 
first six of these precepts were given originally 
by God to Adam, and the seventh afterward 
to Noah. These precepts were designed to 
be obligatory on all the Noachicbe. or de- 
scendants of Noah, and consequently, from 
the time of Moses, the Jews would not suffer 
a stranger to live among them unless he ob- 
served these precepts, and never gave quarter 
in battle to an enemy who was ignorant of 
them. 

Noffodel. The name of this person is dif- 
ferently spelled by different writers. Villani, 
and after him Burnes, call him Noffo Dei, 
Reghellini Neffodri, and Addison Nosso de 
Florentin; but the more usual spelling is Nof- 
fodei. He and Squin de Flexian were the first 
to make those false accusations against the 
Knights Templars which led to the downfall of 
the Order. Naffodei, who was a Florentine, 
is asserted by some writers to have been an 
apostate Templar, who had been condemned 



NOMENCLATURE 



by the Preceptor and Chapter of Prance 
to perpetual imprisonment for impiety and 
crime. But Dupui denies this, and says that 
he nevex was a Templar, but that, having been 
banished from his native country, he had been 
condemned to rigorous penalties by the Pre- 
voet of Paris for his crimes. For a history of 
his treachery to the Templars, see Sguin de 
Flexion. 

Nomenclature. There are several Ma- 
sonic works, printed or in manuscript^ which 
contain lists of the names of degrees m Ma- 
sonry. Such a list is called by the French 
writers a nomenclature. The most important 
of these nomenclatures are those of Peuvret, 
Fustier, Pyron, and Lemanceau. Ragon has 
a nomenclature of degrees in his TuUeur G&n- 
trale. And Thory has an exhaustive and de- 
scriptive one in his Acta Latomorum. Oliver 
also gives a nomenclature, but an imperfect 
one, of one hundred and fifty degrees in his 
Historical Landmarks. 

Nomination. It is the custom in some 
Grand Lodges and Lodges to nominate candi- 
dates for election to office, and in others this 
custom is not adopted. But the practise of 
nomination has the sanction of ancient usage. 
Thus the records of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, under date of June 24. 1717, tell us that 
"before dinner the oldest Master Mason . . . 
in the chair proposed a list of proper candi- 
dates, and tne brethren, by a majority of 
hands, elected Mr. Anthony Bayer, Gentleman, 
Grand Master of Masons. 1 ' (Constitutions, 
1738, p. 109.) And the present Consti- 
tution of the Grand Lodge of England re- 
quires that the Grand Master shall be nom- 
inated in December, and the Grand Treasurer 
in September, but that the election shall not 
take place until the following March. Nomi- 
nations appear, therefore, to be the correct Ma- 
sonic practise; yet, if a member be elected to 
any office to which he had not previously been 
nominated, the election will be valid, for a 
nomination is not essential. 

Non-Afflliatlon. The state of being un- 
connected by membership with a Lodge. 
(See Unaffiliated Mason.) 

Nonesynches. In the Old Constitutions 
known as the Dowland MS. is found the 
following passage: "St. Albones loved well 
Masons and cherished them much. And he 
made their paie right good, . . . for -be gave 
them ijs-via, a weeke, and iiid. to their non- 
esynches." This wordj which cannot, in this 
precise form, be found m any archaic diction- 
ary, evidently means food or refreshment, for 
in the parallel passage in other Constitutions 
the word used is cheer, which has the same 
meaning. The old English word from which 
we get our luncheon is noonshun, which is 
defined to be the refreshment taken at 
noon, when laborers desist from work to shun 
the neat. Of this, nonesynches is a corrupt 
form. 

Nonls. A significant word in the Thirty- 
second Degree of the Scottish Rite. The 
original old French rituals endeavor to ex- 
plain it, and say that it and two other words 



NORNiE 517 

in conjunction are formed out of the initials 
of the words of a particular aphorism which 
has reference to the secret arcana and "sacred 
treasure" of Masonry. Out of several inter- 
pretationS; no one can be positively asserted 
as the original, although the intent is apparent 
to him to whom the same may lawfully belong. 
(See Salix and Tengu.) 

Non nobis* It is prescribed that the motto 
beneath the Passion Cross on the Grand 
Standard of a Commandery of Knights Tem- 
plar shall be "Non nobis Domine ! non nobis, 
sed nomini tuo da Gloriam." That is, Not 
unto us, O Lord! not unto us, but unto Thy 
name give Glory. It is the commencement 
of the 115th Psalm, which is sung in the 
Christian church on occasions of thanks- 
giving. It was the ancient Templar's shout 
of victory. 

Non-Resldent. The members of a Lodge 
who do not reside in the locality of a Lodge, 
but live at a great distance from it in another 
State, or, perhaps, country, but still continue 
members of it, and contribute to its support 
by the payment of Lodge dues, are called 
"non-resident members." Many Lodges, in 
view of the fact that such members enjoy 
none of the local privileges of their Lodges, 
require from them a less amount of annual 
payment than they do from their resident 
members. 

Noorthouck, John. The editor of the 
fifth, and by far the best, edition of the Book 
of Constitutions, which was published in 1784. 
He was the son of Herman Noorthouck, a 
bookseller, and was born in London about the 
year 1746. Oliver describes him as "a clever 
and intelligent man, and an expert Mason." 
His literary pretensions were, however, greater 
than this modest encomium would indicate. 
He was patronized by the celebrated printer, 
William Strahan, and passed nearly the whole 
of his life in the occupations of an author, an 
index maker, and a corrector of the press. 
He was, besides his edition of the Book of 
Constitutions, the writer of a History of Lon- 
don, 4to, published in 1773, and an Historical 
and Classical Dictionary, 2 vols., 8vo, pub- 
lished in 1776. To him also, as well as to 
some others, has been attributed the author- 
ship of a once popular book entitled The 
Man after God's own Heart. In 1852, J. R. 
Smith, a bookseller of London, advertised 
for sale "the original autograph manuscript 
of the life of John Noorthouck." He calls 
this "a very interesting piece of autobiog- 
raphy, containing many curious literary 
anecdotes of the last century, and deserving 
to be printed." Noorthouck died in 1816, 
aged about seventy years. 

Normal* A perpendicular to a curve; and 
included between the curve and the axis of 
the abscissas. Sometimes a square, used by 
Operative Masons, for proving angles. 

Nornse* In the Scandinavian Mysteries 
these were three maidens, known as Urd, 
Verdandi, and Skuld, signifying Past. Present, 
and Future. Their position is seated near the 
Urdar-wells under the world-tree Yggdrasil, 



518 NORTH 



NORTH 



and there they determine the fate of both 
gods and men. They daily draw water from 
the spring, and with it and the surrounding 
clay sprinkle the ash-tree Yggdrasil, that the 
branches may not wither and decay. 

North* The north is Masonically called 
a place of darkness. The sun in his progress 
through the ecliptic never reaches farther 
than 23° 28' north of the ecruator. A wall 
being erected on any part of toe earth farther 
north than that, will therefore, at meridian, 
receive the rays of the sun only on its south 
side, while the north will be entirely in 
shadow at the hour of meridian. The use of 
the north as a symbol of darkness is found, 
with the present interpretation, in the early 
rituals of the last century. It is a portion of 
the old sun worship, of which we find so many 
relics in Gnosticism, in Hermetic philosophy, 
and in Freemasonry. The east was the place 
of the sun's daily birth, and hence highly 
revered; the north the plaoe of his annual 
death, to which he approached only to lose 
his vivifio heat, and to clothe the earth in the 
darkness of long nights and the dreariness 
of winter. 

However, this point of the compass, or 
place of Masonic darkness, must not be con- 
strued as implying that in the Temple of Sol- 
omon no light or ventilation was nad from 
this direction. The Talmud, and as well 
Josephus. allude to an extensive opening 
toward the North, framed with costly mag- 
nificence, and known as the great " Golden 
Window/ 9 There were as many openings 
in the outer wall on the north as on the south 
side. There were three entrances through 
the " Chel " on the north and six on the south. 
(See Temple.) 

While once within the walls and Chel of 
the Temple all advances were made from 
east to west, yet the north side was mainly 
used for stabling, slaughtering, cleansing, 
etc., and contained the chambers of broken 
knives, defiled stones, of the house of burn- 
ing, and of rheep. The Masonic symbol- 
ism df the entrance of an initiate from the 
north, or more practically from the north- 
west, and advancing toward the position 
occupied by the corner-stone in the north- 
east, forcibly calls to mind the triplet of 
Homer: 

"Two marble doors unfold on either side; 
Sacred the South by which the gods descend; 
But mortals enter on the Northern end." 

So in the Mysteries of Dionysos, the gate 
of entrance for the aspirant was from the 
north; but when purged from his corrup- 
tions, he was termed indifferently new-born 
or immortal, and the sacred south door was 
thence accessible to his steps. 

In the Middle Ages, below and to the 
right of the judges stood the accuser, facing 
north; to the left was the defendant, in the 
north facing south. Bro. George P. Fort, 
in his Antiquities of Freemasonry , says: 41 In 
the centre of the court, directly before the 
judge, stood an altar piece or shrine, upon 



which an open Bible was displayed. The 
south, to the right of the justiciaries! was 
deemed honorable and worthy for a plaintiff: 
but the north was typical of a frightful ana 
diabolical sombreness. Thus, when a solemn 
oath of purgation was taken in grievous 
criminal accusations, the accused turned 
toward the north. "The judicial headsman, 
in executing the extreme penalty of out- 
raged justice, turned the convict's face 
northward, or towards the place whence em- 
anated the earliest dismal shades of night. 
When Earl Hakon bowed a tremulous knee 
before the deadly powers of Paganism, 
and sacrificed his seven-year-old child, he 
gased out upon the far-off, gloomy north. 

"In Nastrond, or shores of death, stood 
a revolting hall, whose portals opened toward 
the north — the regions of night. North, 
by the Jutes, was denominated black or 
sombre: the Frisians called it fear corner. 
The gallows faced the north, and from these 
hyperborean shores everything base and 
terrible proceeded. In consequence of this 
belief, it was ordered that, in the adjudica- 
tion of a crime, the accused should be on 
the north side of the court enclosure. And 
in harmony with the Scandinavian super- 
stition, no Lodge of Masons iUumines the 
darkened north with a symbolic light, whose 
brightness would be unable to dissipate the 
gloom of that cardinal point with which was 
associated all that was sinstrous and dire- 
ful." (P. 292.) 

North Carolina. The early history of 
Masonry in no State is more uncertain than 
in that of North Carolina, in consequence 
of the carelessness of the authorities who have 
attempted to write its early annals. Thus, 
Robert Williams, the Grand Secretary, in a 
letter written to the G^and Lodge of Ken- 
tucky in 1806. said that "the Grand Lodge 
of North Carolina was constituted by Charter 
issued from the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 
the year 1761, signed by Henry Somerset. 
Duke of Beaufort ... as Grand Master; and 
attested by George John Spencer, Earl of 
Spencer ... as Grand Secretary." Now this 
statement contains on its face the evidences 
of flagrant error. 1. The Duke of Beaufort 
never was Grand Master of Scotland. 2. 
Hie Grand Master of Scotland in 1761 was 
the Earl of Elgin. 3. The Earl of Spencer 
never was Grand Secretary either of England 
or Scotland, but Samuel Spencer was Grand 
Secretary of the Grand Lodge of England from 
1757 to 1767, and died in 1768. 4. The Duke 
of Beaufort was not Grand Master of Eng- 
land in 1761, but held that office from 1767 
to 1771. There is no mention in the printed 
records of the Grand Lodge of England of 
a Charter at any time granted for a Pro- 
vincial Grand Lodge in North Carolina. 
But in two lists of Lodges chartered by that 
body, we find that on August 21, 1767, a 
Warrant was granted for the establishment 
of "Royal White Hart Lodge," at Halifax, 
in North Carolina. Probably this is the 
true date of the introduction of Masonry 



NORTH 



into that State. A record in the transactions 
of the St. John's Grand Lodge of Massachu- 
setts says that on October 2, 1767, that 
body granted a deputation to Thomas Cooper, 
Master of Pitt County Lodge, as Deputy 
Grand Master of the province; but there is 
no evidence that he ever' exercised the pre- 
rogatives of the office. Judge Martin, in a 
discourse delivered on June 24, 1789, says 
that Joseph Montford was appointed, toward 
the year 1769, as Provincial Grand Master 
by the Duke of Beaufort, and that in 1771 
he constituted St. John's Lodge at Newbern. 
This was probably the true date of the 
Provincial Grand Lodge of North Carolina, 
for in 1787 we find nine Lodges in the terri- 
tory, five of which, at least, had the provin- 
cial numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8, while the Royal 
Hart Lodge retained its number on the 
English Register as 403, a number which 
agrees with that of the English lists in my 
possession. On December 16, 1787, a con- 
vention of Lodges met at Tarborough and 
organised the "Grand Lodge of the State 
of North Carolina," electing Hon. Samuel 
Johnston Grand Master. 

There was a Grand Chapter in North 
Carolina at an early period in the present 
century, which ceased to exist about the 
year 1827; but Royal Arch Masonry was 
cultivated by four Chapters instituted by 
the General Grand Chapter. On June 28, 
1847, the Grand Chapter was reorganized. 

The Grand Council was organized in 
June, 1860, by Councils which had been 
established by Dr. Mackey, under the au- 
thority of the Supreme Council of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite. 

North Dakota. As soon as it was deter- 
mined by the Grand Lodge of Dakota, at its 
session, held June 11-13, 1889, that there 
should be a division of the Grand Lodge of 
Dakota to correspond with the political 
division of the Territory into North and South 
Dakota, a convention was held June 12, 1889, 
at the city of Mitchell, where the Grand Lodge 
was in session, and the following Lodges of 
North Dakota were represented, viz.: 

Shiloh, No. 8; Pembina, No. 10; Casselton, 
No. 12; Acacia, No. 15; Bismarck, No. 16; 
Jamestown, No. 19; Valley City, No. 21; 
Mandan, No. 23; Cereal, No. 29; Hillsboro, 
No. 32; Crescent, No. 36; Cheyenne Valley, 
No. 41; EUendale, No. 49; Sanborn, No. 51; 
Wahpeton, No. 58; North Star, No. 59; 
Minto, No. 60; Mackey. No. 63; Goase River, 
No. 64; Hiram, No. 74; Minnewaukan, No. 
75; Tongue River, No. 78; Bathgate, No. 80; 
Euclid, No. 84; Anchor, No. 88; Golden Val- 
ley, No. 90; Occidental, No. 99. 

The convention resolved that it was expe- 
dient to organize a Grand Lodge for North 
Dakota. A constitution and by-laws were 
adopted. 

On June 13th, the first session of the Grand 
Lodge was held in the city of Mitchell. The 
elected and appointed officers were present 
and representatives of the above twenty 
Lodges. 



NOVA 519 



North Star. This star is frequently used 
as a Masonic symbol, as are the morning 
star, the day star, the seven stars. Thus, 
the morning star is the forerunner of the 
Great Light that is about to break upon the 
Lodge; or, as in the grade of G. Master 
Architect, twelfth of the Scottish system, 
the initiate is received at the hour "when 
the day star has risen in the east, and the 
north star looked down upon the seven stars 
that circle round him. The symbolism 
is truth; thus, the North star is the pole 
star, the Polaris of the mariner, the Cyno- 
sura, that guides Masons over the stormy 
seas of time. The seven stars are the sym- 
bol of right and justice to the order and the 
country. 

Northeast Corner. In the "Institutes 
of Menu/ 1 the sacred book of the Brahmans, 
it is said: "If any one has an incurable 
disease, let him advance in a straight path 
towards the invincible northeast point, feeding 
on water and air till his mortal frame totally 
decays, and his soul becomes united with 
the supreme." 

It is at the same northeast point that 
those first instructions begin in Masonry 
which enable the true Mason to commence 
the erection of that spiritual temple in 
which, after the decay of his mortal frame, 
"his soul becomes united with the su- 
preme." 

In the important ceremony which refers 
to the northeast corner of the Lodge, the 
candidate becomes as one who is, to all 
outward appearance, a perfect and upright 
man and Mason, the representative of a 
spiritual corner-stone, on which he is to erect 
his future moral and Masonic edifice. 

This symbolic reference of the corner-stone 
of a material edifice to a Mason when, at 
his first initiation, he commences the moral 
and intellectual task of erecting a spiritual 
temple in his heart, is beautifully sustained 
when we look at all the qualities that are 
required to constitute a " well-tried, true, 
and trusty 1 ' corner-stone. The squareness 
of its surface, emblematic of morality — its 
cubical form, emblematic of firmness and 
stability of character— and the peculiar finish 
and fineness of the material, emblematio of 
virtue and holiness---show that the ceremony 
of the northeast corner of the Lodge was un- 
doubtedly intended to portray, in the conse- 
crated language of symbolism, the necessity 
of integrity and stability of conduct, of truth- 
fulness and uprightness of character, and of 
purity and holiness of life, which t just at that 
time and in that place, the candidate is most 
impressively charged to maintain. 

Notuma* A significant word in tome of 
the high degrees of the Templar system. 
It is the anagram of Aumont, who is said to 
have been the first Grand Master of the 
Templars in Scotland, and the restorer of 
the Order after the death of De Molay. 

Nova Scotia. The first Lodge established 
in Nova Scotia was at Annapolis and under 
authority from Boston by the St. John's 



520 NOVICE 



Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. Under date 
of 1740 the minutes read: " The Rt. Worsh'l 
Grand Master granted a Deputation at the 
Petition of sundry Brethren for holding a 
lodge at Annapolis in Nova Scotia, and 
appointed the Right Worshipful Erasmus 
James Phillips, D.G.ML there, who after- 
ward erected a Lodge at Halifax and appointed 
His Excellency Edward Cornwallis their first 
Master." For the next hundred years, 
Lodges were instituted and Provincial Mas- 
ters appointed by England and Scotland, and 
Lodges alone without superior provincial 
authority by Ireland. In June, 1866, an 
independent Grand Lodge was instituted and 
recognised by most of the Masonic powers 
of the United States. But as none of the 
Lodges holding Warrants from the Grand 
Lodge of Scotland would recognise it, a 
subsequent and more satisfactory arrange- 
ment took place, and on June 24, 18o9, a Grand 
Lodge was organised by the union of all the 
subordinate Lodges and Alexander Keith 
was elected Grand Master. 

Novice. 1. The Second Degree of the 
IUuminati of Bavaria. 2. The Fifth Degree 
of the Rite of Strict Observance. 

Novice, Maponne. That is to say, a 
female Mason who is a Novice. It is the 
First Degree of the Moral Order of the 
Dames of Mount Tabor. 

Novice, Mythological. (Novice Mylho- 
logipie.) The First Degree of the Historical 
Order of the Dames of Mount Tabor. 

Novice, Scottish. {Novice Ecossaise.) 
The First Degree of initiation in the Order of 
Mount Tabor. 

Novitiate. The time of probation, as 
well as of preparatory training, which, in all 
religious orders, precedes the solemn pro- 
fession at least one year. By dispensation 
only can the period of time be reduced. 
Novices are immediately subject to a superior 
called Master of Novices, and their time 
must be devoted to prayer and to liturgical 
training. 

Nuk-pe-nuk. The Egyptian equivalent 
for the expression "I am that I am." 

Numbers. The symbolism which is de- 
rived from numbers was common to the 
Pythagoreans, the Kabbalists, the Gnostics, 
and all mystical associations. Of all super- 
stitions, it is the oldest and the most gen- 
erally diffused. Allusions are to be found 
to it in all systems of religion; the Jewish 
Scriptures, for instance, abound in it, and 
the Christian shows a snare of its influence. 
It is not, therefore, surprising; that the most 
predominant of all symbolism m Freemasonry 
is that of numbers. 

The doctrine of numbers as symbols is 
most familiar to us because it formed the 
fundamental idea of the philosophy of 
Pvthagoras. Yet it was not original with 
him, since he brought his theories from 
Egypt and the East, where this numerical 

r holism had always prevailed. Jambli- 
i tells us (VU. Pyth.. o. 28) that Pythago- 
ras himself admitted that he had received 



NUMBERS 



the doctrine of numbers from Orpheus, 
who taught that numbers were the most 
provident beginning of all things in heaven, 
earth, and the intermediate space, and the 
root of the perpetuity of Divine beings, of 
the gods and of demons. From the disciples 
of Pythagoras we learn (for he himself 
taught only orally, and left no writings) that 
his theory was that numbers contain the ele- 
ments of all thingB, and even of the sciences. 
Numbers are the invisible covering of beings 
as the body is the visible one. Thev are the 
primary causes upon which the whole system 
of the universe rests; and he who knows these 
numbers knows at the same time the laws 
through which nature exists. The Pythago- 
reans, said Aristotle (Metapk., xii., 8), make 
all thingB proceed from numbers. Dacier 
(Vie de Pyth.), it is true, denies that this 
was the doctrine of Pythagoras, and contends 
that it was only a corruption of his disciples. 
It is an immaterial point. We know that 
the symbolism of numbers was the basis 
of what is called the Pythagorean philosophy. 
But it would be wrong to suppose that from it 
the Masons derived their system, since the 
two are in some points antagonistic; the 
Masons, for instance, revere the nine as a 
sacred number of peculiar significance, while 
the Pythagoreans looked upon it with de- 
testation. In the system of the Pythagoreans, 
ten was, of all numbers, the most perfect, 
because it symbolises the completion of things; 
but in Masonic symbolism the number ten 
is unknown. Four is not ( in Masonry, a num- 
ber of much representative importance: but 
it was sacredly revered by the Pythago- 
reans as the tetractys, or figure derived 
from the Jewish Tetragrammaton, by which 
then r swore. 

Plato also indulged in a theory of sym- 
bolic numbers, and calls him happy who 
understands spiritual numbers and per- 
ceives their mighty influences. Numbers, 
according to him, are the cause of universal 
harmony, and of the production of all things. 
The Neoplatonists extended and developed 
this theory, and from them it passed over 
to the Gnostics; from them probably to the 
Rosicrucians. to the Hermetic philosophers, 
and to the freemasons. 

Cornelius Agrippa has descanted at great 
length, in his Occult Philosophy, on the sub- 
ject of numbers. "That there lies," he 
says, "wonderful efficacy and virtue in 
numbers, as well for good as for evil, not 
only the most eminent philosophers teach, 
but also the Catholic Doctors.' 1 And he 
quotes St. Hilary as saving that the seventy 
Elders brought the Psalms into order by the 
efficacy of numbers. 

Of the prevalence of what are called 
representative numbers in the Old and New 
Testament, there is abundant evidence. 
"However we may explain it," says Dr. 
Mahan (Palmoni, p. 67), "certain numerals 
in the Scriptures occur so often in connection 
with certain classes of ideas, that we are 
naturally led to associate the one with the 



NUMERATION 



NYCTAZONTES 



521 



other. This is more or less admitted with 
regard to the numbers Seven, Twelve, Forty, 
Seventy, and it may be a few more. The 
Fathers were disposed to admit it with regard 
to many others, and to see in it the mart* of 
a supernatural desian." 

Among the Greeks and the Romans there 
was a superstitious veneration for certain 
numbers. The same practise is found among 
all the Eastern nations; it entered more or 
less into all the ancient systems of philoso- 
phy; constituted a part of all the old relig- 
ions; was accepted to a great extent by the 
early Christian Fathers; constituted an im- 
portant part of the Kabbala; was adopted 
by the Gnostics, the Rosicrucians, ana all 
the mystical societies of the Middle Apes; 
and finally has carried its influence into 
Freemasonry. 

The respect paid by Freemasons to certain 
numbers, all of which are odd, is founded 
not on the belief of any mafldcal virtue, 
but because they are assumed to be the types 
or representatives of certain ideas. That 
is to say, a number is in Masonry a symbol, 
and no more. It is venerated, not because 
it has any supernatural efficacy, as thought 
the Pythagoreans and others, but because 
it has concealed within some allusion to a 
sacred object or holy thought, which it 
symbolizes. The number three, for instance, 
like the triangle, is a symbol; the number 
nine, like the triple triangle, another. The 
Masonic doctrine of sacred numbers must 
not, therefore, be confounded with the 
doctrine of numbers which prevailed in other 
systems. 

The most important symbolic or sacred 
numbers in Masonry are three, fine, seven, 
nine, twenty-seven, and eighty-one. Their 
interpretation will be found under their 
respective titles. 

Numeration by Letters. There is a 
Kabbalistical process especially used in the 
Hebrew language, but sometimes applied to 
other languages, for instance, to the Greek, 
by which a mystical meaning of a word is 
deduced from the numerical value of the 
words of which it is composed, each letter 
of the alphabet being equivalent to a number. 
Thus in Hebrew the name of God, JT\ J AH, 
is equivalent to 15, because *->10 ana D«5, 
and 15 thus becomes a sacred number. In 
Greek, the Kabbalistic word Abraxas, or 
a&patas, is made to symbolize the solar year 
of 365 days, because the sum of the value of 
the letters of the word is 365; thus, »— 1, 
0-2. p«100, a-1, {-60. «-l, and *-200. 
To facilitate these Kabbalistic operations, 



which are sometimes used in the high and 
especially the Hermetical Masonry, the 

Hbbrxw. Grxxk. 



n 

i 
p 

? 

f 

D 

K 



,D 



1 


A, a 


1 


2 




2 


8 


r,y 


8 


4 


A, o 


4 


K 
V 


JS, f 

7. t 


K 
V 


ft 


ft 


• 


H,f 


ft 
o 


ft 
o 




Q 


9 


I*« 


10 


10 


K • 


20 


20 


A, X 


80 


80 


M,ac 


40 


40 


Kt 


50 


50 


60 


60 


0, o 


70 


70 


n, r 


80 


80 




100 


90 




200 


100 


T,r 


800 


200 


T,p 


400 


800 




500 


400 


X,* 
%* 


600 




700 






800 



numerical value of the Hebrew and Greek 
letters is here given. 

Nun. (Heb. jU, a fish, in Syriac an 
inkhorn.) The Chaldaic and hieroglyphic 
form of this Hebrew letter was like Fig. 1, 
and the Egyptian like Fig. 2, signifying 



Fig. 1. 



Kg. 2. 



fishes in any of these forms. Joshua was 
the son of Nun, or a fish, the deliverer of 
Israel. As narrated of the Noah in the 
Hindu account of the deluge, whereby the 
forewarning of a fish caused the construction 
of an ark and the salvation of one family of 
the human race from the flood of waters. 
(See Beginnings of History, by Lenormant.) 

Nursery. The first of the three classes 
into which Weishaupt divided his Order of 
IUuminati, comprising three degrees. (See 
IUuminati.) 

Nyaya* The name of the second of the three 
great systems of ancient Hindu philosophy. 

Nyeiaxontes* An ancient sect who praised 
God by day, but rested in quiet and pre- 
sumed security during the night. 



522 



OATH 



O 



O. The fifteenth letter in the English 
and in most of the Western alphabets. The 
corresponding letter in the Hebrew and 
Phoenician alphabets was called Ayn 9 that 
is, eye; the primitive form of the Phoenician 
letter being the rough picture of an eye, or 
a circle with a dot m the center. This dot 
will be observed in ancient M8S., 
f w but being dropped the circle forms 
| / the letter O. The numerical value 
y is 70. and in Hebrew is formed thus, 
/ the hieroglyphic being a plant, 

as well as at times a circle or an eye. 
Oak Apple, Society of the. Instituted 
about 1658, and lapsed under the disturb- 
ances in Tfa flVTid during the reign of James 
II., but it lingered among the Stuart ad- 
herents for many years. 
Oanneg. The earliest instructor of man 
in letters, sciences, and 
arts, especially in archi- 
A tecture, geometry, bot- 
^HB f any. and agriculture, and 
^^^f £ in all other useful knowl- 
^^^mf edge, was the fish god 
*J^^^F Oannes (myth). This 
^^■K universal teacher, accord- 
a^LH jfev to Berossus, appeared 

VIA^P in the Persian Gulf, 
M ■ bordering on Babylonia, 

W and, although an animal, 

^^^■^^L-p^. was endowed with reason 
W H^fffc and great knowledge. 
1 The usual appearance of 



the creature was tna* of a nan. Having a 
human head beneath that of a fishy and feet 
like unto a man. This personage conversed 
with men during the day, but never ate 
with them. At Kouyunjik there was a 
colossal statue of the fish-god Oannes. The 
following is from the Book of Enoch (vol. 
ii., p. 154): "The Masons hold their grand 
festival on the day of St. John, not knov- 5 — 
that therein they merely signify the fish- 
Oannes, the first Hermes and the 
founder of the Mysteries, the first messenger 
to whom the Apocalypse was given, and 
whom they ignorantly confound with the 
fabulous author of the common Apocalypse. 
The sun is then (midsummer day) in its great- 
est altitude. In this the Naros is commemor- 
ated." 

Oath. In the year 1738, Clement XII.. 
at that time Pope of Rome, issued a bull of 
excommunication against the Freemasons, 
and assigned, as the reason of his condem- 
nation, that the Institution confederated 
persons of all religions and sects in a mys- 
terious bond of union, and compelled them to 
secrecy by an oath taken on the Bible, accom- 
panied by certain ceremonies, and the im- 
precation of heavy punishments. 

This persecution of the Freemasons, on 
account of their having an obligatory prom- 
ise of secrecy among their ceremonies, has 
not been confined to the Papal see. We 



shall find it existing in a sect which we 
should suppose, of all others, the least likely 
to follow m the footsteps of a Roman pontiff. 
In 1757, the Associate Synod of Seoeders 
of Scotland adopted an act, concerning what 
they called "the Mason oath/ 1 in which it is 
declared that all persons who shall refuse to 
make such revelations as the Kirk Sessions 
may require, and to promise to abstain from 
all future connection with the Order, "shall 
be reputed under scandal and incapable of 
admission to sealing ordinances," or as Pope 
Clement expressed it, be "ipso facto ex- 
communicated." 

In the preamble to the act, the Synod 
assign the reasons for their objections to 
this oath, and for their ecclesiastical censure 
of all who contract it. These reasons are: 
"That there were very strong presumptions, 
that t among Masons, an oath of secrecy is 
administered to entrants into their society, 
even under a capital penalty, and before 
any of those things, which they swear to 
keep secret, be revealed to them; and that 
they pretend to take some of these secrets 
from the Bible; besides other things which 
are ground of scruple in the manner of swear- 
ing the said oath/' 

These have, from that day to this, consti- 
tuted the sum and substance of the objec- 
tions to the obligation of Masonic secrecy, 
and, for the purpose of brief examination, 
they may be classed under the following 
heads: 

First. It is an oath. 

Secondly. It is administered before the 
secrets are communicated. 

Thirdly. It is accompanied by certain 
superstitious ceremonies. 

Fourthly. It is attended by a penalty. 

Fifthly. It is considered, by Masons, as 
paramount to the obligations of the laws 
of the land. 

In replying to these statements, it is evi- 
dent that the conscientious Freemason 
labors under great disadvantage. He is at 
every step restrained by his honor from 
either the denial or admission of his adver- 
saries in relation to the mysteries of the 
Craft. But it may be granted, for the sake 
of argument, that every one of the first 
four charges is true, and then the inquiry 
will be in what respect they are offensive or 
immoral. 

First. The oath or promise cannot, in 
itself, be sinful, unless there is something 
immoral in the obligation it imposes. Sim- 
ply to promise secrecy, or the performance 
of any good action, and to strengthen this 
promise by the solemnity of an oath, is 
not, in itself, forbidden by any Divine or 
human law. Indeed, the infirmity of hu- 
man nature demands, in many instances, 
the sacred sanction of such an attestation; 
and it is continually exacted in the transac- 
tions of man with man, without any notion 



OATH 

of sinfulness. Where the time, and place, 
and ciroumstanoes are unconnected with 
levity, or profanity, or crime, the adminis- 
tration of an obligation binding to secrecy, 
or obedience, or veracity, or any other virtue, 
and the invocation of Deity to witness, ana 
to strengthen that obligation, or to punish 
its violation, is incapable, by any perversion 
of Scripture, of being considered a criminal 
act. 

Secondly. The objection that the oath 
is administered before the secrets are made 
known, is sufficiently absurd to provoke a 
smile. The purposes of such an oath would 
be completely frustrated, by revealing the 
thing to be concealed before the promise 
of concealment was made. In that case, it 
would be optional with the candidate to 
give the obligation, or to withhold it, as 
best suited his incunations. If it be con- 
ceded that the exaction of a solemn promise 
of secrecy is not, in itself, improper, then 
certainly the time of exacting it is before 
and not after the revelation. 

Dr. Harris (Masonic Discounts, Disc. 
DC., p. 184) has met this objection in the 
following language: 

"What the ignorant call 'the oath/ is 
simply an obligation, covenant, and prom- 
ise, exacted previously to the divulging of 
the specialties of the Order, and our means 
of recognising each other: that they shall 
be kept from the knowledge of the world, 
lest their original intent should be thwarted, 
and their benevolent purport prevented. 
Now, pray, what harm is there in this? Do 
you not all, when you have anything of a 
private nature which you are willing to 
confide in a particular friend, before you ieU 
him what it is. demand a solemn promise of 
secrecy? Ana is there not the utmost pro- 
priety in knowing whether your friend is de- 
termined to conceal your secret, before you 
presume to reveal it? Your answer confutes 
your cavil." 

Thirdly. The objection that the oath is 
accompanied by certain superstitious cere- 
monies does not seem to be entitled to much 
weight. Oaths, in all countries and at all 
times, have been accompanied by peculiar 
rites, intended to increase the solemnity 
and reverence of the act. The ancient 
Hebrews, when they took an oath, placed 
the hand beneath the thigh of the person 
to whom they swore. Sometimes the an- 
cients took hold of the horns of the altar, 
and touched the sacrificial fire, as in the 
league between Latinus and Jsneas, where 
the ceremony is thus described by Virgil: 

"Tango aras; medioeque ignes, et numina, 
tester." 

Sometimes they extended the right hand to 
heaven, and swore by earth, sea, and stars. 
3ometimes, as among the Romans in pri- 
vate contracts, the person swearing laid his 
hand upon the hand of the party to whom 
he swore. In all solemn covenants the oath 
was accompanied by a sacrifice; and some 



OATH 523 

of the hair being cut from the victim's 
head, a part of it was given to all present, 
that each one might take a share in the 
oath, and be subject to the imputation. 
Other ceremonies were practised at various 
times and in different countries, for the 
purpose of throwing around the act of at- 
testation an mcreased amount of awe and 
respect. The oath is equally obligatory 
without them; but they have their signifi- 
cance, and there can be no reason why the 
Freemasons should not be allowed to adopt 
the mode most pleasing to themselves of 
exacting their promises or confirming their 
covenants. 

Fourthly. It is objected that the oath is 
attended with a penalty of a serious or 
capital nature. If this be the case, it does 
not appear that the expression of a penalty 
of any nature whatever can affect the pur- 
port or augment the solemnity of an oath, 
which is, in fact, an attestation of God to 
the truth of a declaration, as a witness and 
avenger; and hence every oath includes in 
itself, and as its very essence, the covenant 
of God's wrath, the heaviest of all penal- 
ties, as the necessary consequence of its vio- 
lation. A writer, in reply to the Synod of 
Scotland (Scot's Mag., October, 1757), quotes 
the opinion of an eminent jurist to this effect: 

"It seems to be certain that every promis- 
sory oath, in whatever form it may be con- 
ceived, whether explicitly or implicitly, vir- 
tually contains both an attestation and an 
obsecration; for in an oath the execration 
supposes an attestation as a precedent, and 
the attestation infers an execration as a 
necessary consequence. 

"Hence, then, to the believer in a super- 
intending Providence, every oath is an affir- 
mation, negation, or promise, corroborated by 
the attestation of the Divine Being. 91 This 
attestation includes an obsecration of Divine 
punishment in case of a violation, and it is, 
therefore, a matter of no moment whether 
this obsecration or penalty be expressed in 
words or only implied; its presence or absence 
does not, in any degree, alter the nature of the 
obligation. If in any promise or vow made by 
Masons, such a penalty is inserted, it may 
probably be supposed that it is used only with 
a metaphorical and paraphrastical signifi- 
cation, and for the purpose of symbolic or his- 
torical allusion. Any other interpretation 
but this would be entirely at variance with 
the opinions of the most intelligent Masons, 
who, it is to be presumed, best know the intent 
and meaningof their own ceremonies. 

Fifthly. The last, and, indeed, the most 
important objection urged is, that these oaths 
are construed by Masons as being of higher 
obligation than the law of the land. It is in 
vain that this charge has been repeatedly and 
indignantly demon, it is in vain that Masons 
point to the integrity ot character of thou- 
sands of eminent men who have been mem- 
bers of the Fraternity; it is in vain that they 
recapitulate the order-loving and law-fearing 
regulations of the Institution; the chargs is 



624 OATH 

renewed with untiring pertinacity, and be- 
lieved with a credulity that owes its birth to 
rancorous prejudice alone. To repeat the 
denial is but to provoke a repetition of the 
charge. The answer is, however, made by 
one who, once a Mason, was afterward an op- 
ponent and an avowed enemy of the Institu- 
tion, W. L. Stone {Letters on Masonry and 
Anti-Masonry, Let. VII., p. 69), who uses the 
following language: 

"Is it, then, to be believed that men of 
acknowledged talents and worth in public 
stations, and of virtuous and. frequently, 
religious habits, in the walks of private life, 
with the Holy Bible in their hands — which 
they are solemnly pledged to receive as the 
rule and guide of their faith and practice — and 
under the grave and positive charge from the 
officer administering the obligation, that it is 
to be taken in strict subordination to the civil 
laws — can understand that obligation, what- 
ever may be the peculiarities of its phrase- 
ology, as requiring them to countenance vice 
and criminality even by silence? Can it for a 
moment be supposed that the hundreds of 
eminent men, whose patriotism is unques- 
tioned, and the exercise of whose talents and 
virtues has shed a lustre upon the church his- 
tory of our country, and who. by their walk 
and conversation, have, in tneir own lives, 
illustrated the beauty of holiness? Is it to be 
credited that the tens of thousands of those 
persons, ranking among the most intelligent 
and virtuous citizens of the most moral and 
enlightened people on earth — is it, I ask, pos- 
sible that any portion of this community can, 
on cahn reflection, believe that such men have 
oaths upon their consciences binding them to 
eternal silence in regard to the guilt of any 
man because he happens to be a Freemason, 
no matter what be the grade of offence, 
whether it be the picking of a pocket or the 
shedding of blood? It does really seem to me 
impossible that such an opinion could, at any 
moment, have prevailed, to any considerable 
extent, amongst reflecting and intelligent cit- 
izens. 

Oath, Corporal* The modern form of 
taking an oath is by placing the hands on the 
Gospels or on the Bible. The corporals, or 
corporal cloth, is the name of the linen cloth on 
which, in the Roman Catholic Church, the 
sacred elements consecrated as "the body of 
our Lord" are placed. Hence the expression 
corporal oath originated in the ancient custom 
of swearing while touching the corporal cloth. 
Relics were sometimes made use of. The 
laws of the Allemanni (cap. 657) direct that he 
who swears shall place his hand upon the 
coffer containing the relics. The idea being 
that something sacred must be touched by 
the hand of the jurator to give validity to the 
oath, in time the custom was adopted of sub- 
stituting the holy Gospeia xor tne corporal 
cloth or the relics, though the same title was 
retained. Haydn (Diet, of Dales) says that 
the practise of swearing on the Gospels pre- 
vailed in England as early as a.d. 528. The 
laws of the Lombards repeatedly mention the 



OATH 



custom of swearing on the Gospels. The 
sanction of the church was given at an early 
period to the usage. Thus, in the history of 
the Council of Constantinople (Anno 381), it 
is stated that "George, the well-beloved of 
God, a deacon and keeper of the records, hav- 
ing touched the Holy Gospels of God, swore 
in this manner," etc. Ana a similar practise 
was adopted at the Council of Nice, fifty-six 
years before. The custom of swearing on 
the book, thereby meaning the Gospels, was 
adopted by the Medieval old of Freemasons, 
and allusions to it are found in all the Old Con- 
stitutions. Thus in the York MS., No. 1, 
about the year 1600, it is said, "These 
charges . . . you shall well and truly keep to 
your power: so help you God and by the con- 
tents of that book/' And in the Grand 
Lodge MS., No. 1, in 1583 we find this: 
"These charges ye shall keepe. so healpe you 
God, and your haly dome ana by this booke 
in your hande unto your power." The form 
of the ceremony required that the corporal 
oath should be taken with both hands on the 
book, or with one hand, and then always the 
right hand. 

Oath of the Gild. The oath that was ad- 
ministered in the English Freemasons' gild of 
the Middle Ages is first met with in the Har- 
leian MS., No. 1942, written about the year 
1670. The 31st article prescribes: "That noe 
person shall bee accepted a Free Mason, or 
know the secrets of the said Society, until hee 
hath first taken the oath of secrecy hereafter 
following: 

"I, A. B. Doe. in the presence of Almighty 
God and my Fellowes and Brethren here pres- 
ent, promise and declare that I will not at any 
time hereafter { by any act or circumstance 
whatsoever, directly or indirectly, publish, 
discover, reveale, or make knowne any of the 
secrets, priviledses or counsells of the Fra- 
ternity or fellowship of Free Masonry, which at 
this time, or any time hereafter, shall be made 
knowne unto mee : see helpe mee God and the 
holy contents of this booke." In the Roberts 
Constitutions, published in 1722, this oath, 
substantially m the same words, is for the 
first time printed with the amendment of 
"privities" for "priviledges." 

Oath, Tiler's. Before any strange and 
unknown visitor can gain admission into a 
Masonic Lodge, he is required in America to 
take the following oath: 

"I, A. B., do hereby and hereon solemnly 
and sincerely swear that I have been regularly 
initiated, passed, and raised to the sublime 
degree oi a Master Mason in a just and legally 
constituted Lodge of such; that I do not now 
stand suspended or expelled; and know of no 
reason why I should not hold Masonic com- 
munication with my brethren." 

It is called the "Tiler's oath," because it is 
usually taken in the Tiler's room, and was 
formerly administered by that officer, whose 
duty it is to protect the Lodge from the ap- 
proach of unauthorized visitors. It is now 
administered by the committee of examina- 
tion, and not only he to whom it is adminis- 



OB 



tared, but lie who adminiiters it, and all who 
are present, must take it at the same time. It 
is a process of purgation, and each one present, 
the visitor as well as the members of the 
Lodge, is entitled to know that all the others 
are legally qualified to be present at the eso- 
teric examination which is about to take 

Slace. [This custom is unknown in English 
lasonry.] 

OB. A Masonic abbreviation of the word 
Obligation, sometimes written O. B. 

Obed. (Heb. "OW, serving.) * One of nine 
favored officials, selected by Solomon after 
the death of H. Abif . 

Obedience. The doctrine of obedience to 
constituted authority is strongly inculcated in 
all the Old Constitutions as necessary to the 
preservation of the association. In them it is 
directed that "every Mason shall prefer his 
elder and put him to worship." Thus the 
Master Mason obeys the order of his Lodge, 
the Lodge obeys the mandates of the Grand 
Lodge, and the Grand Lodge submits to the 
landmarks and the old regulations. The 
doctrine of passive obedience and non-re- 
sistance in politics, however much it may be 
supposed to be inimical to the progress of free 
institutions, constitutes undoubtedly the great 
principle of Masonic government. Such a 
principle would undoubtedly lead to an un- 
bearable despotism, were it not admirably 
modified and controlled by the compensating 
principle of appeal. The first duty of every 
Mason is to obey the mandate of the Master. 
But if that mandate should have been unlaw- 
ful or oppressive, he will find his redress in the 
Grand Lodge, which will review the case and 
render justice. This spirit of instant obedi- 
ence and submission to authority constitutes 
the great safeguard of the Institution. Free- 
masonry more resembles a military than a po- 
litical organization. The order must at once 
be obeyed; its character and its consequences 
may be matters of subsequent inquiry. The 
Masonic rule of obedience is like the nautical, 
imperative: "Obey orders, even if you break 
owners." 

Obedience of a Grand Body. Obedience, 
used in the sense of being under the jurisdic- 
tion, is a technicality borrowed only recently 
by Masonic authorities from the French, 
where it has always been regularly used. Thus 
" the Grand Lodge has addressed a letter to all 
the Lodges of its obedience 19 means "to all the 
Lodges under its jurisdiction." In French, 
"a toutes les Loges de sou obedience." It 
comes originally from the usage of the Middle 
Ages, in the Low Latin of which dbedientia 
meant the homage which a vassal owed to his 
lord. In the ecclesiastical language of the 
same period, the word signified the duty or 
office of a monk toward his superior. 

Obelisk. The obelisk is a quadrangular, 
monolithic column, diminishing upward, with 
the sides gently inclined, but not so as to ter- 
minate in a pointed apex, but to form at the 
top a flattish, pyramidal figure, by which the 
whole is finished off and brought to a point. 
It was the most common species of monument 



OBLIGATION 525 

in ancient Egypt, where they are still to be 
found in great numbers, the sides being cov- 
ered with hieroglyphic inscriptions. Obelisks 
were, it is supposed, originally erected in 
honor of the sun god. Pliny says (Holland's 
trans.), "The kings of Egvpt in times past 
made of this stone certain long beams, which 
they called obelisks, and consecrated them 
unto the sun, whom they honored as a god: 
and, indeed, some resemblance they carry of 
sunbeams." In continental Masonry the 
monument in the Master's Degree is often 
made in the form of an obelisk, with the letters 
M. B. inscribed upon it. And this form is 
appropriate, because in Masonic, as in Chris- 
tian, iconography the obelisk is a symbol of 
the resurrection. 

Objections to Freemasonry. The prin- 
cipal objections that have been urged by its 
opponents to the Institution of Freemasonry 
may be arranged under six heads: 1. Its 
secrecy; 2. The ezclusiveness of its charity; 
3. Its admission of unworthy members; 4. 
Its claim to be a religion; 5. Its ad- 
ministration of unlawful oaths; and, 6. Its 
puerility as a system of instruction. Each 
of these objections is replied to in this work 
under the respective heads of the words which 
are italicized above. 

Obligated. To be obligated, in Masonic 
language, is to be admitted into the covenant 
of Masonry. "An obligated Mason " is tau- 
tological, because there can be no Mason 
who is not an obligated one. 

Obligation. The solemn promise made by 
a Mason on his admission into any degree is 
technically called his obligation. In a legal 
sense, obligation is synonymous with duty. 
Its derivation shows its true meaning, for the 
Latin word obligatio literally signifies a tying 
or binding. The obligation is that which binds 
a man to do some act, the doing of which thus 
becomes his duty. By his obligation, a Mason 
is bound or tied to his Order. Hence the 
Romans called the military oath which was 
taken by the soldier his obligation, and, 
too. it is said that it is the obligation that 
makes the Mason. Before that ceremony, 
there is no tie that binds the candidate to the 
Order so as to make him a part of it; after the 
ceremony, the tie has been completed, and the 
candidate becomes at once a Mason, entitled 
to all the rights and privileges and subject to 
all the duties and responsibilities that enure 
in that character. The jurists have divided 
obligations into imperfect and perfect, or nat- 
ural and civil. In Masonry there is no such 
distinction. The Masonic obligation is that 
moral one which, although it cannot be en- 
forced by the courts of law, is binding on the 
party who makes it, in conscience and accord- 
ing to moral justice. It varies in each degree, 
but in each is perfect. Its different clauses, 
in which different duties are prescribed, are 
called its points, which are either affirmative 
or negative, a division like that of the pre- 
cepts of the Jewish law. The affirmative 
points are those which require certain acts to 
be performed; the negative points are those 



526 OBLONG 



OFFICERS 



which forbid certain other acts to be done. 
The whole of them is preceded by a general 
point of secrecy, common to all the degrees, 
and this point is called the He. 

Obfonc M*are« A parallelogram, or 
four-sided figure, all of whose angles are equal, 
but two of whose sides are longer than the 
others. [Of course the term " oblong square " 
is strictly without any meaning, but it is used 
to denote two squares joined together to form 
a rectangle.] 

This is the symbolic form of a Masonic 
Lodge, and it finds its prototype in xnanyof 
the structures of our ancient brethren. The 
ark of Noah, the camp of the Israelites, the 
Ark of the Covenant, the Tabernacle, and, 
lastly, the Temple of Solomon, were all oblong 
squares. (See Grownd-Floor of the Lodge.) 

Ofeotft. Ventriloquism. It will be found 
so denominated in the Septuagint version, 
Isaiah nix. % f also xix. 3. 

O brack, BbcrMS. Grand Master of the 
Order of the Temple in 1392, according to the 
chronology of the Strict Observance of Ger- 
many. 

Observance, Clerks of Strict. See 

Clerks of Strict Observance. 

Observance, Lax. See Lax Observance. 

Observance, Eelaxed. (Observance Re- 
lachSe.) This is the term by which Ragon 
translates the lata observanUa or lax observ- 
ance applied by the disciples of Von Hund to 
the other Lodges of Germany. Ragon (Orth. 
Macon., p. 236) calls it incorrectly a Kite, and 
confounoB it with the Clerks of Strict Ob- 
servance. (See Lax Observance.) 

Observance, Strict. See Strict Observance, 
RiUof. 

Obverse. In numismatics that aide of a 
coin or medal which contains the principal 
figure, generally a face in profile or a full or 
half-length figure, is called the obverse. 

Occasional Lodge. A temporary Lodge 
convoked by a Grand Master for the purpose 
of making Masons, after which the Lodge is 
dissolved. The phrase was first used by An- 
derson in the second edition of the Book of 
Constitutions, and is repeated by subsequent 
editors. To make a Mason in an Occasional 
Lodge is equivalent to making him "at sight." 
But any Lodge, called temporarily by the 
Grand Master for a specific purpose and im- 
mediately afterward dissolved, is an Occa- 
sional Lodge. Its organization as to officers, 
and its regulations as to ritual, must be the 
same as in a permanent and properly war- 
ranted Lodge. (See Sight, Making Masons at.) 

Oecmlt Masonry. Ragon, in his Ortho- 
doxie Maconnique, proposes the establishment 
of a Masonic system, which he calls "Occult 
Masonry." It consists of three degrees, which 
are the same as those of Ancient Craft Ma- 
sonry, only that all the symbols are inter- 
preted after alchemical principles. It is, in 
fact, the application of Masonic symbolism to 
Hermetic symbolism — two things that never 
did. according to Hitchcock, materially differ. 

Occult Sciences. This name is given to 
the sciences of alchemy, magic, and astrology, 



which existed in the Middle Ages. Many of 
the speculations of these so-called sciences 
were m the eighteenth century made use of 
in the construction of the high degrees. We 
have even a "Hermetic Rite" which is based 
on the dogmas of alchemy. 

Occupied Territory. A state or kingdom 
where there is a Grand Lodge organisation 
and subordinate Lodges working under it is 
said to be occupied territory, and, by the 
American and English law, all other Grand 
Lodges are precluded from entering in it and 
exercising Jurisdiction. (See Jurisdiction of a 
Grand Lodge.) 

Octagen. The regular octagon is a geo- 
metrical figure of eight equal sides and angles. 
It is a favorite form in Christian eoclesiology, 
and most of the Chapter-Houses of the ca- 
thedrals in England are eight sided. It is 
sometimes used m rituals of Knights of Malta, 
and then, like the eight-pointed cross of the 
same Order, is referred symbolically to the 
eight beatitudes of our Savior. 

Odd Nnmbers* In the numerical philos- 
ophy of the Pythagoreans, odd numbers 
were male and even numbers female. It is 
wrong, however, to say, as Oliver and some 
others after him have, that odd numbers were 
perfect, and even numbers imperfect. The 
combination of two odd numbers would make 
an even number, which was the most perfect. 
Hence, in the Pythagorean system, 4, made by 
the combination of 1 and 3, and 10, by 
the combination of 3 and 7, are the most per- 
fect of all numbers. Herein the Pythagorean 
differs from the Masonic system of numerals. 
In this latter all the sacred numbers are odd, 
such as 3, 5, 7, %, 27, and 81. Thus it is evi- 
dent that the Masonic theory of sacred num- 
bers was derived, not, as it has been supposed, 
from the school of Pythagoras, but from a 
much older system. 

Odem. (Heb. D1K.) The carnelian or 
agate in the high priest's breastplate. It was 
of a red color, ana claimed to possess medical 
qualities. 

Odin. The chief Scandinavian deity and 
father of Balder, which see. The counter- 
part of Hermes and Mercury in the Egyptian 
and Roman mythologies. Odin and his 
brothers Vili and Ve, the sons of Boer, or the 
first-born, slew Ymir or Chaos, and from his 
body created the world. As ruler of heaven, 
he sends daily his two black ravens, Thought 
and Memory, to gather tidings of all that is 
being done throughout the world. 

Offenses, Masonic See Crimes. Masonic. 

Offerings, Tne Three Grand. See Ground 
Floor of the Lodge. 

Onleers. The officers of a Grand Lodge, 
Grand Chapter, or other Supreme body in 
Masonry, are divided into Grand and Subor- 
dinate; the former, who are the Grand and 
Deputy Grand Master, the Grand Wardens 
and Grand Treasurer, Secretary, and Chap- 
lain, are also sometimes called the Digni- 
taries. The officers of a Lodge or Chapter are 
divided into the Elected and the Appointed, 
the former in America being the Master, 



OFFICERS* 



OLIVER 527 



Wardens, Treasurer, and Secretary, while in 
England only the Master and Treasurer are 
elected. 

Officers' Jewels. See Jewels, Official. 

Offlee, Tenure of* In Masonry the ten- 
ure of every office is not only for the time for 
which the incumbent was elected or appointed, 
but extends to the day on which his successor 
is installed. During the period which elapses 
from the election of that successor until his 
installation, the old officer is technically said 
to "holdover." 

Ogmlus. The Druidical name for Her- 
cules, who is represented with numberless fine 
chains proceeding from the mouth to the ears 
of other people, hence possessing the powers of 
eloquence and persuasion. 

OhebHoah. mta Love of God. This 
and Ohsb Karobo, Love of our Neighbor, are 
the names of the two supports of the Ladder 
of Kadosh. Collectively, they allude to that 
Divine passage, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, 
and with all thy mind. This is the first ana 
great commandment. And the Becond is like 
unto it. Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy- 
self. On these two commandments hang all 
the law and the prophets.' 9 Hence the Lad- 
der of Kadosh is supported by these two 
Christian commandments. 

Oheb Karobo. See Oheb Eloah. 

Ohio. Freemasonry was introduced into 
Ohio early in the present century. On Jan- 
uary 4, 1808, a convention of delegates from 
the five Lodges then in the State met at Chilli- 
cothe, and on January 7th organised a Grand 
Lodge, electing Rufus Putnam first Grand 
Master. The Grand Chapter of Ohio was 
organised in 1816, the Grand Council in 1829, 
and the Grand Commandery in 1843. 

Oklahoma. The Grand Lodge of Okla- 
homa was organised at a convention of ten 
Lodges, holding warrants from the Grand 
Lodge of Indian Territory, held at Oklahoma 
City, November 10, 1892, when after electing 
Grand Officers, who were installed at a special 
communication of the Grand Lodge of Indian 
Territory, the Grand Lodge was opened and 
a constitution adopted. The first annual 
communication was held at £1 Reno. February 
14, 1893. February 10, 1909, the Grand 
Lodges of Oklahoma and Indian Territory 
were merged together under the title of 
"The Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons of the State of Oklahoma." 

[W. J. A.J 

Oil* The Hebrews anointed their kings, 
prophets, and high priests with oil mingled 
with the richest spices. They also anointed 
themselves with oil on all festive occasions, 
whence the expression in Psalm xlv. 7, "God 
hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness." 
(See Corn, Wine and OH.) 

Old Charges. See Manuscripts, Old. 

Old Man* Old men in their dotage are by 
the laws of Masonry disqualified for initiation. 
For the reason of this law, see Dotage. 

Old Regulations* The regulations for the 
government of the Craft, which were first com- 



piled by Grand Master Payne in 1720, and ap- 
proved by the Grand Lodge in 1721 were pub- 
lished by Anderson in 1723, in the first edition 
of the Book of Constitutions, under the name of 
General Regulations. In 1738 Anderson pub- 
lished a second edition of the Book of Constitu- 
tions, and inserted these regulations under the 
name of Old Regulations, placing in an oppo- 
site column the alterations which had been 
made in them by the Grand Lodge at different 
times between 1723 and 1737, and called these 
New Regulations. When Dermott published 
his Ahiman Rezon, or Book of Constitutions of 
the rival Grand Lodge, he adopted Anderson's 
plan, publishing in two columns the Old and 
the New Regulations. But he made some im- 
portant changes in the latter to accommodate 
the policy of his own Grand Lodge. The Old 
Regulations, more properly known as the 
" General Regulations of 1722," are recog- 
nised as the better authority in questions of 
Masonic law. 

Olive* In a secondary sense, the olive 
plant is a symbol of peace and victory; but in 
its primary sense, like all the other sacred 
plants of antiquity, it was a symbol of resur- 
rection and immortality. Hence in the An- 
cient Mysteries it was the analogue of the 
Acacia of Freemasonry. 

Ollve-Branch In the East, Brotherhood 
of the* A new Order, which was proposed at 
Bombay, in 1845, by Dr. James Burnes, the 
author of a History of ike Knights Templar. 
who was then the Provincial Grand Master of 
India for Scotland. It was intended to pro- 
vide a substitute for native Masons for the 
chivalric degrees { from which, on account of 
their religious faith, they were excluded. It 
consisted of three classes, Novice, Companion, 
and Officer. For the first, it was requisite 
that the candidate should have been initiated 
into Masonry: for the second, that he should 
be a Master Mason; and for the third it was 
recommended, but not imperatively required, 
that he should have attained the Royal Arch 
Degree. The badge of the Order was a dove 
descending with a green olive-branch in its 
mouth. The new Order was received with 
much enthusiasm by the most distinguished 
Masons of India, but it did not secure a per- 
manent existence. 

Oliver, George. The Rev. George Oliver. 
D.D., one of the most distinguished ana 
learned of English Masons, was descended 
from an ancient Scottish family of that name, 
some of whom came into England in the time 
of James I., and settled at Clipstone Park, 
Nottinghamshire. He was the eldest son of 
the Rev. Samuel Oliver, rector of Lambley. 
Nottinghamshire, and Elisabeth, daughter of 
George Whitehead, Esq. He was born at 
Pepplewick, November 5, 1782, and received 
a liberal education at Nottingham. In 1803, 
when but twenty-one years of age, he was 
elected second master of the grammar school 
at Caiston, Lincoln. In 1809 he was ap- 
pointed to the head mastership of King Ed- 
ward's Grammar School at Great Grimsby. 
In 1813 he entered holy orders in the Church 



528 



OLIVER 



OLIVER 



of England, and was ordained a deacon. The 
subsequent year he was made a priest. In the 
spring of 1815, Bishop Tomline collated him to 
the living of Clee, his name being at the time 

E laced on the boards of Trinity College, Cam- 
ridge, as a ten-year man by Dr. Bayley, Sub- 
dean of Lincoln and examining Chaplain to 
the Bishop. In the same year he was ad- 
mitted as Surrogate and a Steward of the Cleri- 
cal Fund. In 1831, Bishop Kaye gave him 
the living of Scopwick, which he held to the 
time of his death. He graduated as Doctor of 
Divinity in 1836, being then rector of Wolver- 
hampton, and a prebendary of the collegiate 
church at that place, both of which positions 
had been presented to him by Dr. Hobart, 
Dean of Westminster. In 1846 the Lord 
Chancellor conferred on him the rectory of 
South Hykeham, which vacated the incum- 
bency of Wolverhampton. At the age of 
seventy-two Dr. Oliver's physical powers 
began to fail, and he was obliged to confine 
the charge of his parishes to the care of cur- 
ates, and he passed the remaining years of his 
life m retirement at Lincoln. In 1805 he had 
married Mary Ann, the youngest daughter of 
Thomas Beverley, Esq., by whom he left five 
children. He died March 3, 1867, at East- 
gate, Lincoln. 

To the literary world Dr. Oliver was well 
known as a laborious antiquary, and his works 
on ecclesiastical antiquities during fifty 
years of his life, from fifty-five, earned for 
him a high reputation. Of these works the 
most important were. History and Antiquities 
of the Collegiate Church of Beverley, History and 
Antiquities of the Collegiate Church of Wolver- 
hampton, History of the Conventual Church of 
Grimsby, Monumental Antiquities of Grimsby , 
History of the Gild of the Holy Trinity, Slea- 
ford, Letters on the Druidical Remains near 
Lincoln, Guide to the Druidical Temple at Not- 
tingham and Remains of Ancient Britons be- 
tween Lincoln and Sleaford. 

But it is as the most learned Mason and the 
most indefatigable and copious Masonic au- 
thor of his age that Dr. Oliver principally 
claims our attention. He had inherited a love 
of Freemasonry from his father, the Rev. 
Samuel Oliver, who was an expert Master of 
the work, the Chaplain of his Lodge, and who 
contributed during a whole year, from 1797 
to 1798, an original Masonic song to be sung 
on every Lodge night. His son has repeatedly 
acknowledged his indebtedness to him for 
valuable information in relation to Masonic 
usages. 

Dr. Oliver was initiated by his father, in the 
year 1801, in St. Peter's Lodge, in the city of 
Peterborough. He was at that time but 
nineteen years of age, and was admitted by 
dispensation during his minority, according 
to the practise then prevailing, as a lewis, or 
the son of a Mason. 

Under the tuition of his father, he made 
much progress in the rites and ceremonies 
then in use among the Lodges. He read with 
great attention every Masonic book within 
his reach, and began to collect that store of 



knowledge which he afterward used with so 
much advantage to the Craft. 

Soon after nis appointment as head mas- 
ter of King Edward's Grammar School at 
Grimsby, he established a Lodge in the bor- 
ough, the chair of which he occupied for four- 
teen years. So strenuous were nis exertions 
for the advancement of Masonry, that in 1812 
he was enabled to lay the first stone of a Ma- 
sonic hall in the town, where, three years be- 
fore, there had been scarcely a Mason residing. 

About this time he was exalted as a Royal 
Arch Mason in the Chapter attached to the 
Rodney Lodge at Kingston-on-Hull. In Chap- 
ters and Consistories connected with the 
same Lodge he also received the high degrees 
and those of Masonic Knighthood. In 1813, 
he was appointed a Provincial Grand Steward; 
in 1816, Provincial Grand Chaplain; and in 
1832, Provincial Deputy Grand Master of the 
Province of Lincolnshire. These are all the 
♦official honors that he received, except that of 
Past Deputy Grand Master, conferred, as an 
honorary title, by the Grand Lodge of Massa- 
chusetts. In the year 1840, Dr. Crucefix had 
undeservedly incurred the displeasure of the 
Grand Master, the Duke of Sussex. Dr. 
Oliver, between whom and Dr. Crucefix there 
had always been a warm personal friendship, 
assisted in a public demonstration of the Fra- 
ternity in honor of his friend and brother. 
This mvolved him in the odium, and caused 
the Provincial Grand Master of Lincolnshire, 
Bro. Charles Tennyson D'Eyn court, to re- 
quest the resignation of Dr. Oliver as his 
Deputy. He complied with the resignation, 
and after that time withdrew from all active 
participation in the labors of the Lodge. The 
transaction was not considered by any means 
as creditable to the independence of character 
or sense of justice of the Provincial Grand 
Master, and the Craft very generally ex- 

Eressed their indignation of the course which 
e had pursued, and their warm appreciation 
of the Masonic services of Dr. Oliver. In 
1844, this appreciation was marked by the 
presentation of an offering of plate, which had 
been very generally subscribed for by the 
Craft throughout the kingdom. 

Dr. Oliver's first contribution to the litera- 
ture of Freemasonry, except a few Masonic 
sermons, was a work entitled The Antiquities 
of Freemasonry, comprising illustrations of the 
five Grand Periods of Masonry, from the Crea- 
tion of the World to the Dedication of King Sol- 
omon 8 Temple, which was published in 1823. 
His next production was a little work entitled 
The Star in the East, intended to show, from 
the testimony of Masonic writers, the con- 
nection between Freemasonry and religion. 
In 1841 he published twelve lectures on the 
Signs and Symbols of Freemasonry, in which 
he went into a learned detail of the history 
and signification of all the recognized symbols 
of the Order. His next important contribu- 
tion to Freemasonry was The History of Initi- 
ation in twelve lectures; comprising a detailed 
account of the Rites and Ceremonies, Doctrines 
and Discipline, of all the Secret and Mysterious 



OLIVER 

Institutions of the Ancient World, published in 
1840. The professed object of the author was 
to show the resemblances between these an- 
cient systems of initiation and the Masonic, 
and to trace them to a common origin; a 
theory which, under some modification, has 
been very generally accepted by Masonic 
scholars. 

Following this was The Theocratic Philoso- 
phy of Freemasonry , a highly interesting work, 
m which he discusses the speculative charac- 
ter of the Institution. A History of Freema- 
sonry from 1829 to 1840 has proved a valuable 
appendix to the work of Preston, an edition 
of which he had edited in the former year. 
His next and most important, most inter- 
esting, and most learned production was his 
Historical Landmarks ana other Evidences of 
Freemasonry Explained. No work with such 
an amount of facts in reference to the Masonic 
system had ever before been published by any 
author. It will forever remain as a monument 
of his vast research and his extensive read- 
ing. But it would be no brief task to enumer- 
ate merely the titles of the many works which 
he produced for the instruction of the Craft. 
A few of them must suffice. These are the 
Revelations of a Square, a sort of Masonic ro- 
mance, detailing, in a fictitious form, many of 
the usages of the last centuries, with anecdotes 
of the principal Masons of that period; The 
Golden Remains of the Early Masonic Writers, 
in 5 volumes, each of which contains an inter- 
esting introduction by the editor : The Book of 
the Lodge, a useful manual, in tended as a guide 
to the ceremonies of the Order; The Symbol of 
Glory, intended to show the object and end of 
Freemasonry: A Mirror for the Johannite 
Masons, in which he discusses the question of 
the dedication of Lodges to the two Saints 
John; The Origin and Insignia of the Royal 
Arch Degree, a title which explains itself; A 
Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry, by no means 
the best of his works. Almost nis last contri- 
bution to Masonry was his Institutes of Ma- 
sonic Jurisprudence, a book in which he ex- 
pressed views of law that did not meet with 
the universal concurrence of his English read- 
ers. Besides these elaborate works, Dr. 
Oliver was a constant contributor to the early 
volumes of the London Freemasons 3 Quarterly 
Review, and published a valuable article, "On 
the Gothic Constitutions," in the American 
Quarterly Review of Freemasonry. 

The great error of Dr. Oliver, as a Masonic 
teacher, was a too easy credulity or a too great 
warmth of imagination, which led him to ac- 
cept without hesitation the crude theories of 
previous writers, and to recognize documents 
and legends as unquestionably authentic 
whose truthfulness subsequent researches 
have led most Masonic scholars to doubt or to 
deny. His statements, therefore, as to the 
origin or the history of the Order, have to be 
received with many {pains of allowance. Yet 
it must be acknowledged that no writer in the 
Rngliah language has ever done so much to 
elevate the scientific character of Freema- 
sonry. 



ON 529 

Dr. Oliver was in fact the founder of what 
may be called the literary school of Masonry. 
Bringing to the study of the Institution an 
amount of archeological learning but seldom 
surpassed, an inexhaustible fund of mul- 
tifarious reading, and all the laborious re- 
searches of a genuine scholar, he gave to Free- 
masonry a literary and philosophic character 
which has induced many succeeding scholars 
to devote themselves to those studies which 
he had made so attractive. While his errone- 
ous theories and his fanciful speculations will 
be rejected, the form and direction that he has 
given to Masonic speculations will remain, 
and to him must be accredited the enviable 
title of the Father of Anglo-Saxon Masonic Lit- 
erature. 

In reference to the personal character of Dr. 
Oliver, a contemporary journalist (Stanford 
Mercury) has said that he was of a kind and 
genial disposition, charitable in the highest 
sense of the word, courteous, affable, self- 
denying, and beneficent; humble, unassum- 
ing, and unaffected; ever ready to oblige, easy 
of approach, and amiable, yet firm in the right. 

Dr. Oliver's theory of the system of Free- 
masonry may be briefly stated in these words: 
He believed that the Order was to be found 
in the earliest periods of recorded history. It 
was taught by Seth to his descendants, and 
practised by them under the name of Primi- 
tive or Pure Freemasonry. It passed over to 
Noah, and at the dispersion of mankind suf- 
fered a division into Pure and Spurious. Pure 
Freemasonry descended through the Patri- 
archs to Solomon, and thence on to the present 
day. The Pagans, although they had slight 
glimmerings of the Masonic truths which had 
been taught by Noah, greatly corrupted them, 
and presented in their mysteries a System of 
initiation to which he gave the name of the 
Spurious Freemasonry of Antiquity. These 
views he had developed and enlarged and 
adorned out of the similar but less definitely 
expressed teachings of Hutchinson. Like 
that writer also, while freely admitting the 
principle of religious tolerance, he contended 
tor the strictly Christian character of the In- 
stitution, and that, too. in the narrowest sec- 
tarian view, since he believed that the earliest 
symbols taught the dogma of the Trinity, and 
that Christ was meant by the Masonic refer- 
ence to the Deity under the title of Great 
Architect of the Universe. 

Omega* See Alpha and Omega. 

Omniflc Word. The Tetragrammaton is 
so called because of the omnific powers attrib- 
uted by the Kabbalists to its possession and 
true pronunciation. (See Tetragrammaton.) 
The term is also applied to the most significant 
word in the Royal Arch system. 

On. This is a significant word in Royal 
Arch Masonry, and has been generally ex- 
plained as being the name by which Jehovah 
was worshiped among the Egyptians. As 
this has been recently denied, and the word 
asserted to be only the name of a city in 
Egypt, it is proper that some inquiry should 
be made into the authorities or> the subject. 



630 ON 

The first mention of On in the Bible li in the 
history of Joseph, to whom Pharaoh pave "to 
wife Asenath. the daughter of Poti-pherah, 
priest of On. The city of On was in Lower 
Egypt, between the Nile and the Red Sea, 
and "adorned," says Philippson, "by a gor- 
geous temple of the sun, in which a numerous 
priesthood officiated." 

The investigations of modern Egyptologists 
have shown that this is an error. On was the 
name of a city where the sun-god was wor- 
shiped, but On was not the name of that god. 

ChampoUioin, in his Dictionnaire EgypHen, 
^ ■ gives the phonetic characters, 
v ^ rj "ri^h the figurative symbols of 
* *■ ^ a serpent and disk, and a seated 
figure, as the name of the sun-god. Now, of 
these two characters, the upper one has the 
power of R, and the lower of A, and hence the 
name of the god is Ra. And this is the con- 
current testimony of Bunsen, Lepsius, Glid- 
don, and all recent authorities. 

But although On was really the name of a 
city, the founders of the Royal Arch had. with 
the lights then before them, assumed that it 
was the name of a god, ana had so* incorpo- 
rated it with their system. With better light 
than theirs, we can no longer accept their 
definition; yet the word may still be retained 
as a symbol of the Egyptian god. I know not 
who has power to reject it; and if scholars 
preserve, outside of the symbolism, the true 
interpretation, no harm will be done. It is 
not the only significant word in Masonry 
whose old and received meaning has been 
shown to be incorrect, and sometimes even 
absurd. Higgins (Cell. Druids, 171) quotes 
an Irish commentator as showing that the 
name AIN or ON was the name of a triad of 
gods in the Irish language. "All etymolo- 
gists." Higgins continues, "have supposed the 
word On to mean the sun; but how the name 
arose has not before been explained." In 
another work (Anacalupsis, vol. i., p. 109), 
Higgins makes the following important re- 
marks: "Various definitions are given of the 
word ON ; but they are all unsatisfactory. It 
is written in the Old Testament in two ways, 
aim, and 3K, an. It is usually rendered in 
English by the word On. This word is sup- 
posed to mean the sun, and the Greeks trans- 
lated it by the word 1j\ios, or Sol. But I think 
it only stood for the sun, as the emblem of the 
procreative power of nature." Bryan says 
(Ant. Mytkcl.,i., 19). when speaking of this 
word: "On, Eon or Aon, was another title of 
the sun among the Amonians. The Seventy, 
where the word occurs in the Scriptures, in- 
terpret it the sun, and call the city of On, 
Heliopolis; and the Coptic Pentateuch ren- 
ders the city On by the city of the sun." 
Plato, in his Timaus. says: <r Tefl me of the 
god ON, which is. ana never knew beginning." 
And although Plato may have been here 
thinking of the Greek word AN, which means 
Being, it is not improbable that he may have 
referred to the god worshiped at On, or Heli- 
opolis, as it was thence that the Greeks de- 
rived so much of their learning. It would be 
vain to attempt to make an analogy between 
the Hindu sacred word AUM and the Egyp- 



ONTARIO 



tian ON. The fact that the M in the former 
word is the initial of some secret word, renders 
the conversion of it into N impossible, because 
it would thereby lose its signification. 

The old Masons, misled by the authority of 
St. Cyril, and by the translation of the name 
of the city into "City of the Sun" by the He- 
brews and the Greeks, very naturally sup- 
posed that On was the Egyptian sun-god, 
their supreme deity, as the sun always was, 
wherever he was worshiped. Hence, they ap- 
propriated that name as a sacred word explan- 
atory of the Jewish Tetragrammaton. 

Onech. (Heb. p*.) The bird Phoenix, 
named after Enoch or Phenoch. Enoch sig- 
nifies initiation. The Phoenix, in Egyptian 
mythological sculptures, as a bird, is placed in 
the mystical palm-tree. The Phoenix is the 
representative of eternal and continual regen- 
eration, and is the Holy Spirit which brooded 
as a dove over the face of the waters, the dove 
of Noah and of Hasisatra or Xysuthrus (which 
see), which bore a sprig in its mouth. 

Ontario. Lodge No. 156, in the Eighth 
Regiment of Foot, appears to have been the 
first Lodge to hold meetings in this Province, 
at Fort Niagara, about 1766-80. From 
1780 to 1792 some ten lodges appear to have 
worked in what was called "Upper Canada. 11 
Some chartered by England, others by the 
Provincial Grand Lodge at Quebec, among 
them St. James in the lungs' Rangers, No. 14, 
at Cataraqui (Kingston), 1781; St. John's, 
No. 16, at Michilimakinac (Michigan) x then 
part of Canada; St. John's, No. 19, at Niagara 
and Oswegatchie Lodge, 1786, at Elizabeth- 
town (Brock ville). 

On March 7, 1792. Bro. William Jarvis was 
appointed Provincial Grand Master of Upper 
Canada by the "Ancient" or "Athol" 
Grand Lodge of England. Bro. Jarvis re- 
sided at Newark (Niagara), the then capital 
of the Province. During his Grand Master- 
ship, 1792 to 1804, twenty warrants for lodges 
were issued. 

In 1797 Bro. Jarvis removed from Newark 
to York (now Toronto). 

The Brethren at Niagara continued to be 
active and enthusiastic, and urged Bro. 
Jarvis to assemble Grand Lodge there, but 
he refused. This refusal caused much dis- 
satisfaction, and the Brethren of Niagara 
District met in 1803 and elected Bro. Geo. 
Forsyth as Provincial Grand Master, and 
trouble and friction ensued. 

In 1817, at Kingston, a Grand Convention 
was called by the Lodges in the Midland 
District under R. W. Bro. Ziba M. Phillips. 
All the lodges attended excepting those in 
the Niagara District. This convention was 
held annually during the years 1817, 1818, 
1820, 1821, 1822. 

After repeated entreaty to England during 
these years, R. W. Bro. Simon McGillivray 
came to Canada in September, 1822, with 
authority from the Duke of Sussex to re- 
organize the Craft in Upper Canada. The 
Second Provincial Grand Lodge was thus 
formed at York in 1822, with R. W. Bro. 
Simon McGillivray as Provincial Grand 
Master, and met regularly up to 1830, but 



OPENING 

the Provincial Grand Lodge became dormant 
and remained so until 1845, when Masonic 
enthusiasm once more gained the ascendency. 
An urgent appeal was sent out and a Third 
Provincial Grand Lodge organized in Hamil- 
ton with Bro. Sir Allan MacNab Provincial 
Grand Master of " Canada West/ 1 appointed 
by the Earl of Zetland. This body con- 
tinued work until 1858. 

In 1853 a number of the lodges holding 
Irish Warrants organized a Grand Lodge, 
but it was not very successful. They then 
endeavored to secure the co-operation of the 
Provincial Grand Lodge in forming a Grand 
Lodge for Canada, but the Provincial Grand 
Body declined. But Home Rule and a self- 
governing body for Canada was the idea 
uppermost and would not down, and finally, 
on October 10, 1855, a convention of all the 
lodges in the two Provinces was called at 
Hamilton and the Grand Lodge of Canada 
was formed. Forty-one lodges were repre- 
sented, twenty-eight in Canada West (On- 
tario) and thirteen in Canada East (Quebec), 
and M. W. Bro. William Mercer Wilson was 
elected Grand Master. 

In September, 1857, the Provincial Grand 
Lodge under England met and resolved itself 
into an independent Grand Lodge, under 
the name of "Ancient Grand Lodge of 
Canada/' but the next year in July. 1858, 
they united with the Grand Lodge of Canada. 
In October, 1809, the majority of the lodges 
in the Province of Quebec held a convention 
and decided to form a Grand Lodge for that 
Province. The Grand Lodge of Canada 
strenuously opposed this new body, and an 
edict of suspension covering all the lodges 
and Brethren taking part was issued. Tne 
Grand Lodge of Quebec, however^ becoming 
duly recognized by all the leading Grand 
Lodges of the world, the Grand Lodge of 
Canada, in 1874. likewise decided to do the 
same and withdrew from the Province, all 
the lodges of her obedience joining the Quebec 
Grand Body. In 1875 a schism occurred and 
a number of Brethren organized a "Grand 
Lodge of Ontario." This breach was finally 
healed and the Brethren and lodges became 
of allegiance to the Grand Lodge of Canada 
in 1896/ 

In 1886 the words "in the Province of 
Ontario' 1 were added to the title of the 
"Grand Lodge of Canada. 1 ' 

Onyx, (Shohem.) The second stone 

in the fourth row of the nigh priest's breast- 
plate. It is of a bluish-black color, and rep- 
resented the tribe of Joseph. 

Opening of the Lodge. The necessity of 
some preparatory ceremonies, of a more or 
less formal character, before proceeding to the 
despatch of the ordinary business of any asso- 
ciation, has always been recognized. De- 
corum and the dignity of the meeting alike 
suggest, even in popular assemblies called 
only for a temporary purpose, that a presiding 
officer shall, with some formality, be inducted 
into the chair, and he then, to use the ordinary 
phrase, "opens 11 the meeting with the ap- 
pointment of his necessary assistants, and 
with the announcement, in an address to the 



OPENING 531 



audience, explanatory of the objects that have 
called them together. 

If secular associations have found it ex- 
pedient, by the adoption of some preparatory 
forms, to avoid the appearance of an unseem- 
ing abruptness in proceeding to business, it 
may well be supposed that religious societies 
have been still more observant of the custom, 
and that, as their pursuits are more elevated, 
the ceremonies of their preparation for the 
object of their meeting should be still more 
impressive. 

In the Ancient Mysteries (those sacred rites 
which have furnished so many models for 
Masonic symbolism) the opening ceremonies 
were of tne most solemn character. The 
sacred herald commenced the ceremonies of 
opening the greater initiations by the solemn 
formula of '^Depart hence, ye profane!' 1 to 
which was added a proclamation which for- 
bade the use of any language which might be 
deemed of unfavorable augury to the ap- 
proaching rites. 

In like manner a Lodge of Masons is opened 
with the employment of certain ceremonies in 
which, that attention may be given to their 
symbolic as well as practical importance, every 
member present is expected to take a part. 

These ceremonies, which slightly differ in 
each of the degrees — but differ so slightly as 
not to affect their general character — may be 
considered, in reference to the several pur- 
poses which they are designed to effect, to be 
divided into eight successive steps or parts. 

1. The Master ha vine signified his inten- 
tion to proceed to the labors of the Lodge, 
every brother is expected to assume his neces- 
sary Masonic clothing and, if an officer, the 
insignia of his office, and silently and decor- 
ously to repair to his appropriate station. 

2. The next step in the ceremony is, with 
the usual precautions, to ascertain the right of 
each one to be present. It is scarcely neces- 
sary to say that, in the performance of this 
duty, the officers who are charged with it 
should allow no one to remain who is not 
either well known to themselves or properly 
vouched for by some discreet and experienced 
brother. 

3. Attention is next directed to the external 
avenues of the Lodge, and the officers within 
and without who are entrusted with the per- 
formance of this important duty, are expected 
to execute it with care and fidelity. 

4. By a wise provision, it is no sooner inti- 
mated to the Master that he may safely pro- 
ceed, than he directs his attention to an in- 
quiry into the knowledge possessed by his 
officers of the duties that they will be re- 
spectively called upon to perform. 

5. Satisfied upon this point, the Master 
then announces, by formal proclamation, his 
intention to proceed to business; and, mind- 
ful of the peaceful character of our Institu- 
tion, he strictly forbids all immoral or un- 
masonic conduct whereby the harmony of 
the Lodge may be impeded, under no less a 
penalty than the by-laws may impose, or a 
majority of the brethren present may see fit 
to inflict. Nor, after this, is any brother per- 
mitted to leave the Lodge during Lodge hours 



632 OPERATIVE 

(that is, from the time of opening to that of 
closing) without having first obtained the 
Worshipful Master's permission 

6. Certain mystic rites, which can here be 
only alluded to, are then employed, by which 
each brother present signifies his concurrence 
in the ceremonies which have been performed, 
and his knowledge of the degree in which the 
Lodge is about to be opened. 

7. It is a lesson which every Mason is 
taught, as one of the earliest points of his in- 
itiation, that he should commence no impor- 
tant undertaking without first invoking the 
blessing of Deity. Hence the next step m the 
progress of the opening ceremonies is to ad- 
dress a prayer to the Supreme Architect of the 
Universe. This psayer, although offered by 
the Master, is to be participated in by every 
brother, and, at its conclusion, the audible 
response of "So mote it be: Amen," should be 
made by all present. 

8. The Lodge is then declared, in the name 
of God and the Holy Saints John, to be 
opened in due form on the First, Second, or 
Third Degree of Masonry, as the case may be. 

A Lodge is said to be opened in the name of 
God and the Holy Saints John, as a declaration 
of the sacred and religious purposes of the 
meeting, of profound reverence for that Di- 
vine Being whose name and attributes should 
be the constant themes of contemplation, and 
of respect for those ancient patrons whom the 
traditions of Masonry have so intimately con- 
nected with the history of the Institution. 

It is said to be opened in due form, to inti- 
mate that all that is necessary, appropriate, 
and usual in the ceremonies, all that the law 
requires or ancient usage renders indispensa- 
ble, have been observed. 

And it is said to be opened on, and not in, 
a certain degree (which latter expression is 
often incorrectly used) in reference rather to 
the speculative than to the legal character of 
the meeting, to indicate, not that the members 
are to be circumscribed in the limits of a par- 
ticular degree, but that they are met together 
to unite m contemplation on the symbolic 
teachings and divine lessons, to inculcate 
which is the peculiar object of that degree. 

The manner of opening in each degree 
slightly varies. In the English system, the 
Lodge is opened in the First Degree "in the 
name of T. G. A. O. T. U. " ; in the Second, "on 
the square, in the name of the Grand Geome- 
trician of the Universe"; and in the Third, "on 
the center, in the name of the Most High." 

It is prescribed as a ritual regulation that 
the Master shall never open or close his Lodge 
without a lecture or part of a lecture. Hence, 
in each of the degrees a portion of a part of the 
lecture of that degree is incorporated into the 
opening and closing ceremonies. 

There is in every degree of Masonry, from 
the lowest to the highest, an opening cere- 
mony peculiar to the degree. This ceremony 
has always more or less reference to the sym- 
bolic lesson which it is the design of the de- 
gree to teach, and hence the varieties of open- 
ings are as many as the degrees themselves. 

Operative Art. Masonry is divided by 
Masonic writers into two branches, an opera- 



OBAL 

tive art and a speculative science. The oper- 
ative art is that which was practised by the 
Stone-Masons of the Middle Ages. The spec- 
ulative science is that which is practised by 
the Freemasons of the present day. The 
technicalities and usages of the former have 
been incorporated into and modified by the 
latter. Hence, Freemasonry is sometimes 
defined as a speculative science founded on an 
operative art. 

Operative Masonry. Freemasonry, in its 
character as an operative art, is familiar to 
everyone. As such, it is engaged in the appli- 
cation of the rules and principles of architec- 
ture to the construction of edifices for private 
and public use, houses for the dwelling-place 
of man, and temples for the worship of the 
Deity. It abounds, like every other art, in 
the use of technical terms, and employs, in 
practise, an abundance ot implements and 
materials which are peculiar to itself. 

This operative art has been the foundation 
on which has been built the speculative science 
of Freemasonry. (See Speculative Masonry.) 

Operative Masons. Workers in stone, 
who construct material edifices, in contra- 
distinction to Speculative Masons, who con- 
struct only spiritual edifices. 

Ophites. The Brotherhood of the Ser- 
pent, which flourished in the second century, 
and held that there were two principles of 
aeons and the accompanying theogony. This 
Egyptian fraternity displayed a living serpent 
in their ceremonies, which was reverenced as 
a symbol of wisdom and a type of good. 

Option. When a Masonic obligation 
leaves to the person who assumes it the option 
to perform or omit any part of it, it is not to be 
supposed that such option is to be only his 
arbitrary will or unreasonable choice. On the 
contrary, in exercising it, he must be governed 
and restrained by the principles of nght and 
duty, and be controlled by the circumstances 
which surround the case, so that this option, 
which at first would seem to be a favor, really 
involves a great and responsible duty, that of 
exercising a just judgment in the premises. 
That which at one tune would be Proper to 
perform, at another time and in different cir- 
cumstances it would be equally proper to 
omit. 

Oral Instruction. Much of the instruc- 
tion which is communicated in Freemasonry, 
and, indeed, all that is esoteric, is given orally; 
and there is a law of the Institution that for- 
bids such instruction to be written. There 
is in this usage and regulation a striking anal- 
ogy to what prevailed on the same subject in 
all the secret institutions of antiquity. 

In all the ancient mysteries, the same reluc- 
tance to commit the esoteric instructions of 
the hierophants to writing is apparent; and 
hence the secret knowledge taught in their in- 
itiations was preserved in symbols, the true 
meaning of which was closely concealed from 
the profane. 

Tne Druids had a similar regulation; and 
Csesar informs us that, although they made 
use of the letters of the Greek alphabet to 
record their ordinary or public transactions, 
yet it was not considered lawful to entrust their 



ORAL 



sacred Teraes to writing, but these were always 
committed to memory by their disciples. 

The secpet doctrine of the Kabbala, or the 
mystical philosophy of the Hebrews, was also 
communicated in an oral form, and could be 
revealed only through the medium of allegory 
and similitude. The Kabbalistic knowledge, 
traditionally received, was, says Maurice (Ind. 
Anlia., iv., 548), "transmitted verbally down 
to all the great characters celebrated in Jewish 
antiquity, among whom both David and Solo- 
mon were deeply conversant in its most hidden 
mysteries. Nobody, however, had ventured 
to commit anything of this kind to paper." 

The Christian church also, in the age imme- 
diately succeeding the apostolic, observed the 
same custom of oral instruction. The early 
Fathers were eminently cautious not to com- 
mit certain of the mysterious dogmas of their 
religion to writing, lest the surrounding 
Pagans should be made acquainted with what 
they could neither understand nor appreci- 
ate. St. Basil (De Spirilu Sancto), treatingof 
this subject in the fourth century, says: "We 
receive the dogmas transmitted to us by writ- 
ing, and those which have descended to us 
from the apostles, beneath the mystery of oral 
tradition; lor several things have been handed 
down to us without writing, lest the vulgar, 
too familiar with our dogmas, should lose a 
due respect for them." And he further asks. 
" How should it ever be becoming to write and 
circulate among the people an account of those 
things which the uninitiated are not permitted 
to contemplate?" 

A custom, so ancient as this, of keeping the 
landmarks unwritten, and one so invariably 
observed by the Masonic Fraternity, it may 
very naturally be presumed, must nave been 
originally established with the wisest inten- 
tions; and, as the usage was adopted by 
many other institutions whose organization 
was similar to that of Freemasonry, it may 
also be supposed that it was connected, in 
some way, with the character of an esoteric 
instruction. 

Two reasons, it seems to me, may be as- 
signed for the adoption of the usage among 
Freemasons. 

In the first place, by confining our secret 
doctrines and landmarks to the care of tradi- 
tion, all danger of controversies and schisms 
among Masons and in Lodges is effectually 
avoided. Of these traditions, the Grand 
Lodge in each jurisdiction is the interpreter, 
and to its authoritative interpretation every 
Mason and every Lodge in the jurisdiction is 
bound to submit. There is no book, to which 
every brother may refer, whose language each 
one may interpret according to his own views, 
and whose expressions — sometimes, perhaps, 
equivocal and sometimes obscure — might 
afford ample sources of wordy contest and 
verbal criticism. The doctrines themselves, 
as well as their interpretation, are contained 
in the memories of the Craft; and the Grand 
Lodges, as the lawful representatives of the 
Fraternity, are alone competent to decide 
whether the tradition has been correctly pre- 
served, and what is its true interpretation. 
And hence it is that there is no institution in 



ORAL 533 

which there have been so few and such unim- 
portant controversies with respect to essential 
and fundamental doctrines. 

In illustration of this argument, Dr. Oliver, 
while speaking of what he calls the antedi- 
luvian system of Freemasonry — a part of 
which must necessarily have been traditional, 
and transmitted from father to son, and a part 
entrusted to symbols — makes the following 
observations: 

" Such of the legends as were communicated 
orally would be entitled to the greatest degree 
of credence, while those that were committed 
to the custody of symbols, which, it is prob- 
able, many of the collateral legends would be, 
were in great danger of perversion, because 
the truth could only be ascertained by those 
persons who were intrusted with the secret 
of their interpretation. And if the symbols 
were of doubtful character, and carried a 
double meaning, as many of the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics of a subsequent age actually did, 
the legends which they embodied might sus- 
tain very considerable alteration in sixteen or 
seventeen hundred years, although passing 
through very few hands. " 

Maimonides (Afore Nevochim, c. bad.) as- 
signs a similar reason for the unwritten pres- 
ervation of the Oral Law. "This," he says, 
"was the perfection of wisdom in our law. 
that by this means those evils were avoided 
into which it fell in succeeding times, namely, 
the variety and perplexity of sentiments ana 
opinions, and the doubts which so commonly 
arise from written doctrines contained in 
books, besides the errors which are easily com- 
mitted by writers and copyists, whence, after- 
wards, spring up controversies, schisms, and 
confusion of parties. " 

A second reason that may be assigned for 
the unwritten ritual of Masonry is, that by 
compelling the craftsman who desires to make 
any progress in his profession, to commit its 
doctrines to memory, there is a greater proba- 
bility of their being thoroughly studied and 
understood. In confirmation of this opinion, 
it will, I think, be readily acknowledged by 
anyone whose experience is at all extensive, 
that, as a general rule, those skilful brethren 
who are technically called "bright Masons," 
are better acquainted with the esoteric and 
unwritten portion of the lectures, which they 
were compelled to acquire under a competent 
instructor, and by oral information, than with 
that which is published in the Monitors, and, 
therefore, always at hand to be read. 

Csssar (Bell. GaU., vi., 14) thought that 
this was the cause of the custom among 
the Druids, for, after mentioning that they 
did not suffer their doctrines to be com- 
mitted to writing, he adds: "They seem to 
me to have adopted this method for two 
reasons: that their mysteries might be hidden 
from the common people, and to exercise the 
memory of their disciples, which would be 
neglected if they had books on which they 
might rely, as, we find, is often the case." m 

A third reason for this unwritten doctrine 
of Masonry, and one, perhaps, most familiar 
to the Craft, is also alluded to by Caesar in 
the case of the Druids, "because they did not 



634 ORAL 

wish their doctrines to be divulged to the 
common people. 1 ' Maimonides, m the con- 
clusion of the passage which we have already 
quoted, makes a similar remark with respect 
to the oral law of the Jews. "But if, 11 says 
he, "so much care was exercised that the oral 
law should not be written in a book and laid 
open to all persons, lest, peradventure, it 
should become corrupted and depraved, how 
much more caution was required that the 
secret interpretations of that law should not 
be divulged to every person^and pearls be 
thus thrown to swine." " Wherefore," he 
adds', "they were intrusted to certain pri- 
vate persons, and by them were transmitted 
to other educated men of excellent and ex- 
traordinary gifts. 1 ' And for this regulation 
he quotes the Rabbis, who say that the secrets 
of the law are not delivered to any person 
except a man of prudence and wisdom. 

It is, then, for these excellent reasons — 
to avoid idle controversies and endless dis- 
putes; to preserve the secrets of our Order 
from decay; and, by increasing the diffi- 
culties by which they are to be obtained, 
to diminish the probability of their being 
forgotten; and, finally, to secure them from 
the unhallowed gaze of the profane — that 
the oral instruction of Masonry was first 
instituted, and still continues to be relig- 
iously observed. Its secret doctrines are 
the precious jewels of the Order, and the 
memories of Masons are the well-guarded 
caskets in which those jewels are to De pre- 
served with unsullied purity. And hence 
it is appropriately said in our ritual that 
"the attentive ear receives the sound from 
the instructive tongue, and the secrets of 
Freemasonry are safely lodged in the de- 
pository of faithful breasts." 

Oral Law. The Oral Law is the name 
given by the Jews to the interpretation of 
the written code, which is said to have been 
delivered to Moses at the same time, accom- 
panied by the Divine command: "Thou 
shalt not divulge the words which I have 
said to thee out of my mouth." The Oral 
Law was, therefore, never entrusted to books; 
but, being preserved in the memories of the 
judges, prophets, priests, and other wise men, 
was handed down, from one to the other, 
through a long succession of ages. 

Maimonides has described, according to 
the Rabbinical traditions, the mode adopted 
by Moses to impress the principles of this 
Oral Law upon the people. As an example of 
perseverance in the acquirement of informa- 
tion by oral instruction^ it may be worthy of 
the consideration and imitation of all those 
Masons who wish to perfect themselves in 
the esoteric lessons of their Institution. 

When Moses had descended from Mount 
Sinai, and had spoken to the people^ he re- 
tired to his tent. Here he was visited by 
Aaron, to whom, sitting at his feet, he re- 
cited the law and its explanation, as he 
had received it from God. Aaron then 
rose and seated himself on the right hand 
of Moses. Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons 
of Aaron, now entered the tent, and Moses 
repeated to them all that he had communi- 



ORDER 



cated to their father; after which, they 
seated themselves, one on the left hand of 
Moses and the other on the right hand of 
Aaron. Then went in the seventy elders, 
and Moses taught them, in the same manner 
as he had taught Aaron and his sons. After- 
ward, all of the congregation who desired to 
know the Divine will came in; and to them, 
also, Moses recited the law and its interpre- 
tation, in the same manner as before. The 
law, tnus orally delivered by Moses, had now 
been heard four times by Aaron, three times 
by his sons, twice by the seventy elders, and 
once by the rest of the people. After this, 
Moses withdrawing, Aaron repeated all that 
he had heard from Moses, and retired: then 
Eleazar and Ithamar repeated it, and also 
withdrew; and, finally, the same thing was 
done by the seventy elders; so that each of 
them having heard the law repeated four 
times, it was thus, finally, fixed in their 
memories. 

The written law, divided by the Jewish 
lawgivers into 613 precepts, is contained in 
the Pentateuch. But the oral law, trans- 
mitted by Moses to Joshua, by him to the 
elders, and from them conveyed by tradi- 
tionary relation to the time of Judah the 
Holy, was by him, to preserve it from being 
forgotten and lost, committed to writing 
in the work known as the Mishna. Ana 
now, no longer an Oral Law, its precepts 
are to be found in that book, with the sub- 
sidiary aid of the Constitutions of the prophets 
and wise men, the Decrees of the Sanhedrim, 
the decisions of the Judges, and the Expo- 
sitions of the Doctors. 

Orator. An officer in a Lodge whose duty 
it is to explain to a candidate after his initia- 
tion the mysteries of the degree into which 
he has just been admitted. The office is 
therefore, in many respects, similar to that of 
a lecturer. The office was created in the 
French Lodges early in the eighteenth 
century, soon after the introduction of Ma- 
sonry into France. A writer in the London 
Freemasons' Magazine for 1859 attributes its 
origin to the constitutional deficiency of the 
French in readiness of public speaking. 
From the French it passed to the other con- 
tinental Lodges, and was adopted by the 
Scottish Rite. The office is not recognized 
in the English and American system, where 
its duties are performed by the Worshipful 
Master. [Though a few Lodges under the Eng- 
lish Constitution do appoint an Orator, e. p., 
the Lodge of Antiquity. No. 2, the Pilgrim 
Lodge, No. 238. the Constitutional Lodge, 
No. 294, and the La Cesaree Lodge, No. 
590J 

Order. An Order may be defined to be 
a brotherhood, fellowship, or association of 
certain persons, united by laws and statutes 
peculiar to the society, engaged in a common 
object or design, and distinguished by par- 
ticular habits, ensigns, badges, or symbols. 

Johnson's definition is that an Order is 
"a regular government, a society of digni- 
fied persons distinguished by marks of honor, 
and a religious fraternity." In all of these 
senses Freemasonry may be styled an Order. 



ORDER 

Its government is of the most regular and sys- 
tematic character; men the meet eminent for 
dignitv and reputation have been its members; 
and if it does not constitute a religion in itself, 
it is at least religion's handmaid. 

The ecclesiastical writers define an Order 
to be a congregation or society of religious 
persons, governed by particular rules, living 
under the same superior, in the same manner, 
and wearing the same habit; a definition 
equally applicable to the society of Free- 
masons. These ecclesiastical Orders are 
divided into three classes: 1. Monastic, 
such as the Benedictines and the Augus- 
tinians. 2. The Mendicant, as the Domin- 
icans and the Franciscans. 3. The Mili- 
, as the Hospitalers, the Templars, 
the Teutonic Knights. Only the first 
and the third have any connection with Free- 
masonry: the first because it was by them 
that architecture was fostered, and the Ma- 
sonic gilds patronized in the Middle Ages; 
and the third because it was in the bosom 
of Freemasonry that the Templars found a 
refuge after the dissolution of their Order. 

Order Book. The book to which all 
appeals were made, in the Order of Strict 
Observance, as to matters of history, usage, 
or ritual. It was invariably bound in red. 

Order Name. The name or designation 
assumed by the IUuminati, the members 
of the Rite of Strict Observance, and of the 
Royal Order of Scotland, was called the 
Order Name, or the Characteristic Name. 
(See Eques.) 

The IUuminati selected classical names, 
of which the following are specimens: 



Weishaupt 


was Spartacus. 


Enigge 


a 


Philo. 


Bode 


a 


Amelius. 


Nicolai 


u 


Lucian. 


Westenreider 


u 


Pythagoras. 


Constanza 


It 


Diomedes. 


Zwack 


II 


Cato. 


Count Savioli 


II 


Brutus. 


Busche 


II 


Bayard. 


Ecker 


II 


Saladin. 



The members of the Strict Observance 
formed their Order Names in a different 
way. Following the custom of the com- 
batants in the old tournaments, each called 
himself an eques. or knight of some particu- 
lar object; as, Knight of the Sword, Knight 
of the Star, etc. Where one belonged both 
to this Rite and to that of IUwninism, his 
Order Name in each was different. Thus 
Bode, as an IUuminatus, was, we have seen, 
called "Amelius, 11 but as a Strict Observ- 
ant, he was known as "Eques a lilio con- 
vallium," or Knight of the Lily-of-the-Vallevs. 
The following examples may suffice. A full 
list will be found in Thory's Acta Latomorum. 

Hund was Eques ab ense- Knight of the 
Sword. 

Jacobi was Eques a steMa Knight of the 
Star. 

Count Bruhl was Eauee a gladio ancipiti = 
Knight of the Double-edged Sword. 

Bode was Eques a lilio convallium* Knight 
of the Lily-of-the- Valleys. 



ORDER 535 



Beyerle was Eques a fasciA- Knight of the 
Girdle. 

Berend was Eques a septem stellis- Knight 

of the Seven Stars. 
Decker was Eques a plagula« Knight of the 

Curtain. 

Lavater was Eques ab JSsculapio =* Knight 

of Esculapius. 
Seckendorf was Eques a capricorno — Knight 

of Capricorn. 
Prince Charles Edward was Eques & sole 

aureo» Knight of the Golden Sun. 
Zinnendorf was Eques a lapide nigro* 

Knight of the Black Stone. 

Order of Business. In every Masonic 
body, the by-laws should prescribe an "Order 
of Business/ 1 and in proportion as that 
order is rigorously observed will be the 
harmony and celerity with which the business 
of the Lodge will be despatched. 

In Lodges whose by-laws have prescribed 
no settled order, the arrangement of businesi 
is left to the discretion of the presiding 
officer, who, however, must be governed, 
to some extent, by certain general rules 
founded on the principles of parliamentary 
law. or on the suggestions of common sense. 

The order of Dusiness may, for conve- 
nience of reference, be placed in the following 
tabular form: 

1. Opening of the Lodge. 

2. Reading and confirmation of the minutes. 

3. Reports on petitions. 

4. Balloting for candidates. 

5. Reports of special committees. 

6. Reports of standing committees. 

7. Consideration of motions made at a 
former meeting, if called up by a member. 

8. New business. 

9. Initiations. 

10. Reading of the minutes for information 
and correction. 

11. Closing of the Lodge. 

Order of Christ. See Christ, Order of. 

Order of the Temple. See Temple, 
Order of the. 

Order, Bales of. Every permanent de- 
liberative body adopts a coae of rules of 
order to suit itself; but there are certain rules 
derived from what may be called the common 
law of Parliament, the wisdom of which hav- 
ing been proven by long experience, that have 
been deemed of force at all times and places, 
and are, with a few necessary exceptions, as 
applicable to Lodges as to other societies. 

The rules of order, sanctioned by uninter- 
rupted usage and approved by all authori- 
ties, may be enumerated under the following 
distinct heads, as applied to a Masonic body: 

1. Two independent original propositions 
cannot be presented at the same time to 
the meeting. 

2. A subsidiary motion cannot be offered 
out of its rank of precedence. 

3. When a brother intends to speak, he 
is required to stand up in his place, and 
to address himself always to the presiding 
officer. 

4. When two or more brethren rise nearly 
at the same time, the presiding officer will 



536 ORDERS 



ORDERS 



indicate, by mentioning his name, the one 
who, in his opinion, is entitled to the floor. 

5. A brother is not to be interrupted by 
any other member, except for the purpose 
of calling him to order. 

6. No brother can speak oftener than the 
rules permit; but this rule may be dispensed 
with by the Master. 

7. No one is to disturb the speaker by 
hissing, unnecessary coughing, loud whisper- 
ing, or other unseemly noise, nor should he 
pass between the speaker and the presiding 
officer. 

8. No personality, abusive remarks, or 
other improper language should bo used by 
any brother m debate. 

9. If the presiding officer rises to speak 
while a brother is on the floor, that brother 
should immediately sit down, that the pre- 
siding officer may Be heard. 

10. Everyone who speaks should speak 
to the question. 

11. As a sequence to this, it follows that 
there can be no speaking unless there be 
a question before the Lodge. There must 
always be a motion of some kind to author- 
ise a debate. 

Orders of Architecture. An order in 
architecture is a system or assemblage of 
parts subject to certain uniform established 
proportions regulated by the office which 
such part has to perform, so that the dis- 
position, in a peculiar form, of the members 
and ornaments, and the proportion of the 
columns and pilasters, is called an order. 
There are five orders of architecture, the 
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan, and Com- 
posite — the first three being of Greek and 
the last two of Italian origin. (See each under 
its respective title.) 

Considering that the orders of architec- 
ture must have constituted one of the most 
important subjects of contemplation to the 
Operative Masons of the Middle Ages, and 
that they afforded a fertile source for their 
symbolism, it is strange that so little allu- 
sion is made to them in the primitive lec- 
tures and in the earliest catechisms of the 
last century. In the earliest catechism ex- 
tant, they are simply enumerated, and said 
to answer "to the base, perpendicular, di- 
ameter, circumference, and square"; but no 
explanation is given of this reference. Nor 
are they referred to in the "Legend of the 
Craft," or in any of the Old Constitutions. 
Preston, however, introduced them into his 
system of lectures, and designated the three 
most ancient orders — the Ionic, Doric, and 
Corinthian — as symbols of wisdom, strength, 
and beauty, and referred them to the three 
original Grand Masters. This symbolism 
has ever since been retained; and, notwith- 
standing the reticence of the earner ritual- 
ists, there is abundant evidence, in the 
arcnitectural remains of the Middle Ages, 
that it was known to the old Operative Free- 
masons. 

Orders of Architecture, Egyptian. The 

Egyptians had a system of architecture 
peculiar to themselves, which, says Barlow 
(Essays on Symbolism, p. 30), "would indicate 



a people of grand ideas, and of confirmed 
religious convictions." It was massive, and 
without the airy proportions of the Greek 
orders. It was, too, eminently symbolic, and 
among its ornaments the lotus leaf and plant 
predominated as a symbol of regeneration. 
Among the peculiar forms of the Egyptian 
architecture were the fluted column, which 
suggested the Ionic order to the Greeks, and 
the basket capital adorned with the lotus, 
which afterward became the Corinthian. To 
the Masonic student, the Egyptian style of 
architecture becomes interesting, because it 
was undoubtedly followed by King Solomon 
in his construction of the Temple. The great 
similarity between the pillars of the porch 
and the columns in front of Egyptian temples 
is very apparent. Our translators have, 
however, unfortunately substituted the lily 
for the lotus in their version. 

Orders of Knighthood. An order of 
knighthood is a confraternity of knights 
bound by the same rules. Of these there 
are many in every kingdom of Europe, be- 
stowed by sovereigns on their subjects as 
marks of honor and rewards of merit. Such, 
for instance, are in England the Knights 
of the Garter; in Scotland the Knights of 
Saint Andrew; and in Ireland the Knights 
of Saint Patrick. But the only Orders of 
Knighthood that have had any historical 
relation to Masonry, except the Order of 
Charles XII. in Sweden, are the three great 
religious and military Orders which were 
established in the Middle Ages. These are 
the Knights Templar, the Knights Hospi- 
talers or Knights of Malta, and the Teu- 
tonic Knights, each of which may be seen 
under its respective title. Of these three, 
the Masons can really claim a connection 
only with the Templars. They alone had a 
secret initiation, and with them there is at 
least traditional evidence of a fusion. The 
Knights of Malta and the Teutonic Knights 
have always held themselves aloof from the 
Masonic Order. They never had a secret 
form of initiation; their reception was open 
and public; and the former Order, indeed, 
during the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, became the willing instruments of the 
Church in the persecution of the Masons who 
were at that time in the island of Malta. 
There is, indeed, a Masonic degree called 
Knight of Malta, but the existing remnant 
of the historical order has always repudiated 
it. With the Teutonic Knights, the Free- 
masons have no other connection than this, 
that in some of the high degrees their peculiar 
cross has been adopted. An attempt has 
been made, but without reason, to identify 
the Teutonic Knights with the Prussian 
Knights, or Noachites. 

Orders of the Day* In parliamentary 
law, propositions which are appointed for 
consideration at a particular hour and day are 
called the orders of the day. \JThen the day 
arrives for their discussion, they take prece- 
dence of all other matters, unless passed over 
by mutual consent or postponed to another 
day. The same rules in reference to these 
orders prevail in Masonic as in other assem- 



ORDINANCIO 



ORIENTATION 637 



blies. The parliamentary law is here ap- 
plicable without modification to Masonic 
bodies. 

Ordinacio. The Old Constitutions known 
as the Halliwell or Regius MS. (fourteenth 
century) speak of an ordinacio in the sense of 
a law. "Alia ordinacio arti* Qtmetrice." (L. 
471.) It is borrowed from the Roman law, 
where ordinalio signified an imperial edict. 
In the Middle Ages, the word was used in the 
sense of a statute, or the decision of a judge. 

Ordination. At the close of the recep- 
tion of a neophyte into the order of Elect 
Cohens, the Master, while communicating 
to him the mysterious words, touched him 
with the thumb, index, and middle fingers 
(the other two being closed) on the forehead, 
heart, and side of the head, thus making 
the figure of a triangle. This ceremony was 
called the ordination. 

Ordo ab Chao. Order out of Chaos. A 
motto of the Thirty-third Degree, and having 
the same allusion as lux e tenebrU, which see. 
The invention of this motto is to be attrib- 
uted to the Supreme Council of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite at Charleston, 
and it is first met with in the Patent of 
Count de Grasse, dated February 1, 1802. 
When De Grasse afterward carried the Rite 
over to France and established a Supreme 
Council there, he changed the motto, and, 
according to Lenning ; Ordo ab hoc was used by 
him ana his Council in all the documents 
issued by them. If so, it was simply a blunder. 

Oregon. The first Lodges instituted in 
Oregon were under Warrants from the Grand 
Lodge of California, in the year 1849. On 
August 16, 1851, a convention of three 
Lodges was held in Oregon City, and the 
Grand Lodge of Oregon was there organised. 
Berryman Jennings being elected Grand 
Master. The Grand Chapter was organised 
at Salem { September 18. 1860. Templar- 
ism was mtroduced by the organisation of 
Oregon Commandery, No. 1, at Oregon City, 
on July 24, 1860. 

Organist, Grand. An officer in the Grand 
Lodge of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
whose duty it is to superintend the musical 
exercises on private and public occasions. 
He must be a Master Mason, and is required 
to attend the Quarterly and other communi- 
cations of the Grand Lodge. His jewel is an 
antique lyre. Grand Lodges in this country 
do not recognize such an officer. But an 
organist has been recently employed since the 
introduction of musical services into Lodge 
ceremonies by some Lodges. 

Organization of the Grand Lodges. See 
Grand Lodge. 

Orient. The East. The place where a 
Lodge is situated is sometimes called its 
" Orient, " but more properly its "East." 
The seat of a Grand Lodge has also some- 
times been called its "Grand Orient"; but 
here "Grand East" would, perhaps, be 
better. The term "Grand Orient" has been 
used to designate certain of the Supreme 
Bodies on the Continent of Europe, and 
also in South America: as, the Grand Orient 
of France, the Grand Orient of Portugal, 



the Grand Orient of Brazil, the Grand Orient 
of New Grenada, etc. The title always 
has reference to the East as the place of 
honor in Masonry. (See East, Grand.) 

Orient, Grand. See Grand Orient. 

Orient, Grand Commander of the. 
(Grand Commandeur d 1 Orient.) The Forty- 
third Degree of the Rite of Mizraim. 

Orient, Interior. A name sometimes used 
in Germany to designate a Grand Chapter or 
supermtenaing body of the higher degrees. 

Orient of France, Grand. See France. 

Orient, Order of the. (Ordre d'Orient.) 
An Order founded, says Thory (Act. Lot., i., 
330), at Paris, in 1806, on the system of the 
Templars, to whom it traced its origin. 

Oriental Chair of Solomon. The seat 
of the Master in a Symbolic Lodge, and so 
called because the Master is supposed sym- 
bolically to fill the place over the Craft once 
occupied by King Solomon. For the same 
reason, the seat of the Grand Master in the 
Grand Lodge receives the same appellation. 
In England it is called the throne. 

Oriental Philosophy. A peculiar sys- 
tem of doctrines concerning the Divine 
Nature which is said to have originated in 
Persia, its founder being Zoroaster, whence 
it passed through Syria, Asia Minor, and 
Egypt, and was finally introduced among 
the Greeks, whose philosophical systems it 
at times modified. Pliny calls it "a magical 
philosophy," and says that Democntus, 
having traveled into the East for the purpose 
of learning it, and returning home, taught it 
in his mysteries. It gave birth to the sect 
of Gnostics, and most of it being adopted by 
the school of Alexandria, it was taught by 
Philo, Jamblichus, and other disciples of 
that school. Its essential feature was the 
theory of emanations (which see). And the 
Oriental Philosophy permeates, sometimes to 
a very palpable extent, Ineffable, Philosophic, 
and Hermetic Masonry, being mixed up ana 
intertwined with the Jewish and Kabbalistic 
Philosophy. A knowledge of the Oriental 
Philosophy is therefore essential to the proper 
understanding of these high degrees. 

Oriental Rite. The title first assumed 
by the Rite of Memphis. 

Orientation. The orientation of a Lodge 
is its situation due east and west. The word 
is derived from the technical language of 
architecture, where it is applied, in the 
expression "orientation of cnurcnes { " to 
designate a similar direction in building. 
Although Masonic Lodges are still, when 
circumstances will permit, built on an east and 
west direction, the explanation of the usage, 
contained in the old lectures of the last 
century, that it was "because all chapels 
and churches are, or ought to be so," has be- 
come obsolete, and other symbolic reasons are 
assigned. Yet there can be no doubt that 
such was really the origin of the usage. The 
orientation of churches was a principle of 
ecclesiastical architecture very generally ob- 
served by builders, in accordance with 
ecclesiastical law from the earliest times after 
the apostolic age. Thus in the Apostolic 
Constitutions, which, although falsely attrib- 



538 0R1FLAMME 



ORLEANS 



uted to St. Clement, are yet of great antiquity, 
we find the express direction, "sit ades 
oblonga ad orientem versus" — let the church 
be of an oblong form, directed to the east — a 
direction which would be strictly applicable 
in the building of a Lodge room. St. Charles 
Borromeo, in nia InstrucHones Fabriae Eccle- 
nasticcB, is still more precise, and directs that 
the rear or altar part of the church shall look 
directly to the east, "in orientem versus 
recta spectat," and that it shall be not "ad 
solstitialem sed ad ©quinoctialem orientem 1 ' 
— not to the solstitial east, which varies by 
the deflection of the sun's rising, but to the 
equinoctial east, where the sun rises at the 
equinoxes, that is to say t due east. But, as 
Bingham (AnUq., b. viii., c. iii.) admits, 
although the usage was very general to 
erect churches toward the east, yet "it 
admitted of exceptions, as necessity or ex- 
pediency"; and the same exception prevails 
m the construction of Lodges, which, although 
always erected due east and west, where 
circumstances will permit, are sometimes 
from necessity built m a different direction. 
But whatever may be externally the situation 
of the Lodge with reference to the points of 
the compass, it is always considered internally 
that the Master's seat is in the east, and there- 
fore that the Lodge is "situated due east and 
west." 

As to the original interpretation of the 
usage, there is no doubt that the Masonic 
was derived from the ecclesiastical, that is. 
that Lodges were at first built east ana 
west because churches were; nor can we 
help believing that the church borrowed 
and Christianized its symbol from the Pagan 
reverence for the place of sunrising. The 
admitted reverence in Masonry for the east 
as the place of light, gives to the usage the 
modern Masonic interpretation of the symbol 
of orientation. 

Orlfiamme. The ancient banner which 
originally belonged to the Abbey of St. Denis, 
and was borne by the Counts of Vezin, 
patrons of that church, but which, after the 
country of Vezin fell into the hands of the 
French crown, became the principal banner 
of the kingdom. It was charged with a 
sal tire wavy Or, with rays issuing from the 
center cross ways; Seccee into five points, 
each bearing a tassel of green silk. 

Original Points. The old lectures of 
the last century, which are now obsolete, 
contained the following instruction: "There 
are in Freemasonry twelve original points, 
which form the basis of the system ana 
comprehend the whole ceremony of initia- 
tion. Without the existence of these points, 
no man ever was. or can be, legally and 
essentially received into the Order. Every 
person who is made a Mason must go through 
all these twelve forms and ceremonies, not 
only in the first degree, but in every sub- 
sequent one." 

Origin of Freemasonry. The origin and 
source whence first sprang the institution of 
Freemasonry, such as we now have it, has 

Siven rise to more difference of opinion and 
iscussion among Masonic scholars than any 



other topic in the literature of the Institu- 
tion. Writers on the history of Freemasonry 
have, at different times, attributed its origin 
to the following sources. 1. To the Patri- 
archal religion. 2. To the Ancient Pagan 
Mysteries. 3. To the Temple of King Solo- 
mon. 4. To the Crusaders. 5. To the 
Knights Templar. 6. To the Roman Col- 
leges of Artificers. 7. To the Operative 
Masons of the Middle Ages. 8. To the 
Rosicrucians of the sixteenth century. 9. 
To Oliver Cromwell, for the advancement 
of his political schemes. 10. To the Pre- 
tender, for the restoration of the House of 
Stuart to the British throne. 11. To Sir 
Christopher Wren at the building of St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 12. To Dr. Desaguliers 
and his associates in the year 1717. Each 
of these twelve theories has been from time 
to time, and the twelfth within a recent 
period, sustained with much zeal, if not 
always with much judgment, by their advo- 
cates. A few of them, however, have lomt 
since been abandoned, but the others stifl 
attract attention and find defenders. Dr. 
Mackey has his own views of the subject in 
his book History of Freemasonry, to which the 
reader is referred.* 

Orleans, Duke of. Louis Philippe Joseph, 
Duke of Orleans, better known in history by 
his revolutionary name of Egalit6, was the 
fifth Grand Master of the Masonic Order in 
France. As Duke of Chartres, the title 
which he held during the life of his father, 
he was elected Grand Master in the year 
1771, upon the death of the Count de Cler- 
mont. Having appointed the Duke of 
Luxemburg his Substitute, he did not attend 
a meeting of the Grand Lodge until 1777, but 
had in the meantime paid much attention 
to the interests of Masonry, visiting many 
of the Lodges, and laying the foundation- 
stone of a Masonic Hall at Bordeaux. 

His abandonment of his family and his 
adhesion to the Jacobins during the revo- 
lution, when he repudiated his hereditary 
title of Duke of Orleans and assumed the 
republican one of EgalitA forms a part of 
the history of the times. On the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, 1793, he wrote a letter to Milsent, 
the editor, over the signature of "Citoyen 
EgaliteV' which was published in the Journal 
de Paris, and which contains the following 
passages: 

"This is my Masonic history. At one 
time, when certainly no one could have 
foreseen our revolution, I was in favor of 
Freemasonry, which presented to me a sort 
of image of equality, as I was in favor of 
the parliament, which presented a sort of 
image of liberty. I have since quitted the phan- 
tom for the reality. In the month of Decem- 
ber last, the secretary of the Grand Orient 
having addressed himself to the person who 
discharged the functions, near me, of secre- 



* See Antiquity of Masonry; Egyptian Mysteries; 
Roman College Artificers; Como; Comacine Mas* 
ters; Traveling Masons; Stone-Masons of Middle 
Ages; Four Old Lodges; Revival; Speculative Ma* 
sonry. 



ORMUS 



tary of the Grand Master, to obtain my opin- 
ion on a question relating to the affairs of that 
society, I replied to him on the 5th of January 
as follows: As I do not know how the Grand 
Orient is composed, and as, besides, I think 
that there should be no mystery nor secret 
assembly in a republic, especially at the 
commencement of its establishment, I desire 
no longer to mingle in the affairs of the Grand 
Orient, nor in the meetings of the Free- 
masons. 1 " 

In consequence of the publication of this 
letter, the Grand Orient on May 13, 1793, 
declared the Grand Mastership vacant, thus 
virtually deposing their recreant chief. He 
soon reaped the reward of his treachery and 
political debasement. On the 6th of Novem- 
ber in the same year he suffered death on the 
guillotine. 

Ormus or Ormeslus. See Rose Croix 
of Gold, Brethren of the. 

Ormuid and Ahriman. Ormuzd was 
the principle of good and the symbol of light, 
and Ahriman the principle of evil and the 
symbol of darkness, in the old Persian relig- 
ion. (See Zoroaster.) 

Ornaments of a Lodge. The lectures 
describe the ornaments of a Lodge as consist- 
ing of the Mosaic Pavement, the Indented 
Tessel, and the Blazing Star. They are called 
ornaments because they are really the dec- 
orations with which a properly furnished 
Lodge is adorned. See these respective 
words. 

Oman the Jebuslte. He was an in- 
habitant of Jerusalem, at the time that that 
city was called Jebus, from the son of Canaan, 
whose descendants peopled it. He was the 
owner of the threshing-floor situated on 
Mount Moriah, in the same spot on which 
the Temple was afterward built. This 
threshing-floor David bought to erect on it 
an altar to God. (1 Chron. xxi. 18-26.) On 
the same spot Solomon, afterward built the 
Temple. Hence, in Masonic language, the 
Temple of Solomon is sometimes spoken of 
as " the threshing-floor of Oman the Jebusite." 
(See Tkreshing-Floor.) 

Orphan. The obligation that Masons 
should care for the children of their de- 
ceased brethren has been well observed in 
the Institution by many Grand Lodges, 
independent associations of Masons, ana 
of asylums for the support and education 
of Masonic orphans. Among these, perhaps 
one of the most noteworthy, is the orphan 
asylum founded at Stockholm, in 1753, by the 
contributions of the Swedish Masons, which, 
by subsequent bequests and endowments, 
has become one of the richest private institu- 
tions of the kind in the world. 

Orpheus. There are no less than four per- 
sons to whom the ancients gave the name of 
Orpheus, but of these only one is worthy of 
notice as the inventor of the mysteries, or, at 
least, as the introducer of them into Greece. 
The genuine Orpheus is said to have been a 
Thracian, and a disciple of Linus, who flour- 
ished when the kingdom of the Athenians was 
dissolved. From mm the Thracian or Orphic 
mysteries derived their name, because he first 



ORPHIC 539 

introduced the sacred rites of initiation and 
mystical doctrines into Greece. He was, ac- 
cording to fabulous tradition, torn to pieces 
by Ciconian women, and after his death he 
was deified by the Greeks. The story, that 
by the power of his harmony he drew wild 
beasts and trees to him, has been symbolic- 
ally interpreted, that by his sacred doctrines 
he tamed men of rustic and savage disposi- 
tion. An abundance of fables has clustered 
around the name of Orpheus; but it is at least 
generally admitted by the learned, that he was 
the founder of the system of initiation into the 
sacred mysteries as practised in Greece. The 
Grecian theology, says Thomas Taylor— him- 
self the most Grecian of all moderns — orig- 
inated from Orpheus, and was promulgated 
by him, by Pythagoras, and by Plato; by the 
first, mystically and symbolically; by the 
second, enigmatically and through images; 
and by the last, scientifically. The mysti- 
cism of Orpheus should certainly have given 
him as high a place in the esteem of the 
founders of the present system of Speculative 
Masonry as has been bestowed upon Py- 
thagoras. But it is strange that, while they 
delighted to call Pythagoras an " ancient 
friend and brother, 1 ' they have been utterly 
silent as to Orpheus. 

Orphic Mysteries. These rites were prac- 
tised m Greece, and were a modification of the 
mysteries of Bacchus or Dionysus, and they 
were so called because their institution was 
falsely attributed to Orpheus. They were, 
however, established at a much later period 
than his era. Indeed, M. Freret. who has in- 
vestigated this subject with much learning in 
the Memoires de VAcademie des Inscriptions 
(torn, xxiii.), regards the Orphics as a degener- 
ate branch of the school of Pythagoras, formed, 
after the destruction of that school, by some 
of its disciples, who, seeking to establish a 
religious association, devoted themselves to 
the worship of Bacchus, with which they 
mingled certain Egyptian practises, and out of 
this mixture made up a species of life which 
they called the Orphic life, and the origin of 
which, to secure greater consideration, they 
attributed to Orpheus, publishing under his 
name many apocryphal works. 

The Orphic rites differed from the other 
Pagan rites, in not being connected with the 
priesthood, but in being practised by a fra- 
ternity who did not possess the sacerdotal 
functions. The initiated commemorated in 
their ceremonies, which were performed at 
night, the murder of Bacchus by the Titans, 
and his final restoration to the supreme gov- 
ernment of the universe, under the name of 
Phanes. 

Demosthenes, while reproaching ^Eechines 
for haying engaged with nis mother in these 
mysteries, gives us some notion of their na- 
ture. 

In the day, the initiates were crowned with 
fennel and poplar, and carried serpents in 
their hands, or twined them around their 
heads, crying with a loud voice, enos t sabos, 
and danced to the sound of the mystic words, 
hyes, attes, attes, hyes. At night the mystes 
was bathed in the lustra! water, and having 



540 OSIRIS 

been rubbed over with clay and bran, he was 
clothed in the skin of a fawn, and having risen 
from the bath, he exclaimed, "I have de- 
parted from evil and have found the good. " 

The Orphic poems made Bacchus identical 
with Osiris, ana celebrated the mutilation and 
palingenesis of that deity as a symbol teaching 
the resurrection to eternal life, so that their 
design was similar to that of the other Pagan 
mysteries. 

The Orphic initiation, because it was not 
sacerdotal in its character, was not so cele- 
brated among the ancients as the other mys- 
teries. Piato, even, calls its disciples charla- 
tans. It nevertheless existed until the first 
ages of the Christian religion, being at that 
time adopted by the philosophers as a means 
of opposing the progress of the new revelation. 
It fell, however, at last, with the other rites of 
Paganism, a victim to the rapid and trium- 
phant progress of the Gospel. 

Osiris. He was the chief god of the old 
Egyptian mythology, the husband of Isis, and 
the father of Horus. Jabloniski says that 
Osiris represented the sun only, but Plutarch, 
whose opportunity of knowing was better, 
asserts tnat, while generally considered as a 
symbol of the solar orb, some of the Egyptian 
philosophers regarded him as a river god, 
and called him Nilus. But the truth is, that 
Osiris represented the male, active or genera- 
tive, powers of nature; while Isis represented 
its female, passive or prolific, powers. Thus, 
when Osiris was the sun, Isis was the earth, to 
be vivified by his rays; when he was the Nile, 
Isis was the land of Egypt, fertilized by his 
overflow. Such is the mythological or mys- 
tical sense in which Osiris was received. 

Historically, he is said to have been a great 
and powerful king, who, leaving Egypt, trav- 
ersed the world, leading a host oT fauns or 
satyrs, and other fabulous beings in his train, 
actually an army of followers. He tivilizea 
the whole earth, and taught mankind to fer- 
tilize the soil and to perform the works of 
agriculture. We see here the idea which was 
subsequently expressed by the Greeks in their 
travels of Dionysus, and the wanderings of 
Ceres; and it is not improbable that the old 
Masons had some dim perception of this story, 
which they have incorporated, under the fig- 
ure of Euclid, in their " Legend of the Craft. 9 

Osiris, Mysteries of. The Osirian mys- 
teries consisted in a scenic representation of 
the murder of Osiris by Typhon, the subse- 
quent recovery of his mutilated body by Isis. 
and his deification, or restoration to immortal 
life. Julius Firmicus, in his treatise On the 
Falsity of the Pagan Rdigions, thus describes 
the object of the Osirian Mysteries: " But in 
those funerals and lamentations which are 
annually celebrated in honor of Osiris, the de- 
fenders of the Pagan rites pretend a physical 
reason. They call the seeds of fruit, Osiris; 
the earth, Isis; the natural heat, Typhon; 
and because the fruits are ripened by the 
natural heat and collected for the life of 
man, and are separated from their natural 
tie to the earth, and are sown again when 
winter approaches, this they consider is the 
death of Osiris; but when the fruits, by the 



OZIAH 



genial fostering of the earth, begin again to 
be generated by a new procreation, this is 
the finding of Osiris. " This explanation does 
not essentially differ from that already given 
in the article Egyptian Mysteries. The sym- 
bolism is indeed precisely the same — that of a 
restoration or resurrection from death to life. 
(See Egyptian Mysteries.) 

Oterfut. The name of the assassin at the 
west gate in the legend of the Third Degree, 
according to some of the high degrees. I nave 
vainly sought the true meaning or derivation 
of this word, which is most probably an ana- 
gram of a name. It was, I think, invented by 
the Stuart Masons, and refers to some person 
who was inimical to that party. 

Otreb. The pseudonym of the celebrated 
Rosicrucian Michael Maier, under which he 
wrote his book on Death ana the Resurrection. 
(See Maier.) 

OurieL See Uriel 

Oat of the Lodge. The charges of a Free- 
mason, compiled by Anderson from the An- 
cient Records, contain the regulations for the 
behavior of Masons out of the Lodge under 
several heads; as, behavior after the Lodge is 
over, when brethren meet without strangers, 
in the presence of strangers, at home, and to- 
ward a strange brother. Gftdicke gives the 
same directions in the following words: 

"A brother Freemason shall not only con- 
duct himself in the Lodge, but also out of the 
Lodge, as a brother towards his brethren; and 
happy are they who are convinced that they 
have in this respect ever obeyed the laws of 
the Order." 

Oval Temples* The temple in the Druid- 
ical mysteries was often of an oval form. As 
the oblong temple was a representation of the 
inhabited world, whence is derived the form of 
the Lodge, so the oval temple was a represen- 
tation of the mundane egg, which was also a 
symbol of the world. The symbolic idea in 
both was the same. 

Overseer. The title of three officers in a 
Mark Lodge, who are distinguished as the 
Master, Semor, and Junior Overseer. The 
jewel of their office is a square. In Mark 
Lodges attached to Chapters, the duties of 
these officers are performed by the three 
Grand Masters of tne Veils. 

Ox. The ox was the device on the banner 
of the tribe of Ephraim. The ox on a scarlet 
field is one of the Royal Arch banners, and is 
borne by the Grand Master of the Third Veil. 

Oyres de Ornellas, Pracao. A Portu- 
guese gentleman, who was arrested as a Free- 
mason, at Lisbon, in 1776, was thrown into a 
dungeon, where he remained fourteen months. 
(See AUncourt.) 

Ozee. Sometimes Osee. The ucclamation 
of the Scottish Rite is so spelled in many 
French Cahiera. Properly Hoschea, which 
Delaunay (Thutleur, p. 141) derives from the 
Hebrew $ hossham. deliverance, safety, or, 
as he says, a savior. But see Hoschea, where 
another derivation is suggested 

Oziah. (Heb. rn?; Latin, FortUudo dom- 
ini.) Aprince of Judah, and the name of the 
Senior Warden in the Fifth Degree of the 
French Rite of Adoption. 



p 



PALLADIUM 541 



P. The sixteenth letter of the English 
and Greek alphabets, and the seventeenth 
i of the Hebrew, in which last-mentioned 
language its numerical value is 80, is 
formed thus D, signifying a mouth in 

^ the Phoenician. The sacred name of 

^ God associated with this letter is HUD, 
Phodeh or Redeemer. 

Pachacamae. The Peruvian name for 
the Creator of the universe. 

Paganls, Hugo de. The Latinized form 
of the name of Hugh de Payens, the first 
Grand Master of the Templars. (See Payens.) 

Paganism. A general appellation for the 
religious worship of the whole human race, 
except of that portion which has embraced 
Christianity, Judaism, or Mohammedanism. 
Its interest to the Masonic student arises from 
the fact that its principal development was the 
ancient mythology, in whose traditions and 
mysteries are to The found many interesting 
analogies with the Masonic system. (See 
Dispensations of Religion.) 

Paine, Thomas. A political writer of 
eminence during the Revolutionary War in 
America. He greatly injured his reputation 
by his attacks on the Christian religion. He 
was not a Mason, but wrote An Essay on the 
Origin of Freemasonry, with no other knowl- 
edge of the Institution than that derived from 
the writings of Smith and Dodd, and the very 
questionable authority of Prichard's Masonry 
Dissected. He sought to trace Freemasonry 
to the Celtic Druids. For one so little ac- 
quainted with his subject, he has treated it 
with considerable ingenuity. Paine was born 
in England in 1737, and died in New York, in 
1809. 

Palestine, called also the Holy Land on 
account of the sacred character of the events 
that have occurred there, is situated on the 
coast of the Mediterranean, stretching from 
Lebanon south to the borders of Egypt, and 
from the thirty-fourth to the thirty-ninth 
degrees of longitude. It was conquered from 
the Canaanites by the Hebrews under Joshua 
1450 years B.C. They divided it into twelve 
confederate states according to the tribes. 
Saul united it into one kingdom, and David 
enlarged its territories. In 975 b.c. it was 
divided into the two kingdoms of Israel and 
Judea, the latter consisting of the tribes of 
Judah and Benjamin, and the former of the 
rest of the tribes. About 740 b.c, both king- 
doms were subdued by the Persians and Baby- 
lonians, and after the captivity only the two 
tribes of Judah and Benjamin returned to 
rebuild the Temple. With Palestine, or the 
Holy Land, the mythical, if not the authentic, 
history of Freemasonry has been closely con- 
nected. There stood, at one time, the Temple 
of Solomon, to which some writers have traced 
the origin of the Masonic Order; there fought 
the Crusaders, among whom other writers 
have sought, with equal boldness, to find the 
cradle of the Fraternity; there certainly the 



Order of the Templars was instituted, whose 
subsequent history has been closely mingled 
with that of Freemasonry; and there occurred 
nearly all the events of sacred history that, 
with the places where they were enacted, have 
been adopted as important Masonic symbols. 

Palestine* Explorations In. The desire 
to obtain an accurate knowledge of the arche- 
ology of Palestine, gave rise in 1866 to an asso- 
ciation, which was permanently organized in 
London, as the " Palestine Exploration Fund," 
with the Queen as the chief patron, and a long 
list of the nobility and the most distinguished 
gentlemen in the kingdom, added to which 
followed the Grand Lodge of England and 
forty-two subordinate and provincial Grand 
Lodges and Chapters. Early in the year 
1867 the committee began the work of exam- 
ination, by mining in and about the various 
points which had been determined upon by a 
former survey as essential to a proper under- 
standing of the ancient city, which had been 
covered up by dibris from age to age { so that 
the present profiles of the ground, m every 
direction, were totally different from what 
they were in the days of David and Solomon, 
or even the time of Christ. 

Lieutenant Charles Warren, R.E. [as he 
then was. now Lieut.-General Sir Charles 
Warren. G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S.], was sent 
out with authority to act as circumstances 
might demand, and as the delicacy and the 
importance of the enterprise required. He 
arrived in Jerusalem February 17, 1867, and 
continued his labors of excavating in many 
parts of the city, with some interruptions, 
until 1871, when he returned to England. 
During his operations, he kept the society 
in London constantly informed of the prog- 
ress of the work in which he and his asso- 
ciates were so zealously engaged, in a ma- 

i'ority of cases at the imminent risk of their 
ives and always that of their health. The 
result of these labors has been a vast accumu- 
lation of facts in relation to the topography of 
the holy city which throw much light on its 
archeology. A branch of the society has been 
established in this country, and it is still in 
successful operation. 

Palestine* Knight of. See Knight of 
Palestine. 

Palestine, Knight of St. John of. See 

Knight of St. John of Palestine. 

Palestine, Order of • Mentioned by Baron 
de Tschoudy, and said to have been the foun- 
tain whence the Chevalier Ramsay obtained 
his information for the regulation of his sys- 
tem. 

Palla. An altar-cloth, also a canopy borne 
over the head of royalty in Oriental lands. 

PaUadle Masonry. The title raven to the 
Order of the Seven Sages and the Order of the 
Palladium. (See Palladium, Order of the.) 

Palladium, Order of the. An androgy- 
nous society of Masonic adoption, established, 
says Ragon, at Paris in 1737. It made great 



542 PALMER 



pretensions to high antiquity, claiming that 
it had its origin in the instructions brought by 
Pythagoras from Egypt into Greece, and hav- 
ing fallen into decay after the decline of the 
Roman Emperor, it was revived in 1637 by 
Fenelon, Archbisnop of Canbray; all of which 
is altogether mythical. Fenelon was not 
born until 1651. It was a very moral society, 
consisting of two degrees: 1. Adelph; 2. 
Companion of Ulysses. When a female took 
the Second Degree, she was called a Compan- 
ion of Penelope. 

Palmer. From the Latin, palmifer, a 
palm-bearer. A name given in the time of 
the Crusades to a pilgrim, who, coming back 
from the holy war after having accomplished 
his vow of pilgrimage, exhibited upon nis re- 
turn home a branch of palm bound round his 
staff in token of it. 

Palmer, Henry I* Born in New York, 
October 18, 1819. He was the author of the 
celebrated report, in October, 1849. which re- 
sulted in the union of the two Grand Lodges in 
New York, the "Herriiig-Phiffips" and the 
"New York" Grand Lodge. Bro. Palmer 
occupied almost every known position in Craft 
Masonry, and was the commanding officer of 
every one of its departments. He was P. G. 
Master of the G. Encampment of K. T. of the 
U. S., and G. Commander of the Supreme 
Council of the A. A. Scottish Rite, Northern 
Jurisdiction of the U. S. of America. He died 
on May 7, 1909. 

Pantacle. The pentalpha of Pythagoras 
is so called in the symbolism of High Magic 
and the Hermetic Philosophy. (See Pental- 
pha.) 

Pantheism. A speculative system, which, 
spiritually considered, identifies the universe 
with God, and, in the material form, God with 
the universe. Material Pantheism is subject 
to the criticism, if not to the accusation, of 
being atheistic. Pantheism is as aged as relig- 
ion t and was the system of worship in India, 
as it was in Greece. Giordano Bruno was 
burned for his pantheistic opinions at Rome 
in 1600. 

Pantheistic Brotherhood. Described by 
John Toland, in his Pantheisticon, as having 
a strong resemblance to Freemasonry. The 
Socratic Lodge in Germany, based on the 
Brotherhood, was of short duration. 

Papworth Manuscript. A manuscript 
in the possession of Mr. Wyatt Papworth, of 
London, who purchased it from a bookseller 
of that city in 1860. As some of the water- 
marks of the paper on which it is written bear 
the initials G. R., with a crown as a water- 
mark, it is evident that the manuscript cannot 
be older than 1714. that being the year in 
which the first of the Georges ascended the 
throne. It is most probably of a still more 
recent date, perhaps 1720. The Rev. A. F. A. 
Woodford das thus described its appearance: 
"The scroll was written originally on pages of 
foolscap size, which were then joined into a 
continuous roll, and afterwards, probably for 
greater convenience, the pages were again sep- 
arated by cutting them, and it now forms a 



PARALLEL 

book, containing twenty-four folios, sewed 
together in a tight-brown paper cover. The 
text is of a bold character, but written so ir- 
regularly that there are few consecutive pages 
which have the same number of lines, the aver- 
age being about seventeen to the page." The 
manuscript is not complete, three or four of 
the concluding charges being omitted, al- 
though some one has written, in a hand differ- 
ent from that of the text, the word Finis at the 
bottom of the last page. The manuscript 
appears to have been simply a copy, in a little 
less antiquated language, of some older Con- 
stitution. It has been published by Bro. 
Hughan in his Old Charges of the British Free- 
masons. (1872.) 

Papyrus. " The papyrus leaf," says J. W. 
Simons, in hiB Egyptian Symbols, "is 
that plant which formed tablets and 
books, and forms the first letter of 
the name of the only eternal and all- W&L 
powerful god of Egypt, Amon, who Ez? 
m the beginning of things created Mjsk 
the world," whose name signified 
occult or hidden. The word fto, | 
ole f which signifies a leaf, .and to in- * 
scribe on tablets forms D?P, olm, the antique 
origin of things, obscure time, hidden eternity. 

The TurinFuneral Papyrus is a book pub- 
lished by Dr. Lepsius in original character, 
but translated by Dr. Birch. This Book of 
the Dead is invaluable as containing the true 

Shilosophic belief of the Egyptians respecting 
tie resurrection and immortality. The manu- 
script has been gathered from portions which 
it was obligatory to biuy with the dead. The 
excavations of mummies in Egypt have been 
fruitful in furnishing the entire work. 
Paracelsus. Philippus Aureolus Theo- 

Ehrastus Bombastus Paracelsus de Hohen- 
eim, as he styled himself, was born in Ger- 
many in 1493, and died in 1541. He devoted 
his youth to the study and practise of astrol- 
ogy, alchemy, and magic, and passed many 
years of his life in traveling over Europe and 
acquiring information in medicine, of which 
he proclaimed himself to be the monarch. He 
was, perhaps, the most distinguished charla- 
tan who ever made a figure in the world . The 
followers of his school were called Paracelsists, 
and they continued for more than a century 
after the death of their master to influence the 
schools of Germany. Much of the Kabba- 
listic and mystical science of Paracelsus was 
incorporated into Hermetic Masonry by the 
founders of the high degrees. 

Paracelsus, Sublime. A degree to be 
found in the manuscript collections of Peuvret. 

Parallel lines. In every well-regulated 
Lodge there is found a point within a circle, 
which circle is imbordered by two perpendic- 
ular parallel lines. These lines are represen- 
tative of St. John the Baptist and St. John 
the Evangelist, the two great patrons of Ma- 
sonry to whom our Lodges are dedicated, and 
who are said to have been " perfect parallels in 
Christianity as well as Masonry." In those 
English Lodges which have adopted the 
"Union System 11 established by the Grand 



PARIKCHAI 



Lodge of England in 1813, and where the dedi- 
cation is "to God and his service." the lines 
parallel represent Moses and Solomon. As 
a symbol, the parallel lines are not to be found 
in the earlier rituals of Masonry. Although 
Oliver defines the symbol on the authority of 
what he calls the " Old Lectures/ 1 it is not to 
be found in any anterior to Preston, and even 
he only refers to the parallelism of the two Sts. 
John. 

Parlkchal, Agrouchada. An occult sci- 
entific work of the Brahmans. According to 
a work by Louis Jacolliot, 1884, the Fakirs 
produced phenomena at will with superior 
intervention or else with shrewd charlatanism: 
processes that were known to the Egyptians 
and Jewish Kabbalists. The doctrines are 
those known to the Alexandrian school, to the 
Gauls, and as well to the Christians. In the 
division of the Kabbala, the first treated of 
the History of the Genesis or Creation, and 
taught the science of nature; the second, or 
Mercaba, of the History of the Chariot, and 
contained a treatise on theology. 

There were three degrees of initiation among 
the Brahmans: 

1st. According to selection, the candidate 
became a Grihasta, a Pourohita or Fakir, or in 
twenty years a Guru. 

2d. A Sannyassis or Cenobite and Vana- 
prasthas, and lived in the Temple. 

3d. A Sannyassis-Nirvany or Naked Ceno- 
bite. 

Those of the third degree were visible only 
once in five years, appearing in a column of 
light created by themselves, at midnight, and 
on a stand in the center of a great tank. 
Strange sounds and terrific shrieks were heard 
as they were gazed upon as demigods, sur- 
rounded by thousands of Hindus. 

The government was by a Supreme Council 
of seventy Brahmans, over seventy years of 
age, selected from the Nirvany, and, chosen to 
see enforced the Law of the Lotus. The Su- 
preme Chief, or Brahmatna, was required to 
be over eighty years of age, and was looked 
upon as immortal by the populace. This Pon- 
tiff resided in an immense palace surrounded 
by twenty-one walls. 

The primitive holy word composed of the 
three letters A. U. M., comprises the Vedio 
trinity, signifying Creation, Preservation, and 
Transformation, and symbolize all the initia- 
tory secrets of the occult sciences. By some 
it has been taught that the " Honover" or 
primordial germ, as defined in the A vesta, ex- 
isted before all else. Also see Manou, Book 
xi., Sloca 265. The following unexplained 
magical words were always inscribed in two 
triangles: L'om. LWham-sh'hrum. Sho'bim. 
Ramayor Nahama. 

He who possessed the word greater than 
the A. U. M. was deemed next to Brahma. 
The word was transmitted in a sealed box. 

The Hindu triad, of which in later times OM 
is the mystic name, represents the union of 
the three gods, viz., a (Vishnu), u (Siva), m 
(Brahma). It may also be typical of the 
three Vedas. Om appears first m the Upan- 



PAELIAMENTARY 543 



ishads as a mystical monosyllable, and is thus 
set forth as the object of profound meditation. 
It is usually called jyranava, more rarely 
aksharam. The Buddhists use Om at the be- 
ginning of their Vidya Shad-akshari or mysti- 
cal formulary in six syllables (viz., Om mftni 
pad me hum). (See Pitris Indische Mys- 
terien and Awn.) [C. T. McClenachan.] 

Paris, Congresses of. Three important 
Masonic Congresses have been held in the city 
of Paris. The first was convened by the Rite 
of Philalethes in 1785. that by a concourse 
of intelligent Masons of all rites and countries, 
and by a comparison of oral and written tra- 
ditions, light might be educed on the most 
essential subjects of Masonic science, and on 
the nature, origin, and historic application as 
well as the actual state of the Institution. 
Savalette de Lauges was elected President. 
It closed after a protracted session of three 
months, without producing any practical re- 
sult. The second was called in 1787. as a 
continuation of the former, and closed with 
precisely the same negative result. The 
third was assembled in 1855, by Prince Murat, 
for the purpose of effecting various reforms in 
the Masonic system. At this Congress, ten 
propositions, some of them highly important, 
were introduced, and their adoption recom- 
mended to the Grand Lodges of the world. 
But the influence of this Congress has not 
been more successful than that of its prede- 
cessors. 

Paris Constitutions. A copy of these 
Constitutions, said to have been adopted in 
the thirteenth century, will be found in G. P. 
Depping's Collection de Documents inedits sur 
VHistoire de France. (Paris, 1837.) A part of 
this work contains the Reglemens sur les arts 
et nUHers de Paris, redigis au ISme siecle el 
connus sous le nam de lime des mHiers d'Etienne 
Boileau. This treats of the masons, stone- 
cutters, plasterers, and mortar-makers, and. 
as Steinbrenner (Or and Hist, of Mas., p. 104) 
says, "is interesting, not only as exhibiting 
the peculiar usages and customs of the Craft 
at that early period, but as showing the con- 
nection which existed between the laws and 
regulations of the French Masons and those of 
the Steinmetzen of Germany and the Masons 
of England." A translation of the Paris Con- 
stitutions was published in the Freemasons 9 
Magazine, Boston. 1863, p. 201. In the year 
1743, the "English Grand Lodge of France' 1 
published, in Paris, a series of statutes, taken 
principally from Anderson's work of the 
editions of 1723 and 1738. It consisted of 
twenty articles, and bore the title of General 
ReavJLaUons taken from the Minutes of the 
Lodges, for the use of the French Lodges, together 
with the alterations adopted at the General As- 
sembly of the Grand Lodge, December 11, 17 AS, 
to serve as a rule of action for the said kingdom. 
A copy of this document, says Findel, was 
translated into German, with annotations, 
and published in 1856 in the Zeitschrift fur 
Freimaurer of Altenberg. 

Parliamentary Law. Parliamentary Law, 
or the Lex PaHiamentaria, is that code origi- 



544 PARLIRER 

nally framed for the government of the Par- 
liament of Great Britain in the transaction of 
its business, and subsequently adopted, with 
necessary modifications, by the Congress of 
the United States. 

But what was found requisite for the regu- 
lation of public bodies, that order might T>e 
secured and the rights of all be respected, has 
been found equally necessary in private soci- 
eties. Indeed, no association of men could 
meet together for the discussion of any sub- 
ject, with the slightest probability of ever 
coming to a conclusion, unless its debates were 
regulated by certain and acknowledged rules. 

The rules thus adopted for its government 
are called its parliamentary law, and they are 
selected from the parliamentary law of the 
national assembly, because that code has been 
instituted by the wisdom of past ages, and 
modified and perfected by the experience of 
subsequent ones, so that it is now universally 
acknowledged that there is no better system 
of government for deliberative societies than 
the code which has so long been in operation 
under the name of parliamentary law. 

Not only, then, is a thorough knowledge 
of parliamentary law necessary for the pre- 
siding officer of a Masonic body, if he would 
discharge the duties of the chair with credit 
to himself and comfort to the members, but 
he must be possessed of the additional infor- 
mation as to what parts of that law are applica- 
ble to Masonry, and what parts are not; as 
to where and when he must refer to it for the 
decision of a question, and where and when he 
must lay it aside, and rely for his government 
upon the organic law and the ancient usages 
of the Institution. 

Parlirer. In the Lodges of Stone-Masons 
of the Middle Ages, there was a rank or class 
of workmen called Parlirers, literally, spokes- 
men. They were an intermediate class of 
officers between the Masters of the Lodges 
and the Fellows, and were probably about the 
same as our modern Wardens. Thus, in the 
Strasbourg Constitutions of 1459, it is said: 
"No Craftsman or Mason shall promote one 
of his apprentices as a parlirer whom he has 
taken as an apprentice from his rough state, 
or who is still in the years of apprenticeship, 
which may be compared with the old English 
charge that "no Brother can be a Warden 
until he has passed the part of a Fellow- 
Craft." (Constitutions, 1723, p. 52.) They 
were called Parlirers, properly, says Held- 
mann, Parlierers, or Spokesmen, because, in 
the absence of the Masters, they spoke for the 
Lodge, to traveling Fellows seeking employ- 
ment, and made the examination. There are 
various forms of the word. Kloss, citing the 
Strasbourg Constitutions, has Parlirer; Krause 
has, from the same document, Parlierer, but 
says it is usually Poller; Heldmann uses Par* 
lierer, which has been now generally adopted. 

Parole* A Mot de semestre (q. v.), com- 
municated by the Grand Orient of France, and 
in addition an annual word in November, 
which tends to show at once whether a mem- 
ber is in good standing. 



PARVIN 



Parrot Masons. One who commits to 
memory the questions and answers of the cate- 
chetical lectures, and the formulas of the rit- 
ual, but payB no attention to the history and 
philosophy of the Institution, is commonly 
called a Parrot Mason, because he is supposed 
to repeat what he has learned without any 
conception of its true meaning. In former 
times, such superficial Masons were held by 
many in high repute, because of the facility 
with which they passed through the ceremo- 
nies of a reception^ and they were generally 
designated as "Bright Masons." But the 
progress of Masonry as a science now requires 
something more than a mere knowledge of the 
lectures to constitute a Masonic scholar. 

Parsees. The descendants of the original 
fire-worshipers of Persia, or the disciples of 
Zoroaster, who emigrated to India about the 
end of the eighth century. There they now 
constitute a body very little short of a million 
of industrious and moral citizens, adhering 
with great tenacity to the principles and prac- 
tises of their ancient religion. Many of the 
higher classes have become worthy members 
of the Masonic fraternity, and it was for their 
sake principally that Dr. Burnes attempted 
some years ago to institute his new Order, en- 
titled the Brotherhood of the Olive-Brancn, as 
asubstitute for theChristian degrees of Knight- . 
hood, from which, by reason of their religion, 
they were excluded. (See Olive-Branch in the 
East, Brotherhood of the, and Zendavesta.) 

Particular Lodges* In the Regulations of 
1721, it is said that the Grand Lodge consists 
of the representatives of all the particular 
Lodges on record. (Constitutions, 1723, p. 
61.) In the modern Constitutions of Eng- 
land, the term used is private Lodges. In 
America, they are called subordinate Lodges. 

Parts* In the old obligations, which may 
be still used in some portions of the country, 
there was a provision which forbade the rev- 
elation of any of the arts, varts, or points of 
Masonry. Oliver explains tne meaning of the 
word parts by telling us that it was an old 
word for degrees or lectures." (See Points.) 

Parvlii, Theodore S. Born January 15, 
1817 t in Cumberland County, New Jersey. 
His journey in life gradually tending west- 
ward, he located in Ohio, and graduated in 
1837 at the Cincinnati Law School. He was 
appointed private secretary by Robert Lucas, 
first Governor of Iowa, in which state he be- 
came Judge of the Probate Court and after- 
ward Curator and Librarian of the State 
University at Iowa City. Bro. Parvin was in- 
itiated in Nova Cesarea Lodge, No. 2. Cincin- 
nati. Ohio, March 14, 1838, and raised the 9th 
of tne May following, and the same year de- 
mitted and removed to Iowa. He partici- 
pated in the organization of the first Lodge, 
Des Moines, No. 1, and also of the second, 
Iowa Lodge, No. 2, at Muscatine. He was 
elected Grand Secretary of tne Grand Lodge 
at its organization (1844), and held the office 
continuously to the time of his death, with the 
exception of the year 1852-3, when ne served 
as Grand Master. He founded and organized 



PARVIS 



PASSWORD 645 



the Grand Lodge library and held the office 
of Grand Librarian until his death. His 
official signature is on every charter of the 
Grand Lodge of Iowa from 1844 to 1900. 

He was exalted in Iowa City Chapter, No. 2. 
January 7, 1845, and held the offices of Grand 
High Priest of the Grand Chapter, 1854, and 
Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter, 1855- 
56, and represented the Grand Chapter in 
the General Grand Chapter for many years. 

He was created a Royal Select Master in 
Dubuque Council, No. 3. September 27, 1847, 
and presided over the Convention organizing 
the Grand Council of Iowa, 1857. 

Knighted January 18, 1855, in Apollo En- 
campment, No. 1, Chicago, 111., he was a mem- 
ber of the Convention organizing the Grand 
Commandery of Iowa, 1864, being the first 
Grand Commander. He was Grand Recorder 
of the Grand Encampment K. T. of the U. S. 
for fifteen years, 1871-86. 

In 1859 he received the degrees of the Scot- 
tish Rite and was crowned in that year an 
Inspector-General, Thirty-third Degree. 

In addition to this record, our brother also 
organized the Grand Bodies of Dakota, and 
the Grand Commandery of Nebraska, and his 
contributions to Masonic literature placed 
him among the leading writers and thinkers of 
the Craft. 

He died at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, June 28, 
1901. 

Parvls. In the French system, the room 
immediately preceding a Masonic Lodge is so 
called. It is equivalent to the Preparation 
Room of the American and English systems. 

Paschal Feast. Celebrated by the Jews 
in commemoration of the Passover, by the 
Christians in commemoration of the resur- 
rection of our Lord. The Paschal Feast, 
called also the Mystic Banquet, is kept by all 
Princes of the Rose Croix Where two are 
together on Maundy Thursday, it is of obli- 
gation that they should partake of a por- 
tion of roasted lamb. This banquet is sym- 
bolic of the doctrine of the resurrection. 

Paschalls, Martinez. The founder of 
a new Rite or modification of Masonry, 
called by him the Rite of Elected Cohens or 
Priests. It was divided into two classes, 
in the first of which was represented the 
fall of man from virtue and happiness, 
and in the second, his final restoration. 
It consisted of nine degrees, namely: 1. 
Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft f 3. Master; 4. 
Grand Elect: 5. Apprentice Cohen; 6. Fel- 
low-Craft Conen; 7. Master Cohen; 8. Grand 
Architect; 9. Knight Commander. Paschalis 
first introduced this Rite into some of the 
Lodges of Marseilles, Toulouse, and Bor- 
deaux, and afterward, in 1767, he extended it 
to Paris, where, for a short time, it was rather 
popular, ranking some of the Parisian literati 
among its disciples. It has now ceased to 
exist. 

Paschalis was a German, born about the 
year 1700, of poor but respectable parentage. 
At the age of sixteen he acquired a knowledge 
of Greek and Latin. He then traveled 
SO 



through Turkey, Arabia, and Palestine, where 
he made himself acquainted with the Kabba- 
listic learning of the Jews. He subsequently 
repaired to Paris, where he established his 
Rite. 

Paschalis was the Master of St. Martin, who 
afterward reformed his Rite. After living for 
some years at Paris, he went to St. Domingo, 
where he died in 1779. Thory, in his His- 
toire de la Fondation du Grand Orient de France 
(pp. 239-253), has given very full details of 
this Rite and of its receptions. 

Paschal Lamb, See Lamb, Paschal. 

Pas perdus. The French call the room ap- 
propriated to visitors the Salle des pas perdus. 
It is the same as the Tiler's Room m the Eng- 
lish and American Lodges. 

Passage. The Fourth Degree of the Fess- 
ler Rite, of which Patria forms the Fifth. 

Passages of the Jordan. See Fords of the 
Jordan. 

Passed. A candidate, on receiving the 
Second Degree, is said to be "passed as a Fel- 
low-Craft." It alludes to his having passed 
through the porch to the middle chamber of 
the Temple, the place in which Fellow-Crafts 
received their wages. In America " crafted " 
is often improperly used in its stead. 

Passing of Conyng. That is, surpassing 
in skill. The expression occurs in the Cooke 
MS. (line 676), "The forsayde Maister Euglet 
ordeynet thei were passing of conyng schold 
be passing honoured"; i. e., The aforesaid 
Master, Euclid, ordained that they that were 
surpassing in skill should be exceedingly hon- 
ored. It is a fundamental principle of Ma- 
sonry to pay all honor to knowledge. 

" Passing the Elver." A mystical alpha- 
bet said to have been used by the Kabbalists. 
These characters, with certain explanations, 
become the subject of consideration with 
brethren of the Fifteenth Degree, A. A. Scot- 
tish Rite. The following are the characters: 

9 n m I o J t 0h * uv st 

dgBAiSakLpN 

Password. A word intended, like the mil- 
itary countersign, to prove the friendly nature 
of him who gives it. and is a test of his right to 
pass or be admitted into a certain place. Be- 
tween a Word and a Password there seems to 
be this difference: the former is given for in- 
struction, as it always contains a symbolic 
meaning; the latter, for recognition only. 
Thus, the author of the life of the celebrated 
Elias Ashmole says, " Freemasons are known 
to one another all over the world by certain 
passwords known to them alone; they have 
Lodges in different countries, where they are 
relieved by the brotherhood if they are in dis- 
tress. 1 ' (See Sign.) 



546 PAST 



Past. An epithet applied in Masonry to 
an officer who has held an office for the pre- 
scribed period for which he was elected, and 
has then retired. Thus, a Past Master is one 
who has presided for twelve months over a 
Lodge, and the Past High Priest one who, for 
the same period, has presided over a Chapter. 
The French use the word passi in the same 
sense, but they have also the word ancien, 
with a similar meaning. Thus, while they 
would employ Maitre pass6 to designate the 
degree of Fast Master, they would call the offi- 
cial Past Master, who had retired from the 
chair at the expiration of his term of service, 
an Ancien V&nerabU, or Ancien Maitre. 

Past Master* An honorary degree con- 
ferred on the Master of a Lodge at his installa- 
tion into office. In this degree the necessary 
instructions are conferred respecting the vari- 
ous ceremonies of the Order, such as installa- 
tions, processions, the laying of corner-stones, 
etc. 

When a brother, who has never before pre- 
sided, has been elected the Master of a Lodge, 
an emergent Lodge of Past Masters, consisting 
of not less than three, is convened, and all but 
Past Masters retiring, the degree is conferred 
upon the newly elected officer. 

Some form of ceremony at the installation 
of a new Master seems to have been adopted 
at an early period after the revival. In the 
"manner of constituting a new Lodge," as 
practised by the Duke of Wharton, who was 
Grand Master in 1723, the language used by 
the Grand Master when placing the candidate 
in the chair is given, and he is said to use 
"some other expressions that are proper and 
usual on that occasion, but not proper to 
be written* 9 (Constitutions, 1738, p. 150.) 
Whence we conclude that there was an eso- 
teric ceremony. Often the rituals tell us that 
this ceremony consisted only in the outgoing 
Master communicating certain modes of rec- 
ognition to his successor. And this actually, 
even at this day, constitutes the essential in- 
gredient of the Past Master's Degree. 

The degree is also conferred in Royal Arch 
Chapters, where it succeeds the Mark Mas- 
ter's Degree. The conferring of this degree, 
which has no historical connection with the 
rest of the degrees, in a Chapter, arises from 
the following circumstance: Originally, when 
Chapters of Royal Arch Masonry were under 
the government of Lodges in which the degree 
was then always conferred, it was a part of the 
regulations that no one could receive the 
Royal Arch Degree unless he had previously 
presided in the Lodge as Master. When the 
Chapters became independent, the regulation 
could not be abolished, for that would have 
been an innovation; the difficulty has, there- 
fore, been obviated, by making every candi- 
date for the degree of Royal Arch a Past 
Virtual Master before his exaltation. 

[Under the English Constitution this prac- 
tise was forbidden in 1826, but seems to nave 
lingered on in some parts until 1850.] 

Some extraneous ceremonies, by no means 
creditable to their inventor, were at an early 



PATENTS 

period introduced into America. In 1856, the 
General Grand Chapter, by a unanimous vote, 
ordered these ceremonies to be discontinued, 
and the simpler mode of investiture to be used; 
but the order has only been partially obeyed, 
and many Chapters still continue what one 
can scarcely help calling the indecorous form 
of initiation into the degree. 

For several years past the question has been 
agitated in some of the Grand Lodges of the 
United States, whether this degree is within 
the jurisdiction of Symbolic or of Royal Arch 
Masonry. The explanation of its introduc- 
tion into Chapters, just given, manifestly dem- 
onstrates that the jurisdiction over it by 
Chapters is altogether an assumed one. The 
Past Master of a Chapter is only a quasi Past 
Master; the true and legitimate Past Master 
is the one who has presided over a Symbolic 
Lodge. 

Past Masters are admitted to membership 
in many Grand Lodges, and by some the in- 
herent right has been claimed to sit in those 
bodies. But the most eminent Masonic au- 
thorities have made a contrary decision, and 
the general, and, indeed, almost universal opin- 
ion now is that Past Masters obtain their 
seats in Grand Lodges by courtesy, and in con- 
sequence of local regulations, ana not by in- 
herent right. 

The jewel of a Past Master in the United 
States is a pair of compasses extended to sixty 
degrees on the fourth part of a circle, with a sun 
in the center. In England it was formerly the 
square on a quadrant, but is at present the 
square with the forty-seventh problem of Eu- 
clid engraved on a silver plate suspended 
within it. 

The French have two titles to express this 
degree. They apply Maitre passi to the Past 
Master of the English and American system, 
and they call in their own system one who has 
formerly presided over a Lodge an Ancien 
Maitre. The indiscriminate use of these titles 
sometimes leads to confusion in the transla- 
tion of their rituals and treatises. 

Pastophorl. Couch or shrine bearers. 
The company of Pastophori constituted a sa- 
cred college of priests in Egypt, whose duty it 
was to carry in processions the image of the 
god. Their chief, according to Apuleius (Met. 
xi.), was called a Scribe. Besides acting as 
mendicants in soliciting charitable donations 
from the populace, they took an important 
part in the mysteries. 

Pastos* (Greek, murrof, a couch.) The 
pastos was a chest or close cell, in the Pagan 
mysteries (among the Druids, an excavated 
stone) , in which the aspirant was for some time 
placed, to commemorate the mystical death of 
the god. This constituted the symbolic death 
which was common to all the mysteries. In 
the Arkite rites, the pastos represented the ark 
in which Noah was confined. It is repre- 
sented among Masonic symbols by the coffin. 

Patents. Diplomas or certificates of the 
higher degrees in the Scottish Rite are called 
Patents. The term is also sometimes applied 
to commissions granted for the exercise of high 



PATIENCE 



Masonic authority. Litera patentes or apertce, 
that is, letters patent or open letters, was a 
term used in the Middle Ages in contradis- 
tinction to Uteres clauses, or closed letters, to 
designate those documents which were spread 
out on the whole length of the parchment, and 
sealed with the public seal of the sovereign; 
while the secret or private seal only was at- 
tached to the closed patents. The former 
were sealed with green wax, the latter with 
white. There was also a difference in their 
heading; letters patent were directed "uni- 
versis turn praesentibus quam futuris," i. e., to 
all present or to come; while closed letters were 
directed "universis praesentibus literas in- 
specturis," i. e., to all present who shall inspect 
these letters. Masonic diplomas are therefore 
properly called letters patent, or, more briefly, 
patents. 

Patience. In the ritual of the Third De- 
gree according to the American Rite, it is said 
that "time, patience, and perseverance will 
enable us to accomplish all things, and perhaps 
at last to find the true Master's Word." The 
idea is similar to one expressed by the Her- 
metic philosophers. Thus Pernetty tells us 
(Diet. Mythof. Herm.) that the alchemists 
said: "The work of the philosopher's stone is 
a work of patience, on account of the length of 
time and of labor that is required to conduct it 
to perfection; and Geber says that many 
adepts have abandoned it in weariness, and 
others, wishing to precipitate it, have never 
succeeded." With the alchemists, in their 
esoteric teaching, the philosopher's stone had 
the same symbolism as the WORD has in 
Freemasonry. 

Patriarchal Masonry* The theory of 
Dr. Oliver on this subject has, we think, Deen 
misinterpreted. He does not maintain, as has 
been falsely supposed, that the Freemasonry 
of the present day is but a continuation of that 
which was practised by the patriarchs, but 
simply that, in the simplicity of the patri- 
archal worship, unencumbered as it was with 
dogmatic creeds, we may find the true model 
after which the religious system of Specula- 
tive Masonry has been constructed. Thus he 
says: "Nor does it (Freemasonry) exclude a 
survey of the patriarchal mode of devotion, 
which indeed forms the primitive model of 
Freemasonry. The events that occurred in 
these ages of simplicity of manners and purity 
of faith, when it pleased God to communicate 
with his favoured creature, necessarily, there- 
fore, form subjects of interesting illustration 
in our Lodges, and constitute legitimate topics 
on which the Master in the chair may expati- 
ate and exemplify, for the edification of the 
brethren and their improvement in morality 
and the love and fear of God. 1 ' ( Hist. Landm.) 
i. { 207.) There is here no attempt to trace an 
historical connection, but simply to claim an 
identity of purpose and character in the two 
religious systems, the Patriarchal and the 
Masonic. 

Patriarch, Grand. The Twentieth De- 
gree of the Council of Emperors of the East 
and West The same as the Twentieth De- 



PAUL 547 



gree, or Noachite, of the Ancient and Ac- 
cepted Rite. 

Patriarch of the Crusades. One of the 
names formerly given to the degree of Grand 
Scottish Knight of St. Andrew, the Twenty- 
ninth of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 
Rite. The legend of that degree connects it 
with the Crusades, and hence the name; 
which, however, is never used officially, and is 
retained by regular Supreme Councils only as 
a synonym. 

Patriarch of the Grand Luminary* A 
degree contained in the nomenclature of Le 
Page. 

Patron. In the year 1812, the Prince of 
Wales, becoming Regent of the kingdom, was 
constrained by reasons of state to resign the 
Grand Mastership of England, but immedi- 
ately afterward accepted the title of Grand 
Patron of the Order in England, and this was 
the first time that the title was officially rec- 
ognized. George IV. held it during his life, 
and on his death. William IV., in 1830, offi- 
cially accepted tne title of "Patron of the 
United Grand Lodge." On the accession of 
Victoria, the title fell into abeyance, because 
it was understood that it could only be as- 
sumed by a sovereign who was a member of 
the Craft, but King Edward VII. became 
"Protector of English Freemasons" on his 
accession to the throne in 1001. The office is 
not known in other countries. 

Patrons of Masonry* St. John the Bap- 
tist and St. John the Evangelist. At an early 
period we find that the Christian church 
adopted the usage of selecting for every trade 
and occupation its own patron saint, who is 
supposed to have taken it under his especial 
charge. And the selection was generally 
made in reference to some circumstance in 
the life of the saint, which traditionally con- 
nected him with the profession of which he was 
appointed the patron. Thus St. Crispin, be- 
cause he was a shoemaker, is the patron saint 
of the "gentle craft," and St. Dunstan, who 
was a blacksmith, is the patron of black- 
smiths. The reason why the two Saints John 
were selected as the patron saints of Free- 
masonry will be seen under the head of Dedi- 
cation of Lodges. 

Paul, Confraternity of Saint* In the 
time of the Emperor Charles V. there was a 
secret community at Trapani, in Sicily, which 
called itself La Confraternita di San Paolo. 
These people, when assembled, passed sen- 
tence on tneir fellow-citizens; and if anyone 
was condemned, the waylaying and putting 
him to death was allotted to one of the mem- 
bers, which office he was obliged, without 
murmuring, to execute. (Stolberg's Travels, 
vol. iii., p. 472.) In the travels of Brocquire 
to and from Palestine in 1432 (p. 328), an 
instance is given of the power of the associa- 
tion over its members. In the German 
romance of Hermann of Unna, of which there 
are an English and French translation, this 
tribunal plays an important part. 

Paul I* This emperor of Russia was 
induced by the machinations of the Jesuits, 



648 PAVEMENT 



PELICAN 



whom he had recalled from banishment, to 
prohibit in his domains all secret societies, 
and especially the Freemasons. This prohibi- 
tion lasted from 1797 to 1803, when it was 
repealed by his successor. Paul had always 
expressed himself an enthusiastic admirer of 
the Knights of Malta; in 1797 he had assumed 
the title of Protector of the Order, and in 1798 
accepted the Grand Mastership. This is 
another evidence, if one was needed, that 
there was no sympathy between the Order 
of Malta and the Freemasons. 

Pavement, Mosaic. See Mosaic Pave- 
ment. 

Pai Voblscom. ("Peace be with you!") 
Used in the Eighteenth Degree, A A. Scottish 
Rite. 

Payens, Hash de. In Latin, Hugo de 
Paganis. The founder and the fint Grand 
Master of the Order of Knights Templar. 
He was born at Troyes, in the kingdom of 
Naples. Having, with eight others, estab- 
lished the Order at Jerusalem, in 1118 he 
visited Europe, where, through his represen- 
tations, its reputation and wealth and the 
number of its followers were greatly increased. 
In 1129 he returned to Jerusalem, where 
he was received with great distinction, but 
shortly afterward died, and was succeeded 
in the Grand Mastership by Robert de Craon, 
surnamed the Burgundian. 

P. D. E. P. Letters placed on the ring 
of profession of the Order of the Temple, 
being the initials of the Latin sentence, Pro 
Deo et P atria, i. e., For God and my country. 

Peace* The spirit of Freemasonry is an- 
tagonistic to war. Its tendency is to unite 
all men in one brotherhood, whose ties must 
necessarily be weakened by all dissension. 
Hence, as Bro. Albert Pike says, "Masonry 
is the great peace society of the world. Wher- 
ever it exists, it struggles to prevent inter- 
national difficulties and disputes, and to bind 
republics, kingdoms, and empires together in 
one great band of peace and amity." 

Pectoral* Belonging to the breast; from 
the Latin pectus, the breast. The heart has 
always been considered the seat of fortitude 
and courage, and hence by this word is sug- 
gested to the Mason certain symbolic instruc- 
tions in relation to the virtue of fortitude. 
In the earliest lectures of the last century 
it was called one of the "principal signs," 
and had this hieroglyphic, X; but in the 
modern rituals the hieroglyphic has become 
obsolete, and the word is appropriated to one 
of the perfect points of entrance. 

Pectoral of the High Priest. The 
breastplate worn by the high priest of the 
Jews was so called from pectus, the breast, 
upon which it rested. (See Breastplate.) 

Pedal* Belonging to the feet, from the 
Latin pedes, the feet. The just man is he 
who, firmly planting his feet on the prin- 
ciples of nght, is as immovable as a rock, 
and can be thrust from his upright position 
neither by the allurements of flattery, nor 
the frowns of arbitrary power. And hence 
by this word is suggested to the Mason 



certain symbolic instructions in relation 
to the virtue of justice. Like "Pectoral," 
this word was assigned, in the oldest rituals, 
to the principal signs of a Mason, having < 
for its hieroglyphic; but in the modern lectures 
it is one of the perfect points of entrance, 
and the hieroglypnic is no longer used. 

Pedestal. The pedestal is the lowest part 
or base of a column on which the shaft is 
placed. In a Lodge, there are supposed to 
be three columns, the column of Wisdom 
in the east, the column of Strength in the 
west, and tne column of Beauty in the south. 
These columns are not generally erected in 
the Lodge, but their pedestals always are, 
and at each pedestal sits one of the three 
superior officers of the Lodge. Hence we 
often hear such expressions as these, admncino 
to the pedestal, or standing before the pedestal, 
to signify advancing to or standing before the 
seat of the Worshipful Master. The custom 
in some Lodges of placing tables or desks 
before the three principal officers is, of course, 
incorrect. They should, for the reason above 
assigned, be representations of the pedestals 
of columns, and should be painted to represent 
marble or stone. 

Pedum* Literally, a shepherd's crook, 
and hence sometimes used in ecclesiology for 
the bishop's crosier. In the statutes of the 
Order of the Temple at Paris, it is prescribed 
that the Grand Master shall carry a "pad urn 
magistrale seu patriarchale." But the better 
word for the staff of the Grand Master of 
the Templars is baculus, which see. 

Peetash. The demon of calumny in the 
religious system of Zoroaster, Persia. 

Pelasgtan Religion. The Pelasgians were 
the oldest, if not the aboriginal, inhabitants 
of Greece. Their religion differed from that 
of the Hellenes, who succeeded them, in being 
less poetical, less mythical, and more abstract. 
We know little of their religious worship 
except by conjecture; but we may suppose 
it resembled in some respects the doctrines 
of what Dr. Oliver calls the Primitive Free- 
masonry. Creuzer thinks that the Pelas- 
gians were either a nation of priests or a nation 
ruled by priests. 

Peleg. 27£, Division. A son of Eber. 
In his day the world was divided. A sig- 
nificant word in the high degrees. In the 
Noachite, or Twentieth Degree of the Scot- 
tish Rite, there is a singular legend of Peleg, 
which ol course is altogether mythical, in 
which he is represented as the architect of 
the Tower of Babel. 

Pelican. The pelican feeding her young 
with her blood is a prominent symbol of the 
Eighteenth or Rose Croix Degree of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and was 
adopted as such from the fact that the 
pelican, in ancient Christian art, was con- 
sidered as an emblem of the Savior. Now 
this symbolism of the pelican, as a represen- 
tative of the Savior, is almost universally 
supposed to be derived from the common 
belief that the pelican feeds her young with 
her blood, as the Savior shed his blood fox 



PELICAN 

mankind; and hence the bird is always repre- 
sented as sitting on her nest, and surrounded 
by her brood of young ones, who are dipping 
their bills into a wound in their mother's 
breast. But this is not the exact idea of 
the symbolism, which really refers to the resur- 
rection, and is, in this point of view, more 
applicable to our Lord, as well as to the 
Masonic degree of which the resurrection is 
a doctrine. 

In an ancient Bestiarium, or Natural 
History, in the Royal Library at Brussels, 
cited by Larwood and Hotten in a recent 
work on The History of Signboards, this 
statement is made: "The pelican is very 
fond of his young ones, and when they are 
born and begin to grow, they rebel in their 
nest against their parent, and strike him 
with their wings, flying about him, and 
beat him so much till they wound him in 
his eyes. Then the father strikes and kills 
them. And the mother is of such a nature 
that she comes back to the nest on the third 
day, and sits down upon her dead young 
ones, and opens her side with her bill ana 
pours her blood over them, and so resusci- 
tates them from death; for the young ones, 
by their instinct, receive the blood as soon 
as it comes out of the mother, and drink it." 

The Ortus Vocabulorum, compiled early in 
the fifteenth century, gives the fable more 
briefly: "It is said, if it be true, that the 
pelican kills its young, and grieves for them 
for three days. Then she wounds herself, 
and with the aspersione of her blood resusci- 
tates her children." And the writer cites, 
in explanation, the verses 

"Ut pelicanu. fit matria sanguine sanus, 
Sio Sancti sum us nos omnes sanguine nati." 

i. e. f "As the Pelican is restored by the blood 
of its mother, so are we all born by the blood of 
the Holy One," that is, of Christ. 

St. Jerome gives the same story, as an 
illustration of the destruction of man by the 
old serpent, and his salvation by the blood 
of Christ. And Shelton, in an old work en- 
titled the Armorie of Birds, expresses the same 
sentiment in the following words: 

"Then said the pelican, 
When my birds be slain, 
With my blood I them revive; 
Scripture doth record 
The same did our Lord, 
And rose from death to life." 

This romantic story was religiously believed 
as a fact of natural history in the earliest 
ages of the church. Hence the pelican was 
very naturally adopted as a symbol of the 
resurrection and, by consequence, of him whose 
resurrection is, as Cruden terms it, "the cause, 
pattern, and argument of ours. 1 ' 

But in the course of time the original 
legend was, to some extent, corrupted, and 
a simpler one was adopted, namely, that 
the pelican fed her young with her own 
blood merely as a means of sustenance, and 
the act of maternal love was then referred 



PENALTY 549 



to Christ as shedding his blood for the sins 
of the world. In this view of the symbol- 
ism, Pugin has said that the pelican is "an 
emblem of our Blessed Lord shedding his 
blood for mankind, and therefore a most 
appropriate symbol to be introduced on all 
vessels or ornaments connected with the 
Blessed Sacrament." And in the Antiqui- 
ties of Durham Abbey, we learn that "over 
the high altar of Durham Abbey hung a 
rich and most sumptuous canopy for the 
Blessed Sacrament to hang within it, whereon 
stood a pelican, all of silver, upon the height 
of the said canopy, very finely gilt, giving 
her blood to her young ones, in token that 
Christ gave his blood for the sins of the 
world." 

But I think the true theory of the peli- 
can is, that by restoring her young ones to 
life by her blood, she symbolises the resur- 
rection. The old symbologists said, after 
Jerome, that the male pelican, who de- 
stroyed his young, represents the serpent, or 
evil principle, which brought death into 
the world; while the mother, who resuscitates 
them, is the representative of that Son of 
Man of whom it is declared, "except ye 
drink of his blood, ye have no life in you." 

And hence the pelican is very appropriately 
assumed as a symbol in Masonry, whose great 
object is to teach by symbolism the doctrine 
of the resurrection, and especially in that 
sublime degree of the Scottish Rite wherein, 
the old Temple being destroyed and the old 
Word being lost, a new temple and a new word 
spring forth — all of which is but the great 
allegory of the destruction by death and the 
resurrection to eternal life. 

Pellegrini, Marquis of. One of the 
pseudonyms assumed by Joseph Balsamo, 
better known as Count Cagliostro (q. v.). 

Penal Sign* That which refers to a 
penalty. 

Penalty. The adversaries of Freemasonry 
have found, or rather invented, abundant 
reasons for denouncing the Institution; but 
on nothing have they more strenuously and 
fondly lingered than on the accusation 
that it makes, by horrid and impious cere- 
monies, all its members the willing or unwilling 
executioners of those who prove recreant to 
their vows and violate the laws which they 
are stringently bound to observe. Even a 
few timid and uninstructed Masons have been 
found who were disposed to believe that there 
was some weight in this objection. The fate 
of Morgan, apocryphal as it undoubtedly was, 
has been quoted as an instance of Masonic 
punishment inflicted by the regulations of 
the Order; and, notwithstanding the solemn 
asseverations of the most intelligent Masons 
to the contrary, men have been found, and 
still are to be found, who seriously entertain 
the opinion that every member of the Fra- 
ternity becomes, by the ceremonies of his 
initiation and by the nature of the vows 
which he has taken, an active Nemesis of 
the Order, bound by some unholy promise 
to avenge the Institution upon any treach- 



550 PENALTY 

erous or unfaithful brother. All of this arises 
from a total misapprehension, in the minds 
of those who are thus led astray, of the true 
character and design of vows or oaths which 
are accompanied by an imprecation. It is 
well, therefore, for the information both of 
our adversaries — who may thus be deprived 
of any further excuse for slander, and of our 
friends — who will be relieved of any continued 
burden on their consciences, that we should 
show that, however solemn may be the prom- 
ises of secrecy, of obedience, and of charity 
which are required from our initiates, and 
however they may be guarded by the sanc- 
tions of punishment upon their offenders, 
they never were intended to impose upon 
any brother the painful and — so far as the 
laws of the country are concerned — the 
illegal task of vindicating the outrage com- 
mitted by the violator. The only Masonic 
penalty inflicted by the Order upon a traitor, 
is the scorn and detestation of the Craft 
whom he has sought to betray. 

But that this subject may be thoroughly 
understood, it is necessary that some consid- 
eration should be given to oaths generally, 
and to the character of the imprecations 
by which they are accompanied. 

The obsecration, or imprecation, is that 
part of every oath which constitutes its 
sanction, and which consists in calling 
some superior power to witness the declara- 
tion or promise made, and invoking his 
protection for or anger against the person 
making it, according as the said declaration 
or promise is observed or violated. This 
obsecration has, from the earliest times, 
constituted a part of the oath — and an im- 
portant part, too — among every people, 
varying, of course, according to the varie- 
ties of religious beliefs and modes of adora- 
tion. Thus, among the Jews, we find such 
obsecrations as these: Co yagnasheh li Elo- 
him, "So may God do to me." A very 
common obsecration among the Greeks was, 
Uto Zeus or theon marturomai, "May Jove 
stand by me," or "I call God to witness." 
And the Romans, among an abundance of 
other obsecrations, often said, dii me perdant, 
"May the gods destroy me," or ne vivam. 
"May I die." 

These modes of obsecration were accom- 

E allied, to make them more solemn and sacred, 
y certain symbolic forms. Thus the Jews 
caused the person who swore to hold up 
his right hand toward heaven, by which 
action he was supposed to signify that he 
appealed to God to witness the truth of 
what he had averred or the sincerity of his 
intention to fulfil the promise that he had 
made. So Abraham said to the King of 
Sodom, "I have lift up my hand unto the 
Lord, . . . that I will not take anything 
that is thine." Sometimes, in taking an 
oath of fealty, the inferior placed his hand 
under the thigh of his lord, as in the case 
of Eliezer and Abraham, related in the 24th 
chapter of Genesis. Among the Greeks 
and Romans, the person swearing placed his 



PENALTY 



hands, or sometimes only the right hand, 
upon the altar, or upon the victims when, 
as was not unusual, the oath was accompanied 
by a sacrifice, or upon some other sacred thing. 
In the military oath, for instance, the soldiers 
placed their hands upon the rigna, or stand- 
ards. 

The obsecration, with an accompanying 
form of solemnity, was indeed essential to 
the oath among the ancients, because the 
crime of perjury was not generally looked 
upon by them in the same light in which it is 
viewed by the moderns. It was, it is true, 
considered as a heinous crime, but a crime 
not so much against society as against the gods, 
and its punishment was supposed to be left to 
the deity whose sanctity had been violated 
by the adjuration of his name to a false oath 
or broken vow. Hence, Cicero says that 
"death was the divine punishment of perjury, 
but only dishonor was its human penalty. 
And therefore the crime of giving false testi- 
mony under oath was not punished in any 
higher degree than it would nave been had it 
been given without the solemnity of an oath. 
Swearing was entirely a matter of con- 
science, and the person who was guilty of 
false swearing, where his testimony did not 
affect the rights or interests of others, was 
considered as responsible to the deity alone 
for his periury. 

The explicit invocation of God as a witness 
to the truth of the thing said, or, in promis- 
sory oaths, to the faithful observance of the 
act promised, the obsecration of Divine 
punishment upon the jurator if what he swore 
to be true should prove to be false, or if the 
vow made should be thereafter violated, and 
the solemn form of lifting up the hand to 
heaven or placing it upon the altar or the 
sacred victims, must necessarily have given 
confidence to the truth of the attestation, 
and must have been required by the hearers 
as some sort of safeguard or security for the 
confidence they were called upon to exercise. 
This seems to have been the true reason for 
the ancient practise of solemn obsecration 
in the administration of oaths. 

Among modern nations, the practise has 
been continued, and from the ancient usage 
of invoking the names of the gods and of 
placing the hands of the person swearing 
upon their altars, we derive the present 
method of sanctifying every oath by the 
attestation contained in the phrase "So 
help me God" and the concluding form of 
kissing the Holy Scriptures. 

Ana now the question naturally occurs 
as to what is the true intent of this obse- 
cration, and what practical operation is ex- 
pected to result from it. In other words, 
what is the nature of a penalty attached to 
an oath, and how is it to be enforced? When 
the ancient Roman, in attesting with the 
solemnity of an oath to the truth of what 
he had iust said or was about to say, concluded 
with the formula, "May the gods destroy 
me," it is evident that he simply meant to 
say that he was so convinced of the truth 



PENALTY 



of what he had said that he was entirely 
willing that his destruction by the gods 
whom he had invoked should be the condi- 
tion consequent upon his falsehood. He had 
no notion that he was to become outlawed 
among his fellow-creatures, and that it should 
be not only the right, but the duty, of any 
man to destroy him. His crime would have 
been one against the Divine law, and subject 
only to a Divine punishment. 

In modern times, perjury is made a penal 
offense against human laws, and its punish- 
ment is inflicted by human tribunals. But 
here the punishment of the crime is entirely 
different from that inferred by the obsecration 
which terminates the oath. The words "So 
help me God," refer exclusively to the with- 
drawal of Divine aid and assistance from the 
jurator in the case of his proving false, and 
not to the human punishment which society 
would inflict. 

In like manner, we may say of what are 
called Masonic penalties, that they refer in 
no case to any Kind of human punishment; 
that is to say, to any kind of punishment 
which is to be inflicted by human hand or 
instrumentality. The true punishments of 
Masonry affect neither life nor limb. They 
are expulsion and suspension only. But 
those persons are wrong, be they mistaken 
friends or malignant enemies, who suppose 
or assert that there is any other sort of 
penalty which a Mason recreant to his vows 
is subjected to by the laws of the Order, 
or that it is either the right or duty of any 
Mason to inflict such penalty on an offending 
brother. The obsecration of a Mason simply 
means that if he violates his vows or betrays 
his trust he is worthy of such penalty, and 
that if such penalty were inflicted on him it 
would be but just and proper. "May I die," 
said the ancient, "if this be not true, or if I 
keep not this vow." Not may any man 
put me to death, nor is any man required to 
put me to death, but only, if I so act, then 
would I be worthy of death. The ritual 
penalties of Masonry, supposing such to be. 
are in the hands not of man, but of God, and 
are to be inflicted by God, and not by man. 

Bro. Fort says, in the 29th chapter of his 
Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, 
that "Penalties inflicted upon convicts of 
certain grades during the Middle Ages, were 
terrible and inhuman. 

" The most cruel punishment awaited him 
who broke into and robbed a Pagan temple. 
According to a law of the Frisians, such 
desecration was redressed by dragging the 
criminal to the seashore and burying the body 
at a point in the sands where the tide daily 
ebbed and flowed." (Lex Frisian., Add. Sap., 
Tit. 12.) 

"A creditor was privileged to subject 
his delinquent debtor to the awful penalty 
of having the flesh torn from his breast 
and fed to birds of prey. Convicts were 
frequently adjudged by the ancient Norse 
code to have their hearts torn out." (Grimm. 
Deutsche Redds- Alt erthumer, p. 600. And 



PENITENTIAL 551 

for the following, see pp. 693 and 700.) " The 
oldest death penalties of the Scandinavian* 
prescribed that the body should be exposed 
to fowls of the air to feed upon. Sometimes 
it was decreed that the victim be disem- 
boweled, his body burnt to ashes and scat- 
tered as dust to the winds. Judges of the 
secret Vehmgericht passed sentences of death 
as follows: 'Your body and flesh to the beasts 
of the field, to the birds of the air, and to the 
fishes in the stream.' The judicial executioner, 
in carrying into effect this decree, severed the 
body in twain, so that, to use the literal text, 
'the air might strike together between the 
two parts/ The tongue was oftentimes torn 
out as a punishment. A law of the early 
Roman Empire, known as ex Jure Orientis 
Ccesareo, enacted that any person, suitor at 
law or witness, having sworn upon the 
evangelists, and proving to be a perjurer, 
should have the tongue cut from its roots. 
A cord about the neck was used symbol- 
ically, in criminal courts, to denote that the 
accused was worthy of the extreme penalty 
of law by hanging or decapitation. When 
used upon the person of a freeman, it signified 
a slight degree of subjection or servitude." 
(Pp. 318-320.) 

Some eminent brethren of the Fraternity 
insist that the penalty had its origin in the 
manner in which the lamb was sacrificed 
under the charge of the Captain of the Tem- 
ple, who directed the priests: and said, "Come 
and cast lots." " Who is to slaughter? 99 
" Who is to sprinkle? " " Go and see if the 
time for slaughter approaches?" "Is it 
light in the whole East, even to Hebron? " 
and when the priest said "Yes," he was di- 
rected to "go and bring the lamb from the 
lamb-chamber"; this was in the northwest 
corner of the court. The lamb was brought 
to the north of the altar, its head southward 
and its face northward. The lamb was then 
slaughtered; a hole was made in its side, and 
thus it was hung up. The priest skinned it 
downward until he came to the breast, then 
he cut off the head, and finished the skinning; 
he tore out the heart; subsequently he cleft 
the body, and it became all open before him; 
he took out the intestines, etc.; and the 
various portions were divided as they had 
cast lots. (The Talmud, Joseph Barclay, 
LL.D.) 

Pencil* In the English system this is 
one of the working-tools of a Master Mason, 
and is intended symbolically to remind us 
that our words and actions are observed and 
recorded by the Almighty Architect, to whom 
we must give an account of our conduct 
through life. In the American system the 
pencil is not specifically recognized. The 
other English working-tools of a Master 
Mason are the skirrit and compasses. 

In the French Rite "to hold the pencil," 
tener le crayon, is to discharge the functions 
of a secretary during the communication 
of a lodge. 

Penitential Sign. Called also the Sup- 
plicatory Sign. It is the third sign in the 



552 PENNSYLVANIA 



PENTACLE 



English Royal Arch system. It denotes 
that frame of heart and mind without which 
our prayers and oblations will not obtain 
acceptance; in other words, it is a symbol 
of humility. 

Pennsylvania. [The early history of 
Freemasonry in this State is wrapped in 
obscurity; the first mention of it as yet dis- 
covered is in the Pennsylvania Gazette for 
December 5-8, 1730, which contains the fol- 
lowing: "As there are several Lodges of Free- 
masons erected in this Province, and People 
have lately been much amus'd with Conjee- 
tures concerning them; we think the following 
account of Freemasonry from London will 
not be unacceptable to our readers," and then 
follows a Masonic catechism. Benjamin 
Franklin, the editor of the paper, was not 
then a Mason, but became one in the following 
year, and makes frequent references to the 
Craft in the Oazette, from which we learn that 
he was appointed J. O. W. by Grand Master 
Allen in June, 1732, and elected Grand Master 
of this Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1734. 

From this it is quite plain that there were 
Masonic Lodges in Pennsylvania in 1730 and 
a Provincial Grand Lodge there in 1732, and 
it seems fairly certain that these early Lodges 
were formed by brethren from the Mother 
Country acting on their own authority. 

In 1743 Thomas Oxnard of Boston was 
appointed by the Grand Master of England 
to be Provincial Grand Master of all North 
America, and in 1749 he appointed Benjamin 
Franklin to be Provincial Grand Master of 
Pennsylvania. 

In 1755 there were three Lodges in Phila- 
delphia, and in 1758 a Lodge was warranted 
there by the "Ancients," followed by another 
in 1761. and in 1764 authority was grant- 
ed by the "Ancients" for forming a Provin- 
cial Grand Lodge in Philadelphia, which in 
1786 became the Grand Lodge of Pennsyl- 
vania.— E. L. H.) 

The Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania was 
established in 1705. The Grand Chapter 
was at first only an integral part of the 
Grand Lodge, but in 1824 it became an 
independent body, except so far as that 
members of the Grand Lodge, who were 
Royal Arch Masons, were declared to be 
members of the Grand Chapter. 

The Royal and Select degrees were for- 
merly conferred in Pennsvlvania by the 
Chapters, but on October 16, 1847, a Urand 
Council was organized. 

A Grand Encampment, independent of 
the General Grand Encampment of the 
United States, was organized on February 
16, 1814. On April 14. 1854, a Grand Com- 
mandery was organized under the authority 
of the Grand Encampment of the United 
States, and in February, 1857, both of these 
bodies united to form the present Grand 
Commandery of Pennsylvania. 

Pennsylvania Work. The method of 
Entering, Passing, and Raising candidates 
in the Lodges of Pennsylvania differs so 
materially from that practised in the other 



States of the Union, that it cannot be con- 
sidered as a part of the American Rite as first 
taught by Webb, but rather as an inde- 
pendent, Pennsylvania modification of the 
York Rite of England. Indeed, the Pennsyl- 
vania system of work much more resembles 
the English than the American. Its ritual is 
simple and didactic, like the former, and is 
almost entirely without the impressive 
dramatisation of the latter. Bro. Vaux, a 
Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania, thus 
speaks of the Masonic work of his State 
with pardonable, although not with im- 
partial, commendations: The Pennsylvania 
work is sublime from its simplicity. That 
it is the ancient work is best shown con- 
clusively, however, from this single fact, 
it is so simple, so free from those displays 
of modern inventions to attract the atten- 
tion, without enlightening, improving, or 
cultivating the mind. In this work every 
word has its significance. Its types and 
symbols are but the language in which truth 
is conveyed. These are to be studied to be 
understood. In the spoken language no 
synonyms are permitted. In the ceremonial 
no innovations are tolerated. In the ritual 
no modern verbiage is allowed." 

Penny* In the parable read in the Mark 
Degree a penny is the amount given to each 
of the laborers in the vineyard for his day's 
labor. Hence, in the ritual, a penny a day 
is said to be the wages of a Mark Master. 
In several passages of the authorized version 
of the New Testament, penny occurs as a 
translation of the Greek. lr\Aptop, which was 
intended as the equivalent of the Roman 
denarius. This was the chief silver coin of 
the Romans from the beginning of the 
coinage of the city to the early part of the 
third century. Indeed, the name continued 
to be employed in the coinage of the conti- 
nental States, which imitated that of the 
Byzantine empire, and was adopted by the 
Anglo-Saxons. The specific value of each 
of so many coins, going under the same name, 
cannot be ascertained with any precision. 
In its Masonic use, the penny is simply a 
symbol of the reward of faithful labor. The 
smallness of the sum, whatever may have 
been its exact value, to our modern im- 
pressions is apt to give a false idea of the 
liberality of the owner. Dr. Lightfoot, in 
his essay on a Fresh Revision of the New Testa- 
ment, remarks: "It is unnecessary to ask 
what impression the mention of this sum will 
leave on the minds of an uneducated peasant 
or shopkeeper of the present day. Even at 
the time when our version was made, and 
when wages were lower, it must have seemed 
whollv inadequate." However improper the 
translation is, it can have no importance in 
the Masonic application of the parable, 
where the "penny" is, as has already been 
said, only a symbol, meaning any reward or 
compensation. 

Pentacle, The. The "pentaculum Sal- 
omonis" or magical pentalpha. not to be 
confounded with Solomon's seal. The pen- 



PENTAGON 



PERAU 



553 



tacle is frequently referred to in Hermetic 
formulae. 

Pentagon* A geometrical figure of five 
sides and five angles. It is the third figure 
from the exterior, in the camp of the Sublime 
Princes of the Royal Secret, or Thirty-second 
Degree of the Scottish Rite. In the Egyp- 
tian Rite of Cagliostro, he constructed, with 
much formality, an implement called the 
"sacred pentagon," and which, being dis- 
tributed to his disciples, gave, as he affirmed, 
to each one the power of holding spiritual 
intercourse. 

Pentagram. From the Greek penle, five, 
and gramma, a letter. In the science of magic 
the pentalpha is called the holy and mys- 
terious pentagram. Eliphas Levi says (Dog. 
et RUuel de la Haute Magie, ii., 55) that the 
pentagram is the star of the Magians; it is 
the sign of the word made flesh; and accord- 
ing to the direction of its rays, that is, as it 
points upward with one point or with two, 
it represents the good or the evil principle, 
order or disorder; the blessed lamb of Ormuza 
and of St. John, or the accursed god of Men- 
des; initiation or profanation; Lucifer or 
Vesper; the morning or the evening star; 
Mary or Lilith; victory or death; fight or 
darkness. (See Pentalpha.) 

Pentalpna. The triple triangle, or the 
pentalpha of Pythagoras, is so called from 
the Greek wrc. pente, five, and o\fa, alpha, 
the letter A, because in its configuration 
it presents the form of that letter 
in five different positions. It 
was a doctrine of Pythagoras, 
that all things proceeded from 
numbers, and the number five, 
as being formed by the union of the first odd 
and the first even, was deemed of peculiar 
value; and hence Cornelius Agrippa says 
(Philos. Occult.) of this figure, that, ''by vir- 
tue of the number five, it has great command 
over evil spirits because of its five double 
triangles and its five acute angles within and 
its five obtuse angles without t so that this 
interior pentangle contains in it many great 
mysteries." The disciples of Pythagoras, 
who were indeed its real inventors, placed 
within each of its interior angles one of the 
letters of the Greek word TTIEIA, or the 
Latin one SALUS, both of which signify 
health; and thus it was made the talisman of 
health. They placed it at the beginning of 
their epistles as a greeting to invoke secure 
health to their correspondent. But its use 
was not confined to the disciples of Pythago- 
ras. As a talisman, it was employed all 
over the East as a charm to resist evil spirits. 
Mone* says that it has been found in Egypt 
on the statue of the god Anubis. Lord 
Brougham says, in his Italy, that it was used 
by Antiochus Epiphanes, and a writer in 
Notes and Queries (3 Ser., ix., 511) says that 
he has found it on the coins of Lysimmachus. 
On old British and Gaulish coins it is often 
seen beneath the feet of the sacred and 
mythical horse, which was the ensign of the 
ancient Saxons. The Druids wore it on their 



ine letter 



sandals as a symbol of Deity, and hence the 
Germans call the figure " Druttenfuss," a word 
originally signifying Druid's foot, but which, 
in the gradual corruptions of language, is now 
made to mean Witche's foot. Even at the 
present day it retains its hold upon the minds 
of the common people of Germany, and is 
drawn on or affixed to cradles, thresholds of 
houses, and stable-doors, to keep off witches 
and elves. 

The early Christians referred it to the 
five wounds of the Savior, because, when 
properly inscribed upon the representation 
of a human body, the five points will respec- 
tively extend to and touch the side, the 
two hands, and the two feet. 

The Medieval Masons considered it a 
symbol of deep wisdom, and it is found 
among the architectural ornaments of most 
of the ecclesiastical edifices of the Middle 



ut as a Masonic symbol it peculiarly 
claims attention from the fact that it forms 
the outlines of the five-pointed star, which is 
typical of the bona of brotherly love that 
unites the whole Fraternity. It is in this 
view that the pentalpha or triple triangle 
is referred to in Masonic symbolism as 
representing the intimate union which existed 
between our three ancient Grand Masters, 
and which is commemorated by the living 
pentalpha at the closing of every Royal Arch 
Chapter. 

Many writers have confounded the pen- 
talpha with the seal of Solomon, or shield 
of David. This error is almost inexcusable 
in Oliver, who constantly commits it, because 
his Masonic and archeological researches 
should have taught him the difference. 
Solomon's seal being a double, interlaced 
triangle, whose form gives the outline of a 
star of six points. 

Perau, Gabriel Louis Calabre. A man 
of letters, an Abb6, and a member of the 
Society of the Sorbonne. He was born at 
Semur, in Auxois, in 1700, and died at 
Paris, March 31, 1767. De Feller (Biog. 
Univ.) speaks of his uprightness and probity, 
his frankness, and sweetness of disposition 
which endeared him to many friends. Cer- 
tainly, the only work which gives him a place 
in Masonic history indicates a gentleness 
and moderation of character with which we 
can find no fault. In general literature, he 
was distinguished as the continuator of 
d'Avrigny's Vies des Hommes tllustres de la 
France; which, however, a loss of sight pre- 
vented him from completing. In 1742, he 
published at Geneva a work entitled Le 
Secret des Franc-Masons. This work at its 
first appearance attracted much attention 
and went through many editions, the title 
being sometimes changed to a more attractive 
one by booksellers. The Abbe" Larudan 
attempted to palm off his libelous and malig- 
nant work on the Abbe* Perau, but without 
success; for while the work of Larudan is 
marked with the bitterest malignity to the 
Order of Freemasonry, that of Perau is simply 



554 PERFECT 

a detail o f the ceremonies and ritual of Ma- 
sonry fife then practised, under the guise of 
friendship. 

Perfect Ashlar. See Ashlar. 

Perfect Initiates, Bite of* A name given 
to the Egyptian Rite when first established 
at Lyons Dy Cagliostro. 

Perfect Irish Master. (Parfait Mattre 
Irlandais.) One of the degrees given in the 
Irish Colleges instituted by Ramsay. 

Perfect Lodge. See Just Lodge. 

Perfect Master. {Mattre Parfait.) The 
Fifth Degree in the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite. The ceremonies of this degree 
were originally established as a grateful trib- 
ute of respect to a worthy departed brother. 
The officers of the Lodge are a Master, who 
represents Adoniram, the Inspector of the 
Works at Mount Lebanon, ana one Warden. 
The symbolic color of the degree is green, to 
remind the Perfect Master that, being dead in 
vice, he must hope to revive in virtue. His 
jewel is a compass extended sixty degrees, to 
teach him that he should act within measure, 
and ever pay due regard to justice and equity. 

The apron is white, with a green flap; and 
in the middle of the apron must be embroid- 
ered or painted, within three circles, a cubical 
stone, in the center of which the letter J is 
inscribed, according to the old rituals; but 
the Samaritan yod and he, according to the 
ritual of the Southern Jurisdiction. 

Delaunay, in his Thuileur de VEcossisme. 
gives the Tetragrammaton in this degree, ana 
says the degree should more properly be called 
Past Master, Ancien Mattre, because the Te- 
tragrammaton makes it in some sort the com- 
plement of the Master's Degree. But the 
Tetragrammaton is not found in any of the 
approved rituals, and Delaunay's theory falls 
therefore to the ground. But besides, to com- 
plete the Master's with this degree would be 
to confuse all the symbolism of the Ineffable 
degrees, which really conclude with the Four- 
teenth. 

Perfect Prussian. (Parfait Prussien.) 
A degree invented at Geneva, in 1770, as a 
second part of the Order of Noachites. 

Perfect Stone. A name frequently given 
to the cubic stone discovered in the Thirteenth 
Degree of Perfection, the tenth of the In- 




effable Series. It denotes justice and firm- 
ness, with all the moral lessons and duties in 
which the mystic cube is calculated to in- 
struct us. 

Perfect Union, Lodge of. A Lodge at 
Rennes. in France, where the Rite of Elect 
of Truth was instituted. (See Elect of Truth. 
Rite of.) 



PERFECTION 



Perfection. The Ninth and last degree 

of Fessler's Rite. (See F easier, Rite of.) 

Perfectionists. The name by which 
WeiBhaupt first designated the Order which 
he founded in Bavaria, and which he sub- 
sequently changed for that of the Illumi- 
nati. 

Perfection, Lodge of. The Lodge in 
which the Fourteenth Degree of the Ancient 
and Accepted Scottish Rite is conferred. 
In England and America this degree is called 
Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Mason, 
but the French designate it Grand Scottish 
Mason of the Sacred Vault of James VI., or 
Grand icossais de la VoUte Sacr6e du Jacques 
VI. This is one of the evidences — and a 
very pregnant one — of the influence exercised 
by the exiled Stuarts and their adherents on 
the Masonry of that time in making it an 
instrument for the restoration of James II., 
and then of his son, to the throne of Eng- 
land. 

This degree, as concluding all reference 
to the first Temple, has been called the ulti- 
mate degree of ancient Masonry. It is the 
last of what is technically styled the In- 
effable degrees, because their instructions 
relate to the Ineffable word. 

Its place of meeting is called the Sacred 
Vault. Its principal officers are a Thrice 
Puissant Grand Master, two Grand War- 
dens, a Grand Treasurer, and Grand Secre- 
tary. In the first organization of the Rite 
in this country, the Lodges of Perfection 
were called "Sublime Grand Lodges/ 1 and, 
hence, the word "Grand" is still affixed to 
the title of the officers. 

The following mythical history is con- 
nected with and related in this degree. 

When the Temple was finished, the Masons 
who had been employed in constructing it 
acquired immortal honor. Their Order be- 
came more uniformly established and regu- 
lated than it had been before. Their cau- 
tion and reserve in admitting new members 
produced respect, and merit alone was re- 
quired of the candidate. With these prin- 
ciples instilled into their minds, many of the 
Grand Elect left the Temple after its dedi- 
cation, and, dispersing themselves among the 
neighboring nations, instructed all who 
applied and were found worthy in the sublime 
degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry. 

The Temple was completed m the year 
of the world 3000. Thus far, the wise King 
of Israel had behaved worthy of himself, 
and gained universal admiration; but in 
process of time, when he had advanced in 
years, his understanding became impaired: 
he grew deaf to the voice of the Lord, ana 
was strangely irregular in his conduct. 
Proud of having erected an edifice to his 
Maker, and intoxicated with his great power, 
he plunged into all manner of licentiousness 
ana debauchery, and profaned the Temple, 
by offering to the idol Moloch that incense 
which should have been offered only to the 
living God. 

The Grand Elect and Perfect Masons 



PERFECTION 



PERJURY 555 



■aw this, and were serely grieved, afraid 
that his apostasy would end in some dread- 
ful consequences, and bring upon them 
those enemies whom Solomon had vain- 
gloriously and wantonly defied. The people, 
copying the vices and follies of their King, 
became proud and idolatrous, and neglected 
the worship of the true God for that of 
idols. 

As an adequate punishment for this de- 
fection, God inspired the heart of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, King of Babylon, to take venge- 
ance on the kingdom of Israel. This prince 
sent an army with Nebuzaradan, Captain 
of the Guards, who entered Judah with fire 
and sword, took and sacked the city of 
Jerusalem, razed its walls, and destroyed the 
Temple. The people were carried captive 
to Babylon, and the conquerors took with 
them all the vessels of silver and gold. This 
happened four hundred and seventy years, 
six months, and ten days after its dedica- 
tion. 

When, in after times, the princes of Chris- 
tendom entered into a league to free the 
Holy Land from the oppression of the infidels, 
the good and virtuous Masons, anxious for 
the success of so pious an undertaking, volun- 
tarily offered their services to the confederates, 
on condition that they should be permitted 
a chief of their own election, which was 
granted; they accordingly rallied under their 
standard and departed. 

The valor and fortitude of these elected 
knights was such that they were admired by, 
and took the lead of, all the princes of Jeru- 
salem, who, believing that their mysteries 
inspired them with courage and fidelity in 
the cause of virtue and religion, became 
desirous of being initiated. Upon being 
found worthy, their desires were complied 
with; and thus the royal art, meeting the 
approbation of great and good men, be- 
came popular and honorable, was diffused 
through their various dominions, and has 
continued to spread through a succession 
of ages to the present day. 

The symbolic color of this degree is red 
— emblematic of fervor, constancy, and assi- 
duity. Hence, the Masonry of this degree 
was formerly called Red Masonry on the 
Continent of Europe. 

The jewel of the degree is a pair of com- 
passes extended on an arc of ninety degrees, 
surmounted by a crown, and with a sun in 
the center. In the Southern Jurisdiction 
the sun is on one side and a five-pointed 
star on the other. 

The apron is white with red flames, bor- 
dered with blue, and having the jewel painted 
on the center and the stone of foundation 
on the flap. 

Perfection, Bite of. In 1754, the Cheva- 
lier de Bonneville established a Chapter of 
the high degrees at Paris, in the College of 
Jesuits of Clermont, hence called the Chapter 
of Clermont. The system of Masonry he 
there practised received the name of the Rite 
of Perfection, or Rite of Heredom. The 



College of Clermont was, says Rebold (Hist. 
deSU. L., 46). the asylum of the adherents of 
the house of Stuart, and hence the Rite is to 
some extent tinctured with Stuart Masonry. 
It consisted of twenty-five degrees, as follows: 
1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 3. Master; 
4. Secret Master; 5. Perfect Master; 6. In* 
timate Secretary; 7. Intendant of the Build- 
ing; 8. Provost and Judge; 9. Elect of Nine; 
10. Elect of Fifteen; 11. Illustrious Elect, 
Chief of the Twelve Tribes; 12. Grand Master 
Architect: 13. Royal Arch; 14. Grand, Elect, 
Ancient, Perfect Master; 15. Knight of the 
Sword; 16. Prince of Jerusalem; 17. Knight 
of the East and West; 18. Rose Croix Knight; 
19. Grand Pontiff; 20. Grand Patriarch; 21. 
Grand Master of the Key of Masonry; 22. 
Prince of Libanus; 23. Sovereign Prince Adept 
Chief of the Grand Consistory; 24. Illustrious 
Knight, Commander of the Black and White 
Eagle; 25. Most Illustrious Sovereign Prince 
of Masonry, Grand Knight, Sublime Com- 
mander of the Royal Secret. It will be 
seen that the degrees of this Rite are the same 
as those of the Council of Emperors of the 
East and West, which was established four 
years later, and to which tjie Chapter of 
Clermont gave way. Of course, they are 
the same, so far as they go, as those of the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite which 
succeeded the Council of Emperors. 

The distinguishing principle of this Rite is, 
that Freemasonry was derived from Tem- 
plarism, and that consequently every Free- 
mason was a Knight Templar. It was there 
that the Baron von Hund was initiated, 
and from it. through him, proceeded the Rite 
of Strict Observance; although he discarded 
the degrees and retained only the Templar 
theory. 

Perignan. When the Elu degrees were 
first invented, the legend referred to an un- 
known person, a tiller of the soil, to whom 
King Solomon was indebted for the informa- 
tion which led to the discovery of the crafts- 
men who had committed the crime recorded 
in the Third Degree. This unknown person, 
at first designated as 'Tinconnu," afterward 
received the name of Perignan, and a degree 
between the elu of nine and the elu of fifteen 
was instituted, which was called the Elu of 
Perignan." and which became the Sixth De- 
gree of the Adonhiramite Rite. The deriva- 
tion or radical meaning of the word is un- 
known, but it may contain, as do many other 
words in the high degrees, a reference to the 
adherents, or to the enemies, of the exiled 
house of Stuart, for whose sake several of 
these degrees were established. (See Elect of 
Perignan.) 

Periods of the Grand Architect. See 

Six Periods. 

Perjury* In the municipal law perjury is 
defined to be a wilful false swearing to a ma- 
terial matter, when an oath has been admin- 
istered by lawful authority. The violation 
of vows or promissory oaths taken before one 
who is not legally authorized to administer 
them, that is to say, one who is not a magis- 



556 PERNETTI 

trate, does not in law involve the crime of per- 
jury. Such is the technical definition of the 
law; but the moral sense of mankind does not 
assent to such a doctrine, and considers per- 
jury, as the root of the word indicates, the 
doing of that which one has sworn not to do, 
or the omitting to do that which he has sworn 
to do. The old Romans seem to have taken 
a sensible view of the crime of perjury. 
Among them oaths were not often adminis- 
tered, and, in general, a promise made 
under oath had no more binding power in a 
court of justice than it would have had with- 
out the oath. False swearing was with them 
a matter of conscience, and the person who 
was guilty of it was responsible to the Deity 
alone. The violation of a promise under oath 
and of one not under such a form was con- 
sidered alike, and neither was more liable to 
human punishment than the other. But 
perjury was not deemed to be without any 
kind of punishment. Cicero expressed the 
Roman sentiment when he said "perjurii 
poena divina exitium; humana dedecu&--the 
divine punishment of perjury is destruction; 
the humanj infamy." Hence every oath was 
accompanied by an execration, or an appeal to 
God to punish the swearer should he falsify 
his oath. "In the case of other sins," says 
Archbishop Sharp, " there may be an appeal 
made to uod's mercy, yet in the case of per- 
jury there is none: for he that is perjured hath 

Erecluded himself of this benefit, because he 
ath braved God Almighty, and hath in effect 
told him to his face that if he was foresworn he 
should desire no mercy." 

It is not right thus to seek to restrict God's 
mercy, but there can be no doubt that the set- 
tlement of the crime lies more with him than 
with man. Freemasons look in this light on 
what is called the penalty' it is an invocation 
of God's vengeance on him who takes the 
vow, should he ever violate it; men's venge- 
ance is confined to the contempt and in- 
famy which the foreswearer incurs. 

Pernettt or Pernety, Antolne Joseph* 
Born at Roanne, in France, in 1716. At an 
early age he joined the Benedictines, but in 
1765 applied, with twenty-eight others, for a 
dispensation of his vows. A short time after, 
becoming disgusted with the Order, he re- 
paired to Berlin, where Frederick the Great 
made him his librarian. In a short time he 
returned to Paris, where the archbishop strove 
in vain to induce him to reenter his monas- 
tery. The parliament supported him in his 
refusal, and Pernetti continued in the world. 
Not long after, Pernetti became infected with 
the mystical theories of Swedenborg, and pub- 
lished a translation of his Wonders of Heaven 
and Hell. He then repaired to Avignon, 
where, under the influence of his Sweden- 
borgian views, he established an academy of 
Illuminati, based on the three primitive grades 
of Masonry, to which he added a mystical one, 
which he called the True Mason. This Rite 
was subsequently transferred to Montpellier 
by some of his disciples, and modified in form 
under the name of the "Academy of True 



PERSECUTIONS 



Masons." Pernetti, besides his Masonic 
labors at Avignon, invented several other 
Masonic degrees, and to him is attributed the 
authorship of the degree of Knight of the Sun, 
now occupying the twenty-eighth place in the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. He was 
a very learned man and a voluminous writer 
of versatile talents, and published numerous 
works on mythology, the fine arts, theology, 
geography, philosophy, and the mathematical 
sciences, besides some translations from the 
Latin. He died at Valence, in Dauphiny, in 
the year 1800. 

Perpendicular* In a geometrical sense, 
that which is upright and erect, leaning nei- 
ther one way nor another. In a figurative 
and symbolic sense, it conveys the significa- 
tion of Justice, Fortitude, Prudence, and 
Temperance. Justice, that leans to no side 
but that of Truth; Fortitude, that yields to 
no adverse attack; Prudence, that ever pur- 
sues the straight path of integrity; and Tem- 
perance, that swerves not for appetite nor 
passion. 

Persecutions. Freemasonry, like every 
other good and true thing, has been subjected 
at times to suspicion, to misinterpretation, and 
to actual persecution. Like tne church, it 
has had its martyrs, who, by their devotion 
and their sufferings, have vindicated its truth 
and its purity. 

With the exception of the United States, 
where the attacks on the Institution can 
hardly be called persecutions — not because 
there was not the will, but because the power 
to persecute was wanting-— all the persecu- 
tions of Freemasonry have, for the most 
part, originated with the Roman Church. 

Notwithstanding," says a writer in the Free- 
masons* Quarterly Magazine (1851, p. 141), 
"the greatest architectural monuments of an- 
tiquity were reared by the labors of Masonic 
gilds, and the Church of Rome owes the 
structure of her magnificent cathedrals, her 
exquisite shrines, ana her most splendid pal- 
aces, to the skill of the wise master-builders 
of former ages, she has been for four centuries 
in antagonism to the principles inculcated by 
the Craft." 

Leaving unnoticed the struggles of the cor- 
porations of Freemasons in the fifteenth, six- 
teenth, and seventeenth centuries, we may 
begpn the record with the persecutions to 
which the Order has been subjected since the 
revival in 1717. 

One of the first persecutions to which Ma- 
sonry, in its present organization, was sub- 
jected, occurred in the year 1735, in Holland. 
On the 16th of October of that year, a crowd 
of ignorant fanatics, whose zeal had been en- 
kindled by the denunciations of some of the 
clergy, broke into a house in Amsterdam, 
where a Lodge was accustomed to be held, 
and destroyed all the furniture and orna- 
ments of the Lodge. The States General, 
yielding to the popular excitement, or rather 
desirous of giving no occasion for its action, 
prohibited tne future meetings of the Lodges. 
One, however, continuing, regardless of the 



PERSECUTIONS 

edict, to meet at a private house, the members 
were arrested and brought before the Court of 
Justice. Here, in the presence of the whole 
city, the Masters and Wardens defended 
themselves with great dexterity; and while 
acknowledging their inability to prove the 
innocence of their Institution by a public ex- 
posure of their secret doctrines, they freely 
offered to receive and initiate any person in 
the confidence of the magistrates, and who 
could then give them information upon which 
they might depend, relative to the true de- 
signs of the Institution. The proposal was 
acceded to, and the town clerk was chosen. 
He was immediately initiated, and his report 
so pleased his superiors, that all the magis- 
trates and principal persons of the city be- 
came members and zealous patrons of the 
Order. 

In France, the fear of the authorities that 
the Freemasons concealed, within the re- 
cesses of their Lodges, designs hostile to the 
government, gave occasion to an attempt, in 
1737, on the part of the police, to prohibit the 
meeting of the Lodges. But this unfavorable 
disposition did not long continue, and the last 
instance of the interference of the government 
with the proceedings of the Masonic body was 
in June, 1745, when the members of a Lodge, 
meeting at the Hotel de Soissons, were dis- 
persed, their furniture and jewels seized, and 
the landlord amerced in a penalty of three 
thousand livres. 

The persecutions in Germany were owing 
to a singular cause. The malice of a few 
females nad been excited by their disap- 
pointed curiosity. A portion of this disposi- 
tion they succeeded in communicating to the 
Empress, Maria Theresa, who issued an order 
for apprehending all the Masons in Vienna, 
when assembled m their Lodges. The meas- 
ure was, however, frustrated by the good 
sense of the Emperor, Joseph I., who was him- 
self a Mason, and exerted his power in pro- 
tecting his brethren. 

The persecutions of the church in Italy, 
and other Catholic countries, have been the 
most extensive and most permanent. On the 
28th of April, 1738, Pope Clement XII. issued 
the famous bull against Freemasons whose 
authority is still in existence. In this bull, 
the Roman Pontiff says, "We have learned, 
and public rumor does not permit us to doubt 
the truth of the report, that a certain society 
has been formed, under the name of Free- 
masons, into which persons of all religions and 
all sects are indiscriminately admitted, and 
whose members have established certain laws 
which bind themselves to each other, and 
which, in particular, compel their members, 
under the severest penalties, by virtue of an 
oath taken on the Holy Scriptures, to pre- 
serve an inviolable secrecy in relation to every 
thing that passes in their meetings." The 
bull goes on to declare, that these societies 
have become suspected by the faithful, and 
that they are hurtful to the tranquillity of 
the state and to the safety of the soul; and 
after making use of the now threadbare argu- 



PERSECUTIONS 557 

ment, that if the actionsof -F/^emasons were 
irreproachable, they would .npfr'w carefully 
conceal them from the light,' it-proceeds to 
enjoin all bishops, superiors, and .oK^naries 
to punish the Freemasons "with th*e .penalties 
which they deserve, as people gready- 'sus- 
pected of heresy, having recourse, if necessary, 
to the secular arm. 1 ' 

What this delivery to the secular arm means,.*' 
we are at no loss to discover, from the inter--, 
pretation given to the bull by Cardinal Firrao 
in his edict of publication in the beginning of 
the following year, namely, "that no person 
shall dare to assemble at any Lodge of the said 
society, nor be present at any of their meet- 
ings, under pain of death and confiscation of 
goods, the said penalty to be without hope of 
pardon." 

The bull of Clement met in France with no 
congenial spirits to obey it. On the con- 
trary, it was the subject of universal con- 
demnation as arbitrary and unjust, and the 
parliament of Paris positively refused to en- 
roll it. But in other Catholic countries it was 
better respected. In Tuscany the persecu- 
tions were unremitting. A man named Cru- 
deli was arrested at Florence, thrown into the 
dungeons of the Inquisition, subjected to tor- 
ture, and finally sentenced to a long impris- 
onment, on the charge of having furnished an 
asylum to a Masonic Lodge. The Grand 
Lodge of England, upon learning the circum- 
stances, obtained his enlargement, and sent 
him pecuniary assistance. Francis de Lor- 
raine, who had been initiated at The Hague 
in 1731, soon after ascended the grand ducal 
throne, and one of the first acts of his reign 
was to liberate all the Masons who had been 
incarcerated by the Inquisition; and still 
further to evince his respect for the Order, he 
personally assisted in the constitution of sev- 
eral Lodges at Florence, and in other cities of 
his dominions. 

The other sovereigns of Italy were, how- 
ever, more obedient to the behests of the holy 
father, and persecutions continued to rage 
throughout the peninsula. Nevertheless, Ma- 
sonry continued to flourish, and in 1751, thir- 
teen years after the emission of the bull of 
prohibition, Lodges were openly in existence 
in Tuscany, at Naples, and even in the "eter- 
nal city" itself. 

The priesthood, whose vigilance had abated 
under tne influence of time, became once more 
alarmed, and an edict was issued in 1751 by 
Benedict XIV., who then occupied the papal 
chair, renewing and enforcing the bull which 
had been fulminated by Clement. 

This, of course, renewed the spirit of per- 
secution. In Spain, one Tournon, a French- 
man, was convicted of practising the rites of 
Masonry, and after a tedious confinement in 
the dungeons of the Inquisition, he was finally 
banished from the kingdom. 

In Portugal, at Lisbon, John Coustos, a 
native of Switzerland, was still more severely 
treated. He was subjected to the torture, 
and suffered so much that he was unable te 
move his limbs for three months. Coustos, 



558 PERSEVERANCE 

with two companions of his reputed crime, was 
sentenced to the galleys, but was finally re- 
leased by interposition of the English am- 
bassadoV. . 

In. tftfs the Council of Berne, in Switzer- 
land,- issued a decree prohibiting, under the 
severest penalties, the assemblages of Free- 
masons. In 1757, in Scotland, the Synod of 
Sterling adopted a resolution debarring all ad- 
hering Freemasons from the ordinances of re- 
ligion. And, as if to prove that fanaticism is 
everywhere the same, in 1748 the Divan at 
Constantinople caused a Masonic Lodge to be 
demolished, its jewels and furniture seized, 
and its members arrested. They were dis- 
charged upon the interposition of the English 
minister; but the government ^prohibited the 
introduction of the Order into Turkey. 

America has not been free from the blighting 
influence of this demon of fanaticism. But the 
exciting scenes of anti-Masonry are too recent 
to be treated by the historian with coolness or 
impartiality. The political party to which 
this spirit of persecution gave birth was the 
most abject in its principles, and the most 
unsuccessful in its efforts, of any that our 
times have seen. It has passed away; the 
clouds of anti-Masonry have been, we trust, 
forever dispersed, and the bright sun of Ma- 
sonry, once more emerging from its tempo- 
rary eclipse, is beginning to bless our land with 
the invigorating heat and light of its meridian 
rays. 

Perseverance* A virtue inculcated, by a 
peculiar symbol in the Third Degree, m ref- 
erence to the acquisition of knowledge, and es- 
pecially the knowledge of the True Word. 
(See Patience.) 

Perseverance, Order of. An Adoptive 
Order established at Paris, in 1771 ; by several 
nobles and ladies. It had but little of the 
Masonic character about it; and, although at 
the time of its creation it excited considerable 
sensation, it existed but for a brief period. 
It was instituted for the purpose of rendering 
services to humanity. Kagon says (Tuileur 
Gen., p. 92) that there was kept in the archives 
of the Order a quarto volume of four hundred 
leaves, in which was registered all the good 
deeds of the brethren and sisters. This vol- 
ume is entitled IAvre d'Honneur de VOrdre de 
la Perseverance. Ragon intimates that this 
document is still in existence. Thory (F<m- 
dationO. 0., p. 383) says that there was much 
mystification about the establishment of the 
Order in Paris. Its institutors contended 
that it originated from time immemorial in 
Poland, a pretension to which the King of 
Poland lent his sanction. Many persons of 
distinction, and among them Madame de 
Genlis, were deceived and became its mem- 
bers. 

Persia. Neither the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, nor any other of the European Powers, 
seem ever to have organized Lodges in the 
kingdom of Persia; yet very strange and some- 
what incomprehensible stories are told by 
credible authorities of the existence either of 
the Masonic institution, or something very 



PERSIA 



much like it, in that country. In 1808, on 
November 24th, Askeri Khan, the Ambassa- 
dor of Persia near the court of France, was re- 
ceived into the Order at Paris by the Mother 
Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite, on 
which occasion the distinguished neopnyte 
presented his sword, a pure Damascus blade, 
to the Lodge, with these remarks: " I promise 
you, gentlemen, friendship, fidelity, and es- 
teem. I have been told, and I cannot doubt 
it, that Freemasons were virtuous, charitable, 
and full of love and attachment for their sov- 
ereigns. Permit me to make you a present 
worthy of true Frenchmen. Receive this 
sabre, which has served me in twenty-seven 
battles. May this act of homage convince 
you of the sentiments with which you have in- 
spired me, and of the gratification that I feel 
in belonging to your Order." The Ambassa- 
dor subsequently seems to have taken a great 
interest in Freemasonry while he remained in 
France, and consulted with the Venerable of 
the Lodge on the subject of establishing a 
Lodge at Ispahan. This is the first account 
that we have of the connection of any inhabi- 
tant of Persia with the Order. Thory, who 
gives this account (Act. hat., L, 237), does not 
tell us whether the project of an Ispahan 
Lodge was ever executed. But it is probable 
that on his return home the Ambassador in- 
troduced among his friends some knowledge of 
the Institution, and impressed them with a 
favorable opinion of it. At all events, the Per- 
sians in later times do not seem to have been 
ignorant of its existence. 

Mr. Holmes, in his Sketches on the Shores of 
the Caspian, gives the following as the Persian 
idea of Freemasonry: 

"In the morning we received a visit from 
the Governor, who seemed rather a dull per- 
son, though very polite and civil. He asked a 
great many questions regarding the Feramooth 
Khoneh, as they called the Freemasons' Hall 
in London; which is a complete mystery to all 
the Persians who have heard of it. Very often, 
the first question we have been asked is. 
'What do they do at the Feramoosh Khoneh r 
What is it? 1 They generally believe it to be a 
most wonderful place, where a man may ac- 
quire in one day the wisdom of a thousand 
years of study; but every one has his own pe- 
culiar conjectures concerning it. Some of 
the Persians who went to England became 
Freemasons; and their friends complain that 
they will not tell what they saw at the Hall, 
and. cannot conceive why they should all be so 
uncommunicative." 

And now we have, from the London Free- 
mason (June 28, 1873), this further account; 
but the conjecture as to the time of the intro- 
duction of the Order unfortunately wants 
confirmation: 

"Of the Persian officers who are present in 
Berlin pursuing military studies and making 
themselves acquainted with Prussian military 
organization and arrangements, one belongs 
to the Masonic Order. He is a Mussulman. 
He seems to have spontaneously sought recog- 
nition as a member of the Craft at a Berlin 



PERSIAN 

Lodge, and his claim was allowed only after 
such an examination as satisfied the brethren 
that he was one of the brethren. From the 
statement of this Persian Mason it appears 
that nearly all the members of the Persian 
Court belong to the mystic Order, even as 
German Masonry enjoys the honor of count- 
ing the emperor and crown prince among its 
adherents. The appearance of this Moham- 
medan Mason in Berlin seems to have excited 
a little surprise among some of the brethren 
there, and the surprise would be natural 
enough to persons not aware of the extent to 
which Masonry has been diffused over the 
earth. Account for it as one may, the truth is 
certain that the mysterious Order was estab- 
lished in the Orient many ages ago. Nearly 
all of the old Mohammedan buildings in India, 
such as tombs, mosques, etc., are marked 
with the Masonic symbols, and many of these 
structures, still perfect, were built in the time 
of the Mogul Emperor Akbar, who died in 
1605. Thus Masonry must have been intro- 
duced into India from Middle Asia by the 
Mohammedans hundreds of years ago." 

Since then there was an initiation of a Per- 
sian in the Lodge C16mente Amiti6 at Paris. 
There is a Lodge at Teheran, of which many 
native Persians are members. 

Persian Philosophical Rite* A Rite 
which its founders asserted was established in 
1818, at Erzerum, in Persia, and which was in- 
troduced into France in the year 1819. It 
consisted of seven degrees, as follows: 1. Lis- 
tening Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft, Adept. 
Esquire of Benevolence; 3. Master, Knight of 
the Sun: 4. Architect of all Rites, Knight of 
the Philosophy of the Heart; 5. Knight of 
Eclecticism and of Truth; 6. Master Good 
Shepherd; 7. Venerable Grand Elect. This 
Rite never contained many members, and has 
been long extinct. 

Personal Merit. "All preferment among 
Masons is grounded upon real worth and per- 
tonal merit only, that so the Lords may be well 
served, the Brethren not put to shame, nor the 
Royal Craft despised. Therefore no Master 
or Warden is chosen by seniority, but for his 
merit." Charges of 1723. (Constitutions, 1723, 
p. 51.) 

Peril. Freemasonry was first introduced 
into Peru about the year 1807, during the 
French invasion, and several Lodges worked 
until the resumption of the Spanish authority 
and the Papal influence, in 1813, when their 
existence terminated. In 1825, when the in- 
dependence of the republic, declared some 
years before, was completely achieved, several 
Scottish Rite Lodges were established, first at 
Lima and then at other points, by the Grand 
Orient of Colombia. A Supreme Council of 
the Ancient and Accepted lute was instituted 
in 1830. In 1831 an independent Grand 
Lodge, afterward styled the Grand Orient of 
Peru, was organized by the Symbolic Lodges 
in the republic. Political agitations have, 
from time to time, occasioned a cessation of 
Masonic labor, but both the Supreme Council 
and the Grand Orient are now in successful 



PETITION 559 

operation. The Royal Arch Degree was in- 
troduced in 1852 by the establishment of a 
Royal Arch Chapter at Callao, under a War- 
rant granted by the Supreme Chapter of Scot- 
land. 

Petition for a Charter. The next step in 
the process of organizing a Lodge, after the 
Dispensation has been granted by the Grand 
Master, is an application for a Charter or War- 
rant of Constitution. The application may 
be, but not necessarily, in the form of a peti- 
tion. On the report of the Grand Master, 
that he had granted a Dispensation, the Grand 
Lodge, if the new Lodge is recommended by 
some other, generally the nearest Lodge, will 
confirm the Grand Master's action and grant 
a Charter: although it may refuse to do so, 
and then the Lodge will cease to exist. Char- 
ters or Warrants for Lodges are granted only 
by the Grand Lodge in America, Ireland and 
Scotland. In England this great power is 
vested in the Grand Master. The Consti- 
tutions of the Grand Lodge of England say 
that "every application for a Warrant to hold 
a new Lodge must be, by petition jo the Grand 
Master, signed by at least seven regularly 
registered Masons." Although, in the United 
States, it is the general usage that a Warrant 
must be preceded by a Dispensation, yet there 
is no general law which would forbid the 
Grand Lodge to issue a Charter in the first 
place, no Dispensation having been previously 
granted. 

The rule for issuing Charters to Lodges pre- 
vails, with no modification in relation to grant- 
ing them by Grand Chapters, Grand Councils, 
or Grand Commanderies for the bodies subor- 
dinate to them. 

Petition for a Dispensation. When it 
is desired to establish a new Lodge, applica- 
tion by petition must be made to the Grand 
Master. This petition ought to be signed by 
at least seven Master Masons, and be recom- 
mended by the nearest Lodge; and it should 
contain the proposed name of the Lodge and 
the names of the three principal officers. This 
is the usage of America; but it must be re- 
membered that the Grand Master's preroga- 
tive of granting Dispensations cannot be 
rightfully restricted by any law. Only, 
should the Grand Master grant a Dispensa- 
tion for a Lodge which, in its petition, had not 
complied with these prerequisites, it is not 
probable that, on subsequent application to 
the Grand Lodge, a Warrant of Constitution 
would be issued. 

Petition for Initiation. According to 
American usage any person who is desirous of 
initiation into the mysteries of Masonry must 
appiv to the Lodge nearest to his place of 
residence, by means of a petition signed by 
himself, and recommended by at least two 
members of the Lodge to which he applies. 
The application of a Mason to a Chapter, 
Council, or Commandery for advancement 
to higher degrees, or of an unaffiliated Ma- 
son for membership in a Lodge, is also 
called a petition. For the rules that govern 
the disposition of these petitions, see Dr. 



560 PEUVRET 



Mackey's Text Book of Masonic Jurisprudence, 
Book L, ch. ii. 

Peuvret, Jean Eustache. An usher of 
the parliament of Paris, and Past Master of 
the Lodge of St. Pierre in Martinico, and af- 
terward a dignitary of the Grand Orient at 
France. Peuvret was devoted to Hermetic 
Masonry, and acquired some reputation by 
numerous compilations on Masonic subjects. 
During his life he amassed a valuable library 
of mystical, alchemical, and Masonic books, 
and a manuscript collection of eighty-one 
degrees of Hermetic Masonry in six quarto 
volumes. He asserts in this work that the 
degrees were brought from England and Scot- 
land; but this Thory {Act. Lot., i., 205) denies, 
and says that they were manufactured in 
Paris. Peuvret's exceeding zeal without 
knowledge made him the victim of every char- 
latan who approached him. He died at Paris 
in 1800. 

Phalnoteletlan Society. (SocUU Phaln- 
oUlete.) A society founded at Paris, in 1840, 
by Louis Theodore Juge, the editor of the 
Globe, composed of members of all rites and 
degrees, for the investigation of all non-politi- 
cal secret associations of ancient and modern 
times. The title is taken from the Greek, and 
signifies literally the society of the explainers 
of the mysteries of initiation. 

Phallic Worship. The Phallus was a 
sculptured representation of the membrum 
virile, or male organ of generation; and the 
worship of it is said to have originated in 
Egypt, where, after the murder of Osiris by 
Typnon, which is symbolically to be explained 
as the destruction or deprivation of the sun's 
light by night, Isis, his wife, or the symbol of 
nature, in the search for his mutilated body, is 
said to have found all the parts except the 
organs of generation, which myth is simply 
symbolic of the fact that the sun having set. 
its fecundating and invigorating power had 
ceased. The Phallus, therefore, as the symbol 
of the male generative principle, was very 
universally venerated among the ancients, and 
that too as a religious rite, without the slight- 
est reference to any impure or lascivious appli- 
cation. 

As a svmbol of the generative principle of 
nature, the worship of the Phallus appears to 
have been very nearly universal. In tne mys- 
teries it was carried in solemn procession. 
The Jews, in their numerous deflections into 
idolatry, tell readily into that of this symbol. 
And they did this at a very early period of 
their history, for we are told, that even in the 
time of the Judges (Jud. iii. 7) they "served 
Baalim and the groves." Now the word trans- 
lated, here and elsewhere, as proves, is in the 
original Asherah. and is by all modern inter- 
preters supposed to mean a species of Phallus. 
Thus Movers {Ph&niz., p. 56) says that Ash- 
erah is a sort of Phallus erected to the telluric 
goddess Baaltes, and the learned Holloway 
(Originals, i., 18) had long before come to the 
same conclusion. 

But the Phallus, or, as it was called among 
the Orientalists, the Lingam, was a represen- 



PHARISEES 



tation of the male principle only. To perfect 
the circle of generation, it is necessary to ad- 
vance one step farther. Accordingly we find 
in the Cteis of the Greeks, and the Yoni of the 
Indians, a symbol of the female generative 
principle of coextensive prevalence with the 
Phallus. The Cteis was a circular and con- 
cave pedestal, or receptacle, on which the 
Phallus or column rested, and from the center 
of which it sprang. 

The union of these two, as the generative 
and the producing principles of nature, in one 
compound figure, was the most usual mode of 
representation. And here, I think, we un- 
doubtedly find the remote origin of the point 
within a circle, an ancient symbol which was 
first adopted by the old sun-worshipers, and 
then by the ancient astronomers, as a sym- 
bol of the sun surrounded by the earth or the 
universe — the sun as the generator and the 
earth as the producer — and afterward modified 
in its signification and incorporated into 
the symbolism of Freemasonry. (See Point 
within a Circle.) 

Phallus. Donegan says from an Egyptian 
or Indian root. (See Phallic Worship^ 

Pharaxal. A significant word in the high 
degrees, and there said, in the old rituals, 
to signify " we shall all be united." Delaunav 
gives it as vharas hoi, and says it means "all 
is explained." If it is derived from EDD, 
and the adverbial bp, kol 9 "altogether," it 
certainly means not to be united, but to be 
separated, and has the same meaning as its 
cognate polkal. This incongruity in the words 
and then" accepted explanation has led Bro. 
Pike to reject them both from the degree in 
which they are originally found. And it is 
certain that the radical pal and phar both have 
everywhere in Hebrew the idea of separation. 
But my reading of the old rituals compels me 
to believe that the degree in which these 
words are found always contained an idea 
of separation and subsequent reunion. It- 
is evident that there was either a blunder in 
the original adoption of the word vharaxal, 
or more probably a corruption by subsequent 
copyists. I am satisfied that the ideas of 
division, disunion, or separation, and of sub- 
sequent reunion, are correct; but I am equally 
satisfied that the Hebrew form of this word is 
wrong. 

Pharisees. A school among the Jews 
at the time of Christ, so called from the 
Aramaic Perushim, Separated, because they 
held themselves apart from the rest of 
the nation. They claimed to have a mys- 
terious knowledge unknown to the mass of 
the people, and pretended to the exclusive 
possession of the true meaning of the Scrip- 
tures, by virtue of the oral law and the 
secret traditions which, having been received 
by Moses on Mount Sinai, had been trans- 
mitted to successive generations of initiates. 
They are supposed to have been essentially 
the same as the Assideans or Chasidim. The 
character of their organization is interesting 
to the Masonic student. They held a secret 
doctrine, of which the dogma of the resurrec- 



PHOENICIA 



PHILOSOPHER 561 



tion was an important feature: they met in 
Bodalitie8 or societies, the members of which 
called themselves chabirim, fellows or asso- 
ciates; and they styled all who were outside 
of their mystical association, yom haharctz, 
or people of the land. 

Phoenicia. The Latinized form of the 
Greek Phoinikia, from <x>fvi{. a palm, be- 
cause of the number of palms anciently, 
but not now, found in the country. A 
tract of country on the north of Palestine, 
along the shores of the Mediterranean, of 
which Tyre and Sidon were the principal 
cities. The researches of Gesenius and 
other modern philologers have confirmed the 
assertions of Jerome and Augustine, that 
the language spoken by the Jews and the 
Phoenicians was almost identical; a statement 
interesting to the Masonic student as giving 
another reason for the bond which existed be- 
tween Solomon and Hiram, and between 
the Jewish workmen and their fellow-laborers 
of Tyre, in the construction of the Temple. 
(See Tyre.) 

Philadelphia. Placed on the imprint 
of some Masonic works of the last century 
as a pseudonym of Paris. 

Phlladelphlans, Rite of the* See Primi- 
tive Rite. 

PhUadelphes, Lodge of the. The name 
of a Lodge at Narbonne, in France, in which 
the Primitive Rite was first instituted; whence 
it is sometimes called the "Rite of the Pbila- 
delphians." (See Primitive Rite.) 

Phllalethes, Rite of the. Called also 
the Seekers of Truth, although the word 
literally means Friends of Truth. It was a 
Rite founded in 1773 at Paris, in the Lodge of 
Amis Reunis, by Savalette de Lanses, keeper 
of the Royal Treasury, with whom were 
associated the Vicomte de Tavannes, Court 
de Gebelin, M. de Sainte-Jamos, the President 
d'Heri court, and the Prince of Hesse. The 
Rite, which was principally founded on the 
system of Martinism. did not confine itself 
to any particular mode of instruction, but in 
its reunions, called "convents," the members 
devoted themselves to the study of all kinds 
of knowledge that were connected with the 
occult sciences, and thus they welcomed to 
their association all who had made them- 
selves remarkable by the singularity or the 
novelty of their opinions, such as Cagliostro. 
Mesmer, and Saint Martin. It was divided 
into twelve classes or chambers of instruction. 
The names of these classes or degrees were as 
follows: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 3. 
Master; 4. Elect; 5. Scottish Master; 6. 
Knight of the East; 7. Rose Croix; 8. Knight 
of the Temple; 9. Unknown Philosopher: 10. 
Sublime Philosopher; 11. Initiate; 12. Phila- 
lethes, or Searcher after Truth. The first 
six degrees were called Petty, and the last 
six High Masonry. The Rite did not increase 
very rapidly; nine years after its institution, 
it counted only twenty Lodges in France and 
in foreign countries which were of its obedi- 
ence. In 1785 it attempted a radical reform 
in Masonry, and for this purpose invited the 

37 



most distinguished Masons of all countries 
to a congress at Paris. But the project failed, 
and Savalette de Langes dying in 1788, the 
Rite, of which he alone was the soul, ceased 
to exist, and the Lodge of Amis Re*unis was 
dissolved. 

Philip IV. Surnamed "le Bel," or "the 
Fair," who ascended the throne of France 
in 1285. He is principally distinguished in 
history on account of nis persecution of the 
Knights Templar. With the aid of his willing 
instrument, Pope Clement V., he succeeded 
in accomplishing the overthrow of the Order. 
He died in 1314, execrated by his subjects, 
whose hearts he had alienated by the cruelty, 
avarice, and despotism of his axiministra- 
tion. 

PhOlpplan Order. Finch gives this as the 
name of a secret Order instituted by King 
Philip "for the use only of his first nobility 
and principal officers, who thus formed a select 
and secret council in which he could implicitly 
confide. 1 ' It has attracted the attention of 
no other Masonic writer, and was probably 
no more than a coinage of a charlataj/s 
brain. 

Phllocoreltes, Order of. An androgy- 
nous secret society established in the French 
army in Spain, in 1808. The members were 
called Knights and Ladies Philocoreites, or 
Lovers of Pleasure. It was not Masonic in 
character. But Thory has thought it worth 
a long description in his History of the Founda- 
tion of the Grand Orient of France. 

Phllo Judseus. A Jewish philosopher 
of the school of Alexandria, who was born 
about thirty years before Christ. Philo 
adopted to their full extent the mystical 
doctrines of his school, and taught that the 
Hebrew Scriptures contained, m a system 
of allegories, the real source of all religious 
and philosophical knowledge, the true mean- 
ing of which was to be excluded from the vul- 
gar, to whom the literal signification alone 
was to be made known. Whoever, says he. 
has meditated on philosophy, has purified 
himself by virtue, and elevated himself by a 
contemplative life to God and the intellectual 
world, receiving their inspiration, thus pierces 
the gross envelop of the letter, and is initiated 
into mysteries of which the literal instruction 
is but a faint image. A fact, a figure, a word, 
a rite or custom, veils the profoundest truths, 
to be interpreted only by him who has the 
true key of science. Such symbolic views 
were eagerly seized by the early inventors 
of the high, philosophical degrees of Masonry, 
who have made frequent use of the esoteric 
philosophy of Philo in the construction of their 
Masonic system. 

Philosopher, Christian. (Philosophe 
Chretien.) The Fourth Degree of the Order 
of African Architects. 

Philosopher, Grand and Sublime Her- 
metic. (Grand et Sublime Philosophe Her- 
nUtique.) A degree in the manuscript collec- 
tion of Peuvret. Twelve other degrees of 
Philosopher were contained in the same 
collection, namely, Grand Neapolitan Philoso- 



562 PHILOSOPHER 



PHILOSOPHY 



her, Grand Practical Philosopher, Kab- 
alistic Philosopher, Kabbalistic Philosopher 
to the Number 5, Perfect Mason Philosopher, 
Perfect Master Philosopher, Petty Neapolitan 
Philosopher, Petty Practical Philosopher, 
Sublime Philosopher, Sublime Philosopher 
to the Number 9, and Sublime Practical Phi- 
losopher. They are probably all Kabbalistic 
or Hermetic degrees. 

Philosopher of Hermes. (PhUosophe 
d' Hermes.) A degree contained in the Ar- 
chives of the Lodge of St. Louis des Amis 
Reunis at Calais. 

Philosopher, Sublime* (Sublime Phi- 
losophe.) 1. The Fifty-third Degree of the 
Rite of Mizraim. 2. The tenth class of the 
Rite of the Philalethes. 

Philosopher. Sublime Unknown. (Sub- 
lime PhUosophe Inconnu.) The Seventy- 
ninth Degree of the Metropolitan Chapter 
of France. 

Philosopher. The Little. (Z> petit Phi- 
losophe.) A degree in the collection of Pyron. 

Philosopher, Unknown. (Ph losophe 
Inconnu.) The ninth class of the Rite of the 
Philalethes. It was so called in reference to 
St. Martin, who had adopted that title as 
his pseudonym, and was universally known 
by it amonff his disciples. 

Philosopher's Stone. It was the doctrine 
of the alchemists, that there was a certain 
mineral, the discovery of which was the ob- 
ject of their art, because, being mixed with 
the baser metals, it would transmute these 
into gold. This mineral, known only to the 
adepts, they called lapis philosophorum, or 
the philosopher's stone. Hitchcock, who 
wrote a book in 1857 (Alchemy and the Al- 
chemists), to maintain the proposition that 
alchemy was a symbolic science, that its 
subject was Man, and its object the per- 
fection of men, asserts that the philosopher's 
stone was a symbol of man. He auotes 
the old Hermetic philosopher, Isaac Holland, 
as saving that "though a man be poor, yet 
may he very well attain unto it [the work of 
perfection], and may be employed in making 
the philosopher's stone.' 1 And Hitchcock 
(p. 7o), in commenting on this, says: "That is, 
every man, no matter how humble his voca- 
tion, may do the best he can in his place — 
may 'love mercy, do justly, and walk humbly 
with God'; and what more doth God require 
of any man?" 

If this interpretation be correct, then the 
philosopher's stone of the alchemists, and 
the spiritual temple of the Freemasons are 
identical symbols. 

Philosophic Degrees. All the degrees 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite 
above the Eighteenth and below the Thirty- 
third are called philosophic degrees, because, 
abandoning the symbolism based on the 
Temple, they seek to develop a system of pure 
theosophy. Some writers have contended 
that the Seventeenth and Eighteenth degrees 
should be classed with the philosophic degrees. 
But this is not correct, since both of those 
degrees have preserved the idea of the Temple 



system. They ought rather to be called 
apocalyptic degrees, the Seventeenth espe- 
cially, because they do not teach the ancient 
philosophies, but are connected in their 
symbolism with the spiritual temple of the 
New Jerusalem. 

Philosophic Scottish Rite. This Rite 
consists of twelve degrees, as follows: 1. 2. 3. 
Knight of the Black Eagle or Rose Croix of 
Heredom, divided into three parts; 4. Knight 
of the Phenix; 5. Knight of the Sun; 6. Knight 
of the Rainbow; 7. True Mason; 8. Knight 
of the Argonaut; 9. Knight of the Golden 
Fleece: 10. Perfectly Initiated Grand Inspec- 
tor; 11. Grand Scottish Inspector; 12. Sub- 
lime Master of the Luminous Ring. 

The three degrees of Ancient Craft Ma- 
sonry form the necessary basis of this sys- 
tem, although they do not constitute a part 
of the Rite. In its formation it expressly 
renounced the power to constitute Symbolic 
Lodges, but reserved the faculty of affiliating 
regularly constituted Lodges into its high 
degrees. Thory (fond, du O. 0., p. 162) 
seems desirous of tracing the origin of the 
Rite to the Rosicrucians of the fourteenth 
century. But the reasons which he assigns 
for this belief are by no means satisfactory. 
The truth is, that the Rite was founded m 
1775, in the celebrated Lodge of the Social 
Contract (Contrat Social), and that its prin- 
cipal founder was M. Boileau, a physician of 
Paris, who had been a disciple of Pernetti, 
the originator of the Hermetic Rite at Avignon, 
whose Hermetic principles he introducea into 
the Philosophic Scottish Rite. Some notion 
may be formed of the nature of the system 
which was taught in this Rite, from the name 
of the degree which is at its summit. The 
Luminous Ring is a Pythagorean degree. In 
1780. an Academy of the Sublime Masters 
of the Luminous Ring was established in 
France, in which the doctrine was taught 
that Freemasonry was originally founded by 
Pythagoras, and in which the most impor- 
tant portion of the lectures was engaged in an 
explanation of the peculiar dogmas of the sage 
of Samos. 

The chief seat of the Rite had always been 
in the Lodge of Social Contract until 1792, 
when, in common with all the other Masonic 
bodies of France, it suspended its labors. It 
was resuscitated at the termination of the 
Revolution, and in 1805 the Lodge of the 
Social Contract, and that of St. Alexander 
of Scotland, assumed the title of the " Mother 
Lodge of the Philosophic Scottish Rite in 
France." This body was eminently literary 
in its character, and in 1811 and 1812 pos- 
sessed a mass of valuable archives, among 
which were a number of old charters, manu- 
script rituals, and Masonic works of great 
interest, in all languages. 

Philosophus* The fourth grade of the 
First Order of the Society of Rosicrucians, as 
practised in Europe and America. 

Philosophy Sublime. (Philosophic Sub- 
lime.) The Forty-eighth Degree of the Rite 
of Mizraim. 



PHOENIX 



PIKE 



563 



Phoenix. The old mythological legend of 
the phoenix is a familiar one. The bird was 
described as of the size of an eagle, with a 
head finely crested, a body covered with 
beautiful plumage, and eyes sparkling like 
stars. She was said to live six hundred years 
in the wilderness, when she built for herself 
a funereal pile of aromatic woods, which 
she ignited with the fanning of her wings, 
and emerged from the flames with a new life. 
Hence the phoenix has been adopted uni- 
versally as a svmbol of immortality. Higgins 
(Anacalypsis, ii., 441) says that the phoenix is 
the symbol of an ever-revolving solar cycle 
of six hundred and eight years, and refers to 
the Phoenician word phen, which signifies a 
cycle. Aumont, the first Grand Master of 
the Templars after the martyrdom of De Mo- 
lay, and called the "Restorer of the Order," 
took, it is said, for his seal, a phoenix brooding 
on the flames, with the motto, " Ardet ut vivat " 
— She bum* that she may live. The phoenix 
was adopted at a very early period as a 
Christian svmbol, and several representations 
of it have been found in the catacombs. Its 
ancient legend, doubtless, caused it to be 
accepted as a symbol of the resurrection. 

Phylacteries. The second fundamental 
principle of Judaism is the wearing of phy- 
lacteries; termed by some writers Tataphotn, 
"ornaments," and refer to the law ana com- 
mandments, as "Bind them about thy neck: 
write them upon the table of thine head." 
(Prov. iii. 3; vi. 21 : viii. 3.) The phylacteries 
are worn on the forehead and arm, and are 
called in Hebrew TephiUin, from Pedal, to 
pray. These consist of two leathern boxes. 
One contains four compartments, in which 
are enclosed four portions of the law written 
on parchment and carefully folded. The box 
is made of leather pressed upon blocks of wood 
specially prepared, the leather being well 
soaked in water. The following passages 
of the law are sewn into it: Ex. xiii. 1-10, 11- 
16; Deut. vi. 4-9; xi. 13-21. On this box is 
the letter U (shin), with three strokes for 
the right side, and the same letter with four 
strokes for the left side of the wearer. The 
second box has but one compartment, into 
which the same passages of Scripture are 
sewed with the sinewB of animals, specially 
prepared for this object. The phylacteries 
are bound on the forehead and arm by long 
leathern straps. The straps on the head 
must be tied m a knot shaped like the letter 
"I (daleth). The straps on the arm must go 
round it seven times, and three times round 
the middle finger, with a small surplus over 
in the form of the letter ** (yod). Thus we 
have the Shaddai, or Almighty. The 
phylacteries are kept in special bags, with 
greatest reverence, and the Rabbis assert 
"that the single precept of the phylacteries 
is equal to all the commandments." 

Physical Qualifications. The physical 
qualifications of a candidate for initiation 
into Masonry may be considered under the 
three heads of Sex, Age, and Bodily Conforma- 
tion* 1. As to Sex. It is a landmark that the 



candidate shall be a man. This, of course, 
prohibits the initiation of a woman. 2. As 
to Age. The candidate must, say the Old 
Regulations, be of "mature and discreet 
age." The ritual forbids the initiation of 
an "old man in his dotage, or a young man 
under age." The man who has lost his 
faculties by an accumulation of years, or not 
yet acquired them in their full extent by 
immaturity of age, is equally incapable of 
initiation. (See Dotage and Mature Age.) 
3. As to Bodily Conformation. The Gothic 
Constitutions of 926, or what is said to be 
that document, prescribe that the candidate 
"must be without blemish, and have the full 
and proper use of his limbs : and the Charges 
of 1722 say "that he must nave no maim or 
defect in his body that may render him inca- 
pable of learning the art, of serving his Mas- 
ter's lord, and of being made a brother." 
(Constitutions, 1723, p. 51.) And although a 
few jurists have been disposed to interpret 
this Law with unauthorized laxity, the general 
spirit of the Institution, and of all its authori- 
ties, is to observe it rigidly. (See the subject 
fully dicussed in Dr. Mackey's Text Book of 
Masonic Jurisprudence, pp. 100-113.) 

Plcart's Ceremonies. Bernard Picart 
was a celebrated engraver of Amsterdam, 
and the author of a voluminous work, which 
was begun in 1723, and continued after his 
death, until 1737, by J. F. Bernard, entitled 
Ceremonies Religteuses de Urns les peuple du 
monde. A second edition was published at 
Paris, in 1741, by the Abb6s Banier and Le 
Mascrier, who entirely remodeled the work; 
and a third in 1783 by a set of free-thinkers, 
who disfigured, and still further altered the 
text to suit their own views. Editions, pro- 
fessing to be reprints of the original one, have 
been subsequently published m 1807-9 and 
1816. The book has been recently deemed 
of some importance by the investigators 
of the Masonic history of the last century, 
because it contains an engraved list in two 
pages of the English Lodges which were in 
existence in 1735. The plate is, however, of 
no value as an original authority, since it is 
merely a copy of the Engraved List of Lodges, 
published by J. Pine in 1735. 

Pickax. An instrument used to loosen 
the soil and prepare it for digging. It is one 
of the working-tools of a Royal Arch Mason, 
and symbolically teaches him to loosen from 
his heart the hold of evil habits. 

Piece of Architecture. (Morceau d' Ar- 
chitecture.) The French so call a discourse, 
poem, or other production on the subject of 
Freemasonry. The definition previously 
given in this work under the title Architecture, 
in being confined to the minutes of the Lodge, 
is not sufficiently comprehensive. 

Pike, Albert. Born at Boston, Mass., 
December 29, 1809, and died April 2, 1891. 
After a sojourn in early life in Mexico, he 
returned to the United States and settled in 
Little Rock, Arkansas, as an editor and 
lawyer. Subsequent to the War of the 
Rebellion, in which he had cast his fortunes 



564 PILGRIM 

with the South, he located in Washington, 
D. C, uniting with ex-Senator Robert Johnson 
in the profession of the law. making his home, 
however, in Alexandria. His library, in ex- 
tent ana selections, was a marvel, especially 
in all that pertains to the wonders in ancient 
literature. Bro. Pike was the Sov. G. Com- 
mander of the Southern Supreme Council, 
A. A. Scottish Rite, having been elected in 
1859. He was Prov. G. Master of the G. 
Lodge of the Royal Order of Scotland in the 
U. S., and an honorary member of almost 
every Supreme Council in the world. His 
standing as a Masonic author and historian, 
and witnal as a poet, was most distinguished, 
and his untiring zeal was without a parallel. 

Pilgrim. A pilgrim (from the Italian 
pelegrino, and that from the Latin peregrinus, 
signifying a traveler) denotes one who visits 
holy places from a principle of devotion. 
Dante {Vila Nuova) distinguishes pilgrims 
from palmers thus: palmers were those who 
went beyond the sea to the East, and often 
brought back staves of palm-wood; while 
pilgrims went only to the shrine of St. Jago, 
m Spain. But Sir Walter Scott says that 
the palmers were in the habit of passing from 
shrine to shrine, living on charity; but pilgrims 
made the journey to any shrine only once; 
and this is the more usually accepted dis- 
tinction of the two classes. 

In the Middle Ages, Europe was filled 
with pilgrims repairing to Palestine to pay 
their veneration to the numerous spots con- 
secrated in the annals of Holy Writ, more 
especially to the sepulcher of our Lord. 

"It is natural/ 1 says Robertson ( Hist., eh, 
v., i., 19), "to the human mind, to view those 
places which have been distinguished by 
being the residence of any illustrious per- 
sonage, or the scene of any great transaction, 
with some degree of delight and veneration. 
From this principle flowed the superstitious 
devotion with which Christians, from the 
earliest ages of the churchy were accustomed 
to visit that country which the Almighty 
had selected as the inheritance of his favorite 
people, and in which the Son of God had 
accomplished the redemption of mankind. 
As this distant pilgrimage could not be 
performed without considerable expense, 
fatigue, and danger, it appeared the more 
meritorious, and came to be considered as an 
expiation for almost every crime. 1 ' 

Hence, by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land 
or to the shrine of some blessed martyr, the 
thunders of the church, and the more quiet, 
but not less alarming, reproaches of conscience 
were often averted. And as this was an act 
of penance, sometimes voluntarily assumed, 
but oftener imposed by the command of a 
religious superior, the person performing it was 
called a "Pilgrim Penitent.'' 

While the Califs of the East, a race of 
monarchs equally tolerant ana sagacious, 
retained the sovereignty of Palestine, the 
Denitents were undisturbed in the performance 
A their pious pilgrimages. In fact, their 
visits to Jerusalem were rather encouraged 



PILGRIM'S 

by these sovereigns as a commerce which, 
in the language of the author already quoted, 
"brought into their dominions gold and silver, 
and carried nothing out of them but relics 
and consecrated trinkets." 

But in the eleventh century, the Turks, 
whose bigoted devotion to then* own creed 
was only equaled by their hatred of every 
other form of faith, but more especially of 
Christianity, having obtained possession of 
Syria, the pilgrim no longer found safety 
or protection in his pious journey. He 
who would then visit tne sepulcher of his 
Lord must be prepared to encounter the 
hostile attacks of ferocious Saracens, and 
the "Pilgrim Penitent" laying aside his 
peaceful garb, his staff and russet cloak, was 
compelled to assume the sword and coat 
of mail and become a "Pilgrim Warrior" 

Having at length, through all the perils 
of a distant journey, accomplished the great 
object of his pilgrimage, and partly begged 
his way amid poor or inhospitable regions, 
where a crust of bread and a draft of water 
were often the only alms that he received, 
and partly fought it amid the gleaming 
scimitars of warlike Turks, the Pilgrim Peni- 
tent and Pilgrim Warrior was enabled to kneel 
at the sepulcher of Christ, and offer up his 
devotions on that sacred spot consecrated in 
his pious mind by so many religious associa- 
tions. 

But the experience which he had so dearly 
bought was productive of a noble and a 
generous result. The Order of Knights 
Templar was established by some of those 
devoted heroes, who were determined to 
protect the pilgrims who followed them 
from the dangers and difficulties through 
which they themselves had passed, at times 
with sucn remote prospects of success. 
Many of the pilgrims having performed their 
vow of visiting the holy shrine, returned home, 
to live upon the capital of piety which their 
penitential pilgrimage had gained for them; 
but others, imitating the example of the 
defenders of the sepulcher. doffed their 
pilgrim's garb and united themselves with 
the knights who were contending with their 
infidel foes, and thus the Pilgrim Penitent, 
having by force of necessity become a Pilgrim 
Warrior, ended his warlike pilgrimage by 
assuming the vows of a Kniqhts Templar. 

In this brief synopsis, the modern and 
Masonic Knights Templar will find a rational 
explanation of the ceremonies of that degree. 

Pilgrim Penitent. A term in the ritual 
of Masonic Templarism. It refers to the 
pilgrimage, made as a penance for sin, to the 
sepulcher of the Lord; for the church prom- 
ised the remission of sins and various spiritual 
advantages as the reward of the pious and 
faithful pilgrim. (See Pilgrim.) 

Pilgrim's Shell. See Scallop Shell. 

Pilgrim's Weeds. The costume of a 
pilgrim was thus called. It may be described 
as follows: In the first place, he wore a 
8clavina, or long gown, made of the darkest 
colors and the coarsest materials, bound by a 



PILGRIM 



leathern girdle, as an emblem of his humility 
and an evidence of his poverty; a bowrdon } or 
staff, in the form of a long walking stick, 
with two knobs at the top, supported his 
weary steps; the rosary and cross, suspended 
from his neck, denoted the religious character 
he had assumed ; a scrip, or bag. held his scanty 
supply of provisions; a pair of sandals on his 
feet, and a coarse round hat turned before, in 
the front of which was fastened a scallop shell, 
completed the rude toilet of the pilgrim of 
the Middle Ages. Spenser's description, in 
the Fairie Queen (B. I., c. vi., st. 35), of a pil- 
grim's weeds, does not much differ from this: 

"A silly man in simple weeds foreworn. 

And soiled with dust of the long dried way; 

His sandals were with toilsome travel tome. 
And face all tann'd with scorching sunny ray ; 

As he had travell'd many a summer's day, 
Through boiling sands of Araby and Inde; 

And in his hand a Jacob's staff to stay 
His weary limbs upon; and eke behind 
His scrip did hang, in which his needments 
he did bind." 

Pilgrim Templar* The part of the pil- 
grim represented in the ritual of the Masonic 
Knights Templar Degree is a symbolic refer- 
ence to the career of the pilgrim of the Middle 
Ages in his journey to the sepulcher in the 
Holy Land. (See Pilgrim.) 

Pilgrim Warrior. A term in the ritual 
of Masonic Templarism. It refers to the 
pilgrimage of the knights to secure possession 
of the holy places. This was considered a 
pious duty. "Whoever goes to Jerusalem," 
says one of the canons of the Council of Cler- 
mont, "for the liberation of the Church of 
God, in a spirit of devotion only t and not for 
the sake of glory or of gain, that journey shall 
be esteemed a substitute for every kind of 
penance." The difference between the pil- 
grim penitent and the pilgrim warrior was 
this: that the former bore only his staff, but 
the latter wielded his sword. 

Plller. The title given to each of the 
conventual bailiffs or heads of the eight 
languages of the Order of Malta, and Dy 
which they were designated in all official 
records. It signifies a pillar or support of 
an edifice, ana was metaphorically applied 
to these dignitaries as if tney were the sup- 
ports of the Order. 

Pillar* In the earliest times it was cus- 
tomary to perpetuate remarkable events, or 
exhibit gratitude for providential favors, 
by the erection of pillars, which by the 
idolatrous races were dedicated to their spuri- 
ous gods. Thus Sanconiatho tells us that 
Hypeourianos and Ousous. who lived before 
the flood, dedicated two pillars to the elements 
fire and air. Among the Egyptians the pillars 
were, in general, in the form of obelisks from 
fifty to one hundred feet high, and exceedingly 
slender in proportion. Upon their four sides 
hieroglyphics were often engraved. Accord- 
ing to Herodotus, they were first raised in 
honor of the sun, and their pointed form was 
intended to represent his rays. Many of 
these monuments still remain. 



PILLAR 565 

In the antediluvian ages, the posterity of 
Seth erected pillars; "for, says the Jewish 
historian, "that their inventions might not 
be lost before they were sufficiently Known, 
upon Adam's prediction, that the world 
was to be destroyed at one time by the force 
of fire, and at another time by the violence 
of water, they made two pillars, the one of 
brick, the other of stone; they inscribed 
their discoveries on them both, that in case 
the pillar of brick should be destroyed by 
the flood, the pillar of stone might remain, 
and exhibit those discoveries to mankind, 
and also inform them that there was another 
pillar of brick erected by them." Jacob 
erected a pillar at Bethel, to commemorate 
his remarkable vision or the latter, and 
afterward another one at Galeed as a me- 
morial of his alliance with Laban. Joshua 
erected one at Gilgal to perpetuate the re- 
membrance of his miraculous crossing of the 
Jordan. Samuel set up a pillar between 
Mizpeh and Shen, on account of a defeat of 
the Philistines, and Absalom erected another 
in honor of himself. 

The doctrine of gravitation was unknown 
to the people of the primitive ages, and 
they were unable to refer the support of 
the earth in its place to this principle. Hence 
they looked to some other cause, and none 
appeared to their simple and unphilosophic 
minds more plausible than that it was 
sustained by pillars. The Old Testament 
abounds with reference to this idea. Hannah, 
in her song of thanksgiving, exclaims: "The 

Eillars of the earth are the Lord's, and he 
ath set the world upon them." (1 Sam. ii. 
8.) The Psalmist signifies the same doctrine 
in the following text: "The earth and all the 
inhabitants thereof are dissolved; I bear up 
the pillars of it." (Ps. lxxv. 3.) And Job 
says: "He shaketh the earth out of her 
places, and the pillars thereof tremble." 
(xxvi. 7.) All the old religions taught the 
same doctrine; and hence pillars being re- 
garded as the supporters of the earth, they 
were adopted as the symbol of strength and 
firmness. To this, Dudley (Naology, 123) 
attributes the origin of pillar worship, which 
prevailed so extensively among the idolatrous 
nations of antiquity. "The reverence," 
says he, "shown to columns, as symbols of 
the power of the Deity, was readily converted 
into worship paid to them as idols of the 
real presence. But here he seems to have 
fallen into a mistake. The double pillars or 
columns, acting as an architectural support, 
were, it is true, symbols derived from a natural 
cause of strength and permanent firmness. 
But there was another more prevailing sym- 
bology. The monolith, or circular pillar, 
standing alone, was, to the ancient mind, 
a representation of the Phallus, the symbol 
of the creative and generative energy of 
Deity, and it is in these Phallic pillars that 
we are to find the true origin of pillar worship, 
which was only one form of Phallic worship, 
the most predominant of all the cults to which 
the ancients were addicted. 



566 PILLARS 



Pillars of Cloud and Fire, The pillar 
of cloud that went before the Israelites by 
day, and the pillar of fire that preceded them 
by night, in tneir journey through the wilder- 
ness, are supposed to be alluded to by the 

gillars of Jacnin and Boas at the porch of 
olomon's Temple. We find this symbolism 
at a very early period in the last century, 
having been incorporated into the lecture 
of the Second Degree, where it still remains. 
"The pillar on the right hand," says Calcott 
(Cand. Disa., 66), "represented the pillar 
of the cloud, and that on the left the pillar 
of fire." If this symbolism be correct ; the 
pillars of the porch, like those of the wilder- 
ness, would refer to the superintending and 
protecting power of Deity. 

Pillars of Enoch* Two pillars which 
were erected by Enoch, for the preservation 
of the antediluvian inventions, and which are 
repeatedly referred to in the "Legend of the 
Craft," contained in the Old Constitutions, 
and m the high degrees of modern times. 
(See Enoch.) 

Pillars of the Porch. The pillars most 
remarkable in Scripture history were the two 
erected by Solomon at the porch of the Tem- 
ple, and which Josephus (Antiq., lib. i., cap. ii.) 
thus describes: "Moreover, this Hiram made 
two hollow pillars, whose outsides were of 
brass, and the thickness of the brass was four 
fingers' breadth, and the height of the pillars 
was eighteen cubits, (27 feet, ) and the circum- 
ference twelve cubits. (18 feet;) but there was 
cast with each of tneir chapiters lily-work, 
that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated 
five cubits, (7H feet,) round about which 
there was net-work interwoven with small 
palms made of brass, and covered the lily- 
work. To this also were hung two hundred 
pomegranates, in two rows. The one of these 
pillars he set at the entrance of the jx>rch on 
the right hand, (or south,) and called it Jachin. 
and the other at the left hand, (or north,) ana 
called it Boas." 

It has been supposed that Solomon, in erect- 
ing these pillars t nad reference to the pillar of 
cloud and the pillar of fire which went before 
the Israelites in the wilderness, and that the 
right hand or south pillar represented the pil- 
lar of cloud, and the left hand or north pillar 
represented that of fire. Solomon diet not 
simply erect them as ornaments to the Tem- 
ple, but as memorials of God's repeated prom- 
ises of support to his people of Israel. For 
the pillar (Jachin), derived from the words 
rr (Jah), "Jehovah," and (achin), "to es- 
tablish," signifies that "God will establish his 
house of Israel"; while the pillar T22 (fioaz), 
compounded of 2 (6), "in" and IV (oaz), 
"strength," signifies that "in strength shall it 
be established." And thus were the Jews, in 
passing through the porch to the Temple, 
daily reminded of the abundant promises of 
Goa, and inspired with confidence in his pro- 
tection and gratitude for his many acts of 
kindness to his chosen people. 

The construction of these pillars. — There is 
no part oi the architecture of the ancient Tem- 



PILLARS 

pie which is so difficult to be understood in its 
details as the Scriptural account of these mem- 
orable pillars. Freemasons, in general, inti- 
mately as their symbolical signification is 
connected with some of the most beautiful 
portions of their ritual, appear to have but a 
confused notion of their construction and of 
the true disposition of the various parts of 
which they are composed. Mr. Ferguson 
says (Smith, Diet. Bib.) that there are no fea- 
tures connected with the Temple which have 

Siven rise to so much controversy, or been so 
ifficult to explain, as the form of these two 
pillars. 

Their situation, according to Lightfoot, was 
within the porch, at its very entrance, and on 
each side of the gate. They were therefore 
seen, one on the right and the other on the 
left, as soon as the visitor stepped within the 
porch. And this, it will be remembered, in 
confirmation, is the very spot in which Esek- 
iel (xi. 49) places the pillars that he saw in 
his vision of the Temple. "The length of the 
porch was twenty cubits, and the breadth 
eleven cubits; and he brought me by the 
stepe whereby they went up to it, and there 
were pillars by the posts, one on this side, and 
another on that side." The assertion made by 
some writers, that they were not columns in- 
tended to support the roof, but simply obelisks 
for ornament, is not sustained by sufficient 
authority; and as Ferguson very justly says, 
not only would the high roof look painfully 
weak, but it would have been impossible to 
construct it, with the imperfect science of 
those days, without some such support. 

These pillars, we are told, were of brass, as 
well as the chapiters that surmounted them, 
and were cast hollow. The thickness of the 
brass of each pillar was "four fingers, or a 
hand's breadth," which is equal to three 
inches. According to the accounts in 1 Kings 
viii. 15. and in Jeremiah Hi. 21, the circumfer- 
ence of each pillar was twelve cubits. Now, 
according to the Jewish computation, the 
cubit used in the measurement of the Temple 
buildings was six hands' breadth, or eighteen 
inches. According to the tables of Bishop 
Cumberland, the cubit was rather more, he 
making it about twenty-two inches; but I ad- 
here to the measure laid down by the Jewish 
writers as probably more correct, and cer- 
tainly more simple for calculation. The 
circumference of each pillar, reduced by this 
scale to English measure, would be eighteen 
feet, and its diameter about six. 

The reader of the Scriptural accounts of 
these pillars will be not a little puzzled with 
the apparent discrepancies that are found in 
the estimates of their height as given in the 
Books of Kings and Chronicles. In the for- 
mer book, it is said that their height was 
eighteen cubits, and in the latter it was thirty- 
five, which latter height Whiston observes 
would be contrary to all the rules of archi- 
tecture. But the discrepancy is easily recon- 
ciled by supposing — which, indeed, must have 
been the case — that in the Book of Kings the 
pillars are spoken of separately, and that in 



PILLARS 

Chronicles their aggregate height is calculated; 
and the reason why, in this latter book, their 
united height is placed at thirty-five cubits 
instead of thirty-six, which would be the 
double of eighteen, is because they are there 
measured as they appeared with the chapiters 
upon them. Now naif a cubit of each pillar 
was concealed in what Light foot calls "the 
whole of the chapiter, 11 that is, half a cubit's 
depth of the lower edge of the chapiter covered 
the top of the pillar, making each pillar, ap- 
parently, only seventeen and a half cubits' 
nigh, or the two thirty-five cubits as laid down 
in the Book of Chronicles. 

This is a much better method of reconcil- 
ing the discrepancy than that adopted by Cal- 
cott, who supposes that the pedestals of the 
pillars were seventeen cubits high — a viola- 
tion of every rule of architectural proportion 
with which we would be reluctant to charge 
the memory of so "cunning a workman" as 
Hiram the builder. The account in Jeremiah 
agrees with that in the Book of Kings. The 
height, therefore, of each of these pillars was, 
in English measure, twenty-seven feet. The 
chapiter or pommel was five cubits, or seven 
and a half feet more; but as half a cubit, or 
nine inches, was common to both pillar and 
chapiter, the whole height from the ground to 
the top of the chapiter was twenty-two cubits 
and a naif, or thirty-three feet and nine inches. 

Mr. Ferguson has come to a different con- 
clusion. He says in the article Temple, in 
Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, that "accord- 
ing to 1 Kings vii. 15, the pillars were eighteen 
cubits high and twelve in circumference, with 
capitals five cubits in height. Above this 
was (ver. 19) another member, called also 
chapiter of lily-work, four cubits in height, 
but which, from the second mention of it in 
ver. 22, seems more probably to have been an 
entablature, which is necessary to complete 
the order. As these members make out 
twenty-seven cubits, leaving three cubits, or 
IVz feet, for the slope of the roof, the whole de- 
sign seems reasonable and proper." He cal- 
culates, of course, on the authority of the 
Book of Kings, that the height of the roof of 
the porch was thirty cubits, and assumes that 
these pillars were columns by which it was 
supported, and connected with it by an en- 
tablature. 

Each of these pillars was surmounted by a 
chapiter, which was five cubits, or seven and a 
half feet in height. The shape and construc- 
tion of this chapiter require some considera- 
tion. The Hebrew word which is used in this 
place is mniD (koteret) . Its root is to be found 
in the word 1TO (keter), which signified "a 
crown," and is so used in Esther vi. 8, to des- 
ignate the royal diadem of the King of Persia. 
The Chaldaic version expressly calls the chap- 
iter "a crown"; but Rabbi Solomon, in his 
commentary, uses the word (pomel), 
signifying "a globe or spherical body," ana 
Rabbi Gershom describes it as "like two 
crowns joined together." Lightfoot says, "it 
was a huge, great oval, five cubits high, and 
did not only sit upon the head of the pillars, 



PILLARS 567 

but also flowered or spread them, being 
larger about, a great deal, than the pillars 
themselves." The Jewish commentators say 
that the two lower cubits of its surface were 
entirely plain, but that the three upper were 
richly ornamented. To this ornamental part 
we now come. 

In the 1st Book of Kings, ch. vii., verses 
17, 20, 22, the ornaments oftne chapiters are 
thus described: 

" And nets of checker-work and wreaths of 
chain-work, for the chapiters which were upon 
the tops of the pillars; seven for the one chap- 
iter, and seven for the other chapiter. 

"And he made the pillars, and two rows 
round about upon the one net-work, to cover 
the chapiters that were upon the top, with 
pomegranates; and so did he for the other 
chapiter. 

"And the chapiters that were upon the top 
of the pillars were of lily-work in the porch, 
four cubits. 

"And the chapiters upon the two pillars 
had pomegranates also above, over against 
the belly, which was by the net-work; and the 
pomegranates were two hundred in rows, 
roundabout upon the other chapiter. 

"And upon the top of the pillars was lily- 
work; so was the work of the pillars fin- 
ished." 

Let us endeavor to render this description, 
which appears somewhat confused and unin- 
telligible, plainer and more comprehensible. 

The "nets of checker-work" is the first or- 
nament mentioned. The words thus trans- 
lated are in the original D*D2E? TOM TW212, 
which Lightfoot prefers rendering "thicket? 
of branch work"; and he thinks that the tnio 
meaning of the passage is, that "the chapiters 
were curiously wrought with branch work, 
seven goodly branches standing up from the 
belly of the oval, and their boughs and leaves 
curiously and lovelily intermincled and inter- 
woven one with another." He derives his 
reason for this version from the fact that the 
same word, is translated "thicket" in 

the passage in Genesis (xxii. 13) : where the ram 
is described as being "caught in a thicket by 
his horns"; and in various other passages the 
word is to be similarly translated. But, on 
the other hand, we find it used in the Book of 
Job, where it evidently signifies a net made of 
meshes: "For he is cast into a net by his own 
feet and he walketh upon a snare." (Job xvii. 
8.) In 2 Kings i. 2, the same word is used, 
where our translators have rendered it a lat- 
tice; "Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in 
his upper chamber." I am, therefore, not in- 
clined to adopt the emendation of Light- 
foot, but rather coincide with the received 
version, as well as the Masonic tradition, that 
this ornament was a simple network or fabric 
consisting of reticulated lines — in other words, 
a lattice-work. 

The "wreaths of chain-work" that are next 
spoken of are less difficult to be understood. 
The word here translated "wreath" is 
and is to be found in Deuteronomy xxii. 12, 
where it distinctly means fringes: "Thou ahalt 



568 PILLARS 

make thee fringes upon the four quarters of 
thy vesture." Fringes it should also be trans- 
lated here. "The fringes of chain-work," 
I suppose, were therefore attached to, and 
hung down from, the network spoken of 
above, and were probably in this case, as when 
used upon the garments of the Jewish high 
priest, intended as a "memorial of the law." 

The "lily-work" is the last ornament that 
demands our attention. And here the descrip- 
tion of Lightfoot is so clear and evidently cor- 
rect, that I shall not hesitate to quote it at 
length. "At the head of the pillar, even at 
the setting on of the chapiter, there was a curi- 
ous and a large border or circle of lily-work, 
which stood out four cubits under the chap- 
iter, and then turned down, every lily or long 
tongue of brass, with a neat bending, and so 
seemed as a flowered crown to the head of the 
pillar, and as a curious garland whereon the 
chapiter had its seat." 

There is a very common error among Ma- 
sons, which has been fostered by the plates 
in our Monitors, that there were on the pil- 
lars chapiters, and that these chapiters were 
again surmounted by globes. The truth, 
however, is that the chapiters themselves 
were "the pomela or globes," to which our 
lecture, in the Fellow-Craft's Degree, alludes. 
This is evident from what has already been 
said in the first part of the preceding de- 
scription. The lily here spoken of is not 
at all related, as might be supposed, to the 
common lily — that one spoken of in the 
New Testament. It was a species of the lotus, 
the Nymphaea lotos, or lotus of the Nile. This 
was among the Egyptians a sacred plant, 
found everywhere on their monuments, and 
used in their architectural decorations. It is 
evident, from their description in Kings, that 
the pillars of the porch of King Solomon's 
Temple were copied from the pillars of the 
Egyptian temples. The maps of the earth 
and the charts of the celestial constellations 
which are sometimes said to have been en- 
graved upon these globes, must be referred to 
the pillars^ where, according to Oliver, a Ma- 
sonic tradition places them — an ancient cus- 
tom, instances of which we find in profane his- 
tory. This is, however, by no means of any 
importance, as the symbolic allusion is per- 
fectly well preserved in the shapes of the chap- 
iters, without the necessity of any such geo- 
graphical or astronomical engraving upon 
them. For being globular, or nearly so, they 
may be justly said to have represented the 
celestial and terrestrial spheres. 

The true description, then, of these mem- 
orable pillars, is simply this. Immediately 
within the porch of the Temple, and on each 
side of the door, were placed two hollow brazen 
pillars. The height of each was twenty-seven 
feet, the diameter about six feet, and the thick- 
ness of the brass three inches. Above the 
pillar, and covering its upper part to the 
depth of nine inches, was an oval body or 
chapiter seven feet and a half in height. 
Springing out from the pillar, at the junction 
of the chapiter with it, was a row of lotus pet- 



PILLARS 

als, which, first spreading around the chapi- 
ter, afterward gently curved downward toward 
the pillar, something like the Acanthus leaves 
on the capital of a Corinthian column. About 
two-fifths of the distance from the bottom of 
the chapiter, or just below its most bulging 
part, a tissue of network was carved, which 
extended over its whole upper surface. To 
the bottom of this network was suspended a 
series of fringes, and on these again were 
carved two rows of pomegranates, one hun- 
dred being in each row. 

This description, it seems to me, is the only 
one that can be reconciled with the various 
passages in the Books of Kings, Chronicles, 
and Josephus, which relate to these pillars, 
and the only one that can give the Masonic 
student a correct conception of the architec- 
ture of these important symbols. 

And now as to the Masonic symbolism of 
these two pillars. As symbols they have been 
very universally diffused and are to be found 
in all rites. Nor are they of a very recent date, 
for they are depicted on the earliest tracing- 
boards, and are alluded to in the catechisms 
before the middle of the last century. Nor 
is this surprising: for as the symbolism of 
Freemasonry is founded on the Temple of 
Solomon, it was to be expected that these 
important parts of the Temple would be nat- 
urally included in the system. But at first 
the pillars appear to have been introduced 
into the lectures rather as parts of an historical 
detail than as significant symbols — an idea 
which seems gradually to have grown up. 
The catechism of 1731 describes their name, 
their size, and their material, but says nothing 
of their symbolic import. Yet this had been 
alluded to in the Scriptural account of them, 
which says that the names bestowed upon 
them were significant. 

What was the original or Scriptural symbol- 
ism of the pillars has been very well explained 
by Dudley, in his N oology. He says (p. 121) 
that "the pillars represented the sustaining 
power of the great God. The flower of the 
lotus or water-lily rises from a root growing at 
the bottom of the water, and maintains its 
position on the surface by ita columnar stalk, 
which becomes more or less straight as occa- 
sion requires; it is therefore aptly symbolical 
of the power of the Almighty constantly 
employed to secure the safety of all the world. 
The chapiter is the body or mass of the 
earth; the pomegranates, fruits remarkable 
for the number of their seeds, are symbols 
of fertility; the wreaths, drawn variously 
over the surface of the chapiter or globe, 
indicate the courses of the heavenly bodies in 
the heavens around the earth, and the variety 
of the seasons. The pillars were properly 
placed in the porch or portico of the Temple, 
lor they suggested just ideas of the power of 
the Almighty, of the entire dependence of man 
upon him, the Creator; and doing this, they 
exhorted all to fear, to love, and obey him/' 

It was, however, Hutchinson who first in- 
troduced the symbolic idea of the pillars into 
the Masonic system. He says: "The pillars 



PINCEAU 



greeted at the porch of the Temple were not 
only ornamental, but also carried with them 
an emblematical import in their names: Boaz 
being, in its literal translation, in thee is 
strength; and Jachin, it shall be established, 
which, by a very natural transposition, may 
be put thus: O Lord, thou art mighty, and 
thy power is established from everlasting to 
everlasting." 

Preston subseauently introduced the sym- 
bolism, considerably enlarged, into his system 
of lectures. He adopted the reference to the 
pillars of fire and cloud, which is still retained. 

The Masonic symbolism of the two pillars 
may be considered, without going into minute 
details, as being twofold. First, in reference 
to the names of the pillars, they are symbols 
of the strength and stability of the Institution : 
and then in reference to the ancient pillars of 
fire and cloud, they are symbolic of our de- 
pendence on the superintending guidance of 
the Great Architect of the Universe, by which 
alone that strength and stability are secured. 

Pinceau. French, a pencil; but in the 
technical language of French Masonry it is a 
pen. Hence, in the minutes of French Lodges, 
tenir le pinceau means to act as Secretary, 

Pine-Cone. The tops or points of the rods 
of deacons are often surmounted by a pine- 
cone or pineapple. This is in imitation of the 
Thyrsus, or sacred staff of Bacchus, which was 
a lance or rod enveloped in leaves of ivy, and 
having on the top a cone or apple of the pine. 
To it surprising virtues were attributed, and 
it was introducea into the Dionysiac mysteries 
as a sacred symbol. 

Pinnacles. Generally ornamented ter- 
minations much used in Gothic architecture. 
They are prominently referred to in the 
Eleventh Degree of the A. A. Scottish Rite, 
where the pinnacles over the three gates sup- 
port the warning to all evil-doers, and give 
evidence of the certainty of punishment fol- 
lowing crime. 

PlrTet* The name of a tailor of Paris, who. 
in 1762, organized a body called " Council of 
Knights of the East/ 1 m opposition to the 
Council of Emperors of the East and West. 

Pltaka. f'&asket.") The Bible of Bud- 
dhism, containing 116 volumes, divided into 
three classes, collectively known as the Trip- 
itaka or Pitakattayan, that is, the "Triple 
Basket 1 '; the Soutras, or discourses of Bud- 
dha: the Vinaga, or Discipline: and the Ab- 
hadnarma, or Metaphysics. The canon was 
fixed about 240 B.C., and commands a follow- 
ing of more than one-third of the human race 
— the estimates vary from 340,000,000 to 
500,000,000. Masomcally considered, this 
indeed must be a great Light or Trestle- 
Board, if it is the guide of the conduct and 
practise of so vast a number of our brethren; 
tor are not all men our brethren? 

Pltdah. (Heb. m».) One of the twelve 
stones in the breastplate of the high priest, of 
a yellow color. The Sanskrit for yellow is 
pita. 

Pitris. Spirits. Among the Hindus, Pit- 
ris were spirits; so mentioned in the A grow- 



PLOT 569 

chada Parikchai, the philosophical compen- 
dium of the Hindu spiritists, a scientific work 
giving an account of the creation and the Mer- 
caba, and finally the Zohar : the three prin- 
cipal parts of which treat "ot the attributes of 
God* "of the world," and "of the human 
soul." A fourth part sets forth the relevancy 
of souls to each other, and the evocation of 
Pitris. The adepts of the occult sciences 
were said by the votaries of the Pitris of India 
to have "entered the garden of delights." 
(See Parikchai, Agrouchada; also, Indische 
Mysteri en.) 

Plus VII. On the 13th of August. 1814, 
Pope Pius VII. issued an edict forbidding the 
meetings of all secret societies, and especially 
the Freemasons and Carbonari, under heavy 
corporal penalties, to which were to be added, 
according to the malignity of the cases, partial 
or entire confiscation of goods, or a pecuniary 
fine. The edict also renewed the bull of Clem- 
ent XII., by which the punishment of death 
was incurred by those who obstinately per- 
sisted in attending the meetings of Free- 
masons. 

Place. In strict Masonic ritualism the 
positions occupied by the Master and Wardens 
are called stations; those of the other officers, 
places. This distinction is not observed in 
the higher degrees. (See Stations.) 

Planche Tracee. The name by which 
the minutes are designated in French Lodges. 
Literally, planche is a board, and tracee, delin- 
eated. The planche tracee is therefore the 
board on which the plans of the Lodge have 
been delineated. 

Plans and Designs* The plans and de- 
signs on the Trestle-Board of the Master, by 
which the building is erected, are, in Specu- 
lative Masonry, symbolically referred to the 
moral plans and designs of life by which we 
are to construct our spiritual temple, and in 
the direction of which we are to be instructed 
by some recognized Divine authority. (See 
Trestle-Board.) 

Platonic Academy. See Academy, Pla- 
tonic. 

Plenty. The ear of corn, or sheaf of wheat, 
is. in the Masonic system, the symbol of 
plenty. In ancient iconography, the goddess 
Plenty was represented by a young nymph 
crowned with nowers, and holding in the right 
hand the horn of Amalthea. the goat that 
suckled Jupiter, and in her left a bundle of 
sheaves of wheat, from which the ripe grain is 
falling profusely to the ground. There have 
been some differences in the representation of 
the goddess on various medals; but, as Mont- 
faucon shows, the ears of corn are an indis- 
r*Msable part of the symbolism. (See Shib- 

Plot Manuscript. Dr. Plot, in his Natr 
ural History of Staffordshire, published in 16*86, 
speaks of a scrota or parchment volume," in 
the possession of the Masons of the seven- 
teenth century, in which it is stated that the 
"charges and manners were after perused and 
approved by King Henry VI." Dr. Oliver 
{Golden Remains, hi., 35) thinks that Plot here 



570 PLOT 

referred to what is known as the Leland MS., 
which, if true, would be a proof of the au- 
thenticity of that document. But Oliver 
gives no evidence of the correctness of his 
assumption. It is more probable that the 
manuscript which Dr. Plot loosely quotes has 
not vet been recovered. 

Plot, Robert, M.D. Born in 1051, and 
died in 1696. He was a Professor of Chemis- 
try at Oxford, and Keeper of the Ashmolean 
Museum, to which position he had been ap- 
pointed by Elias Asbmole, to whom, however, 
he showed but little gratitude. Dr. Plot pub- 
lished, in 1686, The Natural History of Staf- 
fordshire, a work in which he went out of his 
way to attack the Masonic institution. An 
able defense against this attack will be found 
in the third volume of Oliver's Golden Remains 
of the Early Masonic Writers. The work of 
Dr. Plot is both interesting and valuable to the 
Masonic student, as it exhibits the condition 
of Freemasonry m the latter part of the sev- 
enteenth century, certainly, if not at a some- 
what earlier period, and is an anticipated an- 
swer to the assertions of the iconoclasts who 
would give Freemasonry its birth in 1717. 
For this purpose, I insert so much of his ac- 
count as refers to the customs of the society in 
1686. 

"They have a custom in Staffordshire, of 
admitting men into the Society of Freemasons, 
that in the moorelands of this coifnty seems to 
be of greater request than anywhere else, 
though I find the custom spread more or less 
all over the nation; for here I found persons of 
the most eminent quality that did not disdain 
to be of this fellowship. Nor, indeed, need 
they, were it of that antiquity and honor, that 
is pretended in a large parchment volum they 
have amongst them, containing the history 
and rules of the Craft of Masonry. Which is 
there deduced not only from sacred writ, but 

}>rofane story; particularly that it was brought 
nto England by St. Amphibal, and first com- 
municated to St. Alban, who set down the 
charges of Masonry, and was made paymaster 
and governor of the king's works, and gave 
them charges and manners as St. Amphibal 
had taught him. Which were after con- 
firmed by King Atheist an, whose youngest 
son Edwyn loved well Masonry, took upon 
him the charges, and learned the manners, and 
obtained for them of his father a free charter. 
Whereupon he caused them to assemble at 
York, and to bring all the old books of their 
Craft, and out of them ordained such charges 
and manners as they then thought fit; which 
charges in the said Schrole, or parchment vol- 
um, are in part declared; and thus was the 
Craft of Masonry grounded and confirmed in 
England. It is also there declared that these 
charges and manners were after perused and 
approved by King Henry VI. and his council, 
both as to Masters and fellows of this Right 
Worshipful Craft. 

"Into which Society, when they are ad- 
mitted, they call a meeting (or Lodg, as they 
term it in some places), which must consist at 
lest of five or six of the ancients of the Order, 



PLUMB 

whom the candidates present with gloves, and 
so likewise to their wives, and entertain with 
a collation, according to the custom of the 
place: this ended, they proceed to the admis- 
sion of them, which chiefly consists in the com- 
munication of certain secret signes. whereby 
they are known to one another all over the 
nation, by which means they have mainte- 
nance whither ever they travel, for if any man 
appear, though altogether unknown, that can 
snow any of these signs to a fellow of the Soci- 
ety, whom they otherwise call an Accepted 
Mason, he is obliged presently to come to him, 
from what company or place soever he be in; 
nay, though from the top of a steeple (what 
hazard or inconvenience soever he run), to 
know his pleasure and assist him; vis., if he 
want work, he is bound to find him some; or 
if he cannot do that, to give him mony, or 
otherwise support him till work can be had, 
which is one of their articles; and it is an- 
other, that they advise the masters they work 
for according to the best of their skill, ac- 
quainting them with the goodness or badness 
of their materials, and if they be any way out 
in the contrivance of the buildings, modestly 
to rectify them in it, that Masonry be not dis- 
honored; and many such like that are com- 
monly known; but some others they have (to 
which they are sworn after their fashion) that 
none know but themselves." (Nat. Hist, of 
Staffordshire, ch. viii., p. 316.) 

Plumb* An instrument used by Opera- 
tive Masons to erect perpendicular fines, and 
adopted in Speculative Masonry as one of the 
working-tools of a Fellow-Craft. It is a sym- 
bol of rectitude of conduct, and inculcates 
that integrity of life and undeviating course 
of moral uprightness which can alone dis- 
tinguish the good and just man. As the oper- 
ative workman erects his temporal building 
with strict observance of that plumb-line, 
which will not permit him to deviate a hair's 
breadth to the right or to the left, so the Spec- 
ulative Mason, guided by the unerring prin- 
ciples of right and truth inculcated in the sym- 
bolic teachings of the same implement, is 
steadfast in the pursuit of truth, neither bend- 
ing beneath the frowns of adversity nor yield- 
ing to the seductions of prosperity. 

To the man thus just and upright, the Scrip- 
tures attribute, as necessary parts of his char- 
acter, kindness and liberality, temperance and 
moderation, truth and wisdom; and the Pagan 
poet Horace (lib. iii., od. 3) pays, in one of his 
most admired odes, an eloquent tribute to the 
stern immutability of the man who is upright 
and tenacious of purpose. 

It is worthy of notice that, in most lan- 
guages, the word which is used in a direct 
sense to indicate straightness of course or per- 
pendicularity of position, is also employed in 
a figurative sense to express uprightness of 
conduct. Such are the Latin "rectum" 
which signifies at the same time a right line 
and honesty or integrity; the Greek, lpb6t. 
which means straight, standinq upright, and 
also equitable, just, true; and the Hebrew 
tsedek, which in a physical sense denotes right* 



PLUMB-LINE 



POINTED 



571 



ness, straightness, and in a moral, what is right 
and just. Our own word RIGHT partakes of 
this peculiarity, right being not twang, as well 
as not crooked. 

As to the name, it may be remarked that 
plumb is the word used m Speculative Ma- 
sonry. Webster says that as a noun the word 
is seldom used except in composition. Its 
constant use, therefore, in Masonry, is a pe- 
culiarity. 

Plumb-Line. A line to which a piece of 
lead is attached so as to make it hang per- 
pendicularly. The plumb-line, some- 
times called simply the line, is one of 
the working-tools of the Past Master. 
According to Preston, it was one of the 
instruments of Masonry which was pre- 
sented to the Master of a Lodge at his 
installation, and he defines its sym- 
bolism as follows: " The line teaches the 
criterion of rectitude, to avoid dissimu- 
lation in conversation and action, and 
to direct our steps in the path which 
leads to immortality." Tnis idea of 
the immortal life was always connected in 
eymbology with that of the perpendicular — 
something that rose directly upward. Thus 
in the primitive church, the worshiping Chris- 
tians stood up at prayer on Sunday, as a refer- 
ence to the Lord^s resurrection on that day. 
This symbolism is not, however, preserved m 
the verse of the prophet Amos (vu. 7), which 
is read in this country as the Scripture pas- 
sage of the Second Degree, where it seems 
rather to refer to the strict justice which God 
will apply to the people of Israel. It there 
coincides with the first Masonic defini- 
tion that the line teaches the criterion 
of moral rectitude. 

Plumb-Rule. A narrow board, 
having a plumb-line suspended from 
its top and a perpendicular mark 
through its middle. It is one of the 
working-tools of a Fellow-Craft, but 
in Masonic language is called the 
Plumb, which see. 
Plurality of Votes. See Majority. 
Poetry of Masonry. Although Freema- 
sonry has been distinguished more than any 
other single institution for the number of 
verses to which it has given birth, it has not 
produced any poetry of a very nigh order, 
except a few lyrical effusions. Rime, al- 
though not always of transcendent merit, has 
been a favorite form of conveying its instruc- 
tions. The oldest of the Constitutions, that 
known as the Halliwell or Regius MS., is 
written in verse; and almost all the early 
catechisms of the degrees were in the form of 
rime, which, although often doggerel in 
character, served as a convenient method of 
assisting the memory. But the imagination, 
which might have been occupied in the higher 
walks of poetry, seems in Freemasonry to have 
been expended in the construction of its sym- 
bolism, which may, however, be considered 
often as the results of true poetic genius. 
There are, besides the songs, of which the 
number in all languages is very great, an 



abundance of prologues and epilogues, of odes 
and anthems, some of which are not discred- 
itable to then* authors or to the Institution. 
But there are very few poems on Masonic 
subjects of anv length. The French have in- 
dulged more than any other nation in this sort 
of composition, and the earliest Masonic pcem 
known is one published at Frankfort, 1756, 
with the title of Noblesse des Franc-Melons 
ou Institution de leur SocUU avant le deluge 
unwersd et de son renouveUcment apres le 
Deluge. 

It was printed anonymously, but the au- 
thorship of it is attributed to M. Jartigue. It 
is a transfer to verse of all the Masonic myths 
contained in the "Legend of the Craft" and 
the traditional history of Anderson. Neither 
the material nor the execution exempt the 
author from Horace's denunciation of poetic 
mediocrity. 

Pointed Cubical Stone. The " Broached 
Thurnel" (a. v.) mentioned by Dr. Oliver and 
others in the Tracing-Board of an Entered 
Apprentice, and known to the French Mason 
as the pierre cubique, has an ax inserted in 
the apex. Bro. William S. Rockwell consid- 
ered this feature in the Tracing-Board re- 
markable and suggestive of curious reflections, 
and thus reasoned: "The cubic stone pointed 
with an axe driven into it, is strikingly similar 
to a peculiar hieroglyphic of the Egyptians. 




The name of one of their gods is written with a 
determinative sign affixed to it, consisting of a 
smooth rectangular stone with a knife over it; 
but the most singular portion of the circum- 
stance is, that this hieroglyphic, which is read 
by Egyptologists, Seth, is the symbol of false- 
hood and error, in contradistinction to the 
rough (Brute) stone, which is the symbol of 
faith and truth. The symbol of error was the 
soft stone, which could be cut: the symbol of 
truth, the hard stone, on which no tool could 
be used." 

Seth is the true Egyptian name of the god 
known afterward by the name of Typhon, at 
one time devoutly worshiped and profoundly 
venerated in the culminating epoch of the 
Pharaonic empire, as the monuments of Kar- 
nac and Medinet-Abou testify. But in time 
his worship was overthrown, his shrines dese- 
crated, his name and titles chiseled from the 
monumental granite, and he himself, from 
being venerated as the giver of life ana bless- 
ings to the rulers of Egypt, degraded from hifi 
position, treated as a destroying demon, and 
shunned as the personification of evil. a This 
was not long before the exode of the children 
of Israel. Seth was the father of Judseus and 
Palestinus, is the god of the Semitic tribes who 



572 POINTS 

rested on the seventh day, and bears the 
swarthy complexion of the hated race. Seth 
is also known by other names in the hiero- 
glyphic legends, among the most striking of 
which is Bar, that is Bal, known to us in sa- 
cred history as the fatal stumbling-block of 
idolatry to the Jewish people. (See Triangle 
and Square.) [C. T. McClenachan.] 

Points* In the Old Constitutions known as 
the Halliwell or Regius MS., there are fifteen 
regulations which are called points. The fif- 
teen articles which precede are said to have 
been in existence before the meeting at York, 
and then only collected after search, while the 
fifteen points were then enacted. Thus we 
are told — 

41 Fifteen artyoulus they there sougton, (sought, 
found out,) 

And fifteen poyntys there they wrogton, (wrought, 
enacted.)* 

The points referred to in the ritualistic 
phrase, " arts, parts, and points of the hidden 
mysteries of Masonry/' are the rules and reg- 
ulations of the Institution. Phillips's New 
World of Words (edit. 1706) defines point as 
"an head or chief matter." It is in this sense 
that we speak of the "points of Masonry. 1 ' 

Points of Entrance. Perfect. In the 
earliest lectures of the last century these were 
called "Principal Points." The designation 
of them as "Perfect Points of Entrance" was 
of a later date. They are described both in 
the English and the American systems. Their 
specific names, and their allusion to the four 
cardinal virtues, are the same in both; but the 
verbal explanations differ, although not sub- 
stantially. They are so called because they 
refer to four important points of the initia- 
tion. The Guttural refers to the entrance 
upon the penal responsibilities; the Pectoral, 
to the entrance into the Lodge; the Manual, 
to the entrance on the covenant; and the 
Pedal, to the entrance on the instructions in 
the northeast. 

Points of Fellowship, Five. There are 
duties owing by every Mason to his breth- 
ren, which, from then* symbolic allusion to 
certain points of the body, and from the lesson 
of brotherly love which tney teach, are called 
the "Five Points of Fellowship." They are 
symbolically illustrated in the Third Degree, 
and have been summed up by Oliver as as- 
sisting a brother in his distress, supporting 
him in his virtuous undertakings, praying for 
his welfare, keeping inviolate his secrets, and 
vindicating his reputation as well in his ab- 
sence as in his presence." (Landm., i., 185.) 

Cole, in the Freemasons 9 Library (p. 190), 
gives the same ideas in diffuser language, as 
follows: 

"First. When the necessities of a brother 
call for my aid and support, I will be ever 
ready to lend him such assistance, to save him 
from sinking, as may not be detrimental to 
myself or connections, if I find him worthy 
thereof. 

"Second. Indolence shall not cause nw 
footsteps to halt, nor wrath turn them aside ; 



POINTS 

but forgetting every selfish consideration, I 
will be ever swift of foot to serve, help, and 
execute benevolence to a fellow-creature in 
distress, and more particularly to a brother 
Mason. 

"Third. When I offer up my ejaculations 
to Almighty God, a brothers welfare I will 
remember as my own; for as the voices of 
babes and sucklings ascend to the Throne of 
Grace, so most assuredly will the breathings of 
a fervent heart arise to the mansions of bliss, 
as our prayers are certainly required of each 
other. 

"Fourth. A brother's secrets, delivered to 
me as such, I will keep as I would my own; as 
betraying that trust might be doing him the 
greatest injury he could sustain in this mortal 
life; nay, it would be like the villany of an 
assassin, who lurks in darkness to stab his ad- 
versary, when unarmed and least prepared to 
meet an enemy. 

"Fifth. A brother's character I will support 
in his absence as I would in his presence: I 
will not wrongfully revile him myself, nor will 
I suffer it to be done by others, if in my power 
to prevent it." 

The enumeration of these Points by some 
other more recent authorities differs from 
Cole's, apparently, only in the order in which 
the Points are placed. The latter order is 
given as follows in Mackey's Lexicon of Free' 
masonry: 

"First. Indolence should not cause our 
footsteps to halt, or wrath turn them aside; 
but with eager alacrity and swiftness of foot, 
we should press forward in the exercise of 
charity and kindness to a distressed fellow- 
creature. 

"Secondly. In our devotions to Almighty 
God, we should remember a brother's welfare 
as our own; for the prayers of a fervent and 
sincere heart will find no less favor in the sight 
of Heaven, because the petition for self is 
mingled with aspirations of benevolence for a 
friend. 

"Thirdly. When a brother intrusts to our 
keeping the secret thoughts of his bosom, pru- 
dence and fidelity should place a sacred seal 
upon our lips, lest, in an unguarded moment, 
we betray the solemn trust confided to our 
honor. 

"Fourthly. When adversity has visited our 
brother, and his calamities call for our aid, we 
should cheerfully and liberally stretch forth 
the hand of kindness, to save nim from sink- 
ing, and to relieve his necessities. 

"Fifthly. While with candor and kindness 
we should admonish a brother of his faults, we 
should never revile his character behind his 
back, but rather, when attacked by others, 
support and defend it." 

The difference here is apparently only in the 
order of enumeration, but really there is an im- 
portant difference in the symbols on which the 
instructions are founded. In the old system, 
the symbols are the hand, the foot, the knee, 
the breast, and the back. In the new system, 
the first symbol or the hand is omitted, and the 
mouth and the ear substituted. There is no 



POINTS 

doubt that this omission of the first and in- 
sertion of the last are innovations, which 
sprung up in 1842 at the Baltimore Conven- 
tion, and the enumeration given by Cole is 
the old and genuine one, which was originally 
taught in England by Preston, and m this 
country by Webb. 

Points, The Five. See Chromatic Calen- 
dar. 

Points, Twelve Grand. See Twelve Origi- 
nal Point* of Masonry. 

Point within a Circle. This is a symbol 
of great interest and importance, and brings 
us into close connection with the early sym- 
bolism of the solar orb and the universe, wr rich 
was predominant in the ancient sun-worship. 
The lectures of Freemasonry give what mod- 
ern Monitors have made an exoteric explana- 
tion of the symbol, in telling us that the point 
represents an individual brother, the circle the 
boundary line of his duty to God and man, and 
the two perpendicular parallel lines the patron 
saints ot the Order — St. John the Baptist and 
St. John the Evangelist. 

But that this was not always its symbolic 
signification, we may collect from the true his- 
tory of its connection with the phallus of the 
Ancient Mysteries. The phallus, as I have 
already shown under the word, was among the 
Egyptians the symbol of fecundity, expressed 
by the male generative principle. It was 
communicated from the rites of Osiris to the 
religious festivals of Greece. Among the 
Asiatics the same emblem, under the name of 
lingam, was, in connection with the female 
principle, worshiped as the symbols of the 
Great Father and Mother, or producing causes 
of the human race, after then* destruction by 
the deluge. On this subject, Captain Wilford 
(Asiai. Res.) remarks "that it was believed in 
India, that, at the general deluge, everything 
was involved in the common destruction ex- 
cept the male and female principles, or organs 
of generation, which were destined to produce 
a new race, and to repeople the earth when the 
waters had subsided from its surface. The 
female principle, symbolized by the moon, as- 
sumed the form of a lunette or crescent; while 
the male principle, symbolized by the sun, as- 
suming the form of the lingam, placed himself 
erect in the center of the lunette, like the mast 
of a ship. The two principles, in this united 
form, floated on the surface of the waters dur- 
ing the period of their prevalence on the earth; 
and thus became the progenitors of a new race 
of men." Here, then, was the first outline of 
the point within a circle, representing the prin- 
ciple of fecundity, and doubtless the symbol, 
connected with a different history, that, 
namely, of Osiris, was transmitted by the In- 
dian philosophers to Egypt, and to the other 
nations, who derived, as I have elsewhere 
shown, all their rites from the East. 

It was in deference to this symbolism that, 
as HLggins remarks (Anacal., ii., 306), circular 
temples were in the very earliest ages univer- 
sally erected in cyclar numbers to do honor to 
the Deity. 

In India, stone circles, or rather their ruins, 



POINT 573 

are everywhere found; among the oldest of 
which, according to Moore (Panth., 242), is 
that of Dipaldiana, and whose execution will 
compete with that of the Greeks. In the old- 
est monuments of the Druids we find, as at 
Stonehenge and Abury, the circle of stones. 
In fact, afi the temples of the Druids were cir- 
cular, with a single stone erected in the center. 
A Druidical monument in Pembrokeshire, 
called Y Cromlech, is described as consisting 
of several rude stones pitched on end in a cir- 
cular order, and in the midst of the circle a 
vast stone placed on several pillars. Near 
Keswick, in Cumberland, says Oliver (Signs 
and Symbols, 174), is another specimen of this 
Druidical symbol. On a hill stands a circle of 
forty stones placed perpendicularly, of about 
five feet and a half in height, and one stone in 
the center of greater altitude. 

Among the Scandinavians, the hall of Odin 
contained twelve seats, disposed in the form of 
a circle, for the principal gods, with an ele- 
vated seat in the center for Odm. Scandina- 
vian monuments of this form are still to be 
found in Scania, Zealand, and Jutland. 

But it is useless to multiply examples of the 
prevalence of this symbol among the ancients. 
And now let us apply this knowledge to the 
Masonic symbol. 

We have seen that the phallus and the point 
within a -circle come from the same source, and 
must have been identical in signification. 
But the phallus was the symbol of fecundity, 
or the male generative principle, which by 
the ancients was supposed to be the sun (they 
looking to the creature and not to the Creator), 
because by the sun's heat and light the earth is 
made prolific, and its productions are brought 
to maturity. The point within the circle was 
then originally the symbol of the sun; and as 
the lingam of India stood in the center of the 
lunette, so it stands within the center of the 
Universe, typified by the circle, impregnating 
and vivifying it with its heat. And thus the 
astronomers nave been led to adopt the same 
figure as their symbol of the sun. 

Now it is admitted that the Lodge repre- 
sents the world or the universe, and the Master 
and Wardens within it represent the sun in 
three positions. Thus we arrive at the true 
interpretation of the Masonic symbolism of 
the point within the circle. It is the same 
thing, but under a different form, as the Mas- 
ter and Wardens of a Lodge. The Master and 
Wardens are symbols of the sun, the Lodge of 
the universe, or world, just as the point is the 
symbol of the same sun, and the surrounding 
circle of the universe. 

*An addition to the above may be given, by 
referring to one of the oldest symbols among 
the Egyptians, and found upon their monu- 
ments, which was a circle centered by an 
A U M, supported by two erect parallel ser- 
pents; the circle being expressive of the col- 
lective people of the world, protected by the 
parallel attributes, the Power and Wisdom of 



* From this point the article is by C. T. Mc- 
Glenachan. 



574 POLAND 

the Creator. The Alpha and Omega, or the 
\|/ t fUi representing the Egyptian omnipo- 
tent God, surrounded by His creation, having 
for a boundary no other limit than what may 
come within his boundless scope, his Wisdom 
and Power. At times this circle is represented 

H 

PI 

by the Ananta (Sanskrit, eternity), a serpent 
with its tail in its mouth. The parallel ser- 
pents were of the cobra species. 

It has been suggestively said that the Ma- 
sonic symbol refers to the circuits or cir- 
cumambulation of the initiate about the 
sacred Altar, which supports the three Great 
Lights as a central point, while the brethren 
stand in two parallel lines. 

Poland* Freemasonry was introduced into 
Poland, in 1736, by the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land; but in 1739 the Lodges were closed in 
consequence of the edict of Sing Augustus II., 
who enforced the bull of Pope Clement XII. 
From 1742 to 1749 Masonry was revived and 
several Lodges erected, which flourished for a 
time, but afterward fell into decay. In 1766 
Count Mosrvnski sought to put it on a better 
footing, and in 1769 a Grand Lodge was 
formed, of which he was chosen Grand Master. 
The Grand Lodge of England recognised this 
body as a Provincial Grand Lodge. On the 
first division of Poland, the labors of the 
Grand Lodge were suspended; but they were 
revived in 1773 by Count Bruhl, who intro- 
duced the ritual of the Strict Observance, es- 
tablished several new Lodges, and acknowl- 
edged the supremacy of the United Lodges of 
Germany. There was a Lodge in Warsaw, 
working in the French Rite, under the au- 
thority of the Grand Orient of France, and an- 
other under the English system. These dif- 
ferences of Rites created many dissensions, 
but in August, 1781, the Lodge Catherine of 
the North Star received a Warrant as a Pro- 
vincial Grand Lodge, and on December 27th 
of the same year the body was organized, and 
Ignatius Pococki elected Grand Master of all 
Polish and Lithuanian Lodges, the English 



POLYCHHONICON 



system being provisionally adopted. In 1794, 
with the dissolution of the kingdom, the 
Lodges in the Russian and Austrian portions 
of the partition were suppressed, and those 
only in Prussian Poland continued their ex- 
istence. Upon the creation, by Napoleon, of 
the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, a Grand Orient 
of Poland was immediately established. This 
body continued in operation until 1823, with 
more than forty Lodges under its obedience. 
In November of that year the Order was inter- 
dicted in consequence of the ukase of the Em- 
peror Alexander prohibiting all secret societies, 
and all the Lodges were thereon closed. Dur- 
ing the revolt of 1830 a few Lodges arose, but 
they lasted only until the insurrection was 
suppressed. 

Politics. There is no charge more fre- 
quently made against Freemasonry than that 
of its tendency to revolution, and conspiracy, 
and to political organizations which may af- 
fect the peace of society or interfere with the 
rights of governments. It was the substance 
of all BarrueTs and Robison's accusations, 
that the Jacobinism of France and Germany 
was nurtured in the Lodges of those countries : 
it was the theme of all the denunciations of 
the anti-Masons of America, that the Order 
was seeking a political ascendancy and an 
undue influence over the government; it has 
been the unjust accusation of every enemy of 
the Institution in all times past, that its ob- 
ject and aim is the possession of power and 
control in the affairs of state. It is in vain 
that history records no instance of this unlaw- 
ful connection between Freemasonry and pol- 
itics: it is in vain that the libeler is directed 
to tne Ancient Constitutions of the Order, 
which expressly forbid such connection; the 
libel is still written, and Masonry is again and 
again condemned as a political club. 

Polkal* A significant word in the high 
degrees, which means altogether separated, in 
allusion to the disunited condition of the Ma- 
sonic Order at the time, divided as it was into 
various and conflicting rites. The word is 
corrupted from pakol, and is derived from the 
radical ?S, pal, which, as Gesenius says, every- 
where implies separation, and the adverbial 
73, kol, wholly, altogether. 

Polychronlcon. Ranulf Higden, a monk 
of Chester, wrote, about 1350, under this title 
a Latin chronicle, which was translated into 
English in 1387 by John Trevisa, and pub- 
lished by William Caxton, in 1482, as The 
Polychronicon; "conteynyng the feerynpes 
and Dedes of many Tymes." Another edition 
was published (though, perhaps, it was the 
same book with a new title) by Wynkyn de 
Woorde, in 1485, as Policronicon, in which 
booke ben comprised bryefly many wonderful 
hystoryes, Englished by one Trevisa, vicarye of 
Barkleyuetc., a copy of which sold in 1857 for 
£37. There was another translation in the 
same century by an unknown author. The 
two translations made the book familiar to 
the English public, with whom it was at one 
time a favorite work. It was much used by 
the compiler or compilers of the Old Constu 



POMEGRANATE 



tutions now known as the Cooke Manuscript. 
Indeed, there is very little doubt that the 
writers of the old Masonic records borrowed 
from the Polychronicon many of their early 
legends of Masonry. In 1865 there was pub- 
lished at London, under the authority of the 
Master of the Rolls, an edition of the original 
Latin chronicle, with both the English trans- 
lations, that of Trevisa and that of the un- 
known writer. 

Pomegranate. The pomegranate, as a 
symbol, was known to and highly esteemed by 
the nations of antiquity. In the description 
of the pillars which stood at the porch of the 
Temple (see 1 KingB vii. 15), it is said that the 
artificer "made two chapiters of molten brass 
to set upon the tops of the pillars. 19 Now the 
Hebrew word caphtorim, which has been trans- 
lated "chapiters," and for which, in Amos ix. 
1, the word "lintel" has been incorrectly sub- 
stituted (though the marginal reading cor- 
rects the error), signifies an artificial large 
pomegranate, or globe. The original meaning 
is not preserved in the Septuagmt, which has 
ff<pauttmip, nor in the Vulgate, which uses 
"spnasnila," both meaning simply "a round 
ball." But Josephus, in his Antiquities, has 
kept to the literal Hebrew. It was customary 
to place such ornaments upon the tops or 
heads of columns, and in other situations. 
The skirt of Aaron's robe was ordered to be 
decorated with golden bells and pomegranates, 
and they were among the ornaments fixed 
upon the golden candelabra. There seems, 
therefore, to have been attached to this fruit 
some mystic signification, to which it is in- 
debted tor the veneration thus paid to it. If 
so, this mystic meaning should be traced into 
Spurious Freemasonry; for there, after all, if 
there be any antiquity in our Order, we shall 
find the parallel of all its rites and ceremonies. 

The Syrians at Damascus worshiped an 
idol which they called Rimmon. This was 
the same idol that was worshiped by Naaman 
before his conversion, as recorded m the Sec- 
ond Book of Kings. The learned have not been 
able to agree as to the nature of this idol, 
whether he was a representation of Helios or 
the Sun, the god of the Phoenicians, or of 
Venus, or according to Grotius, in his com- 
mentary on the passage in Kings, of Saturn, or 
what, according to Statius, seems more prob- 
able, of Jupiter Cassius. But it is sufficient 
for the present purpose to know that Rimmon 
is the Hebrew and Svriac tor pomegranate. 

Cumberland, the learned Bishop of Peter- 
borough (Prig. Gent. Ant., p. 60), quotes Achil- 
les Statius, a converted Pagan, and Bishop of 
Alexandria, as saying that on Mount Cas- 
sius (which Bochart places between Canaan 
and Egypt) there was a temple wherein Jupi- 
ter's image held a pomegranate in his hand, 
which Statius goes on to say. "had a mystical 
meaning.' 1 Sanconiathon trunks this temple 
was built by the descendants of the Cabiri. 
Cumberland attempts to explain this mystery 
thus: "Agreeably hereunto I guess that the 
pomegranate in the hand of Jupiter or Juno, 
(because, when it is opened, it discloses a 



PONTIFF 575 



great number of seeds,) signified only, that 
those deities were, being long-lived, the parents 
of a great many children, and families that 
soon grew into nations, which they planted in 
large possessions, when the world was newly 
begun to be peopled, by giving them laws and 
other useful inventions to make their lives 
comfortable.' 1 

Pausanias (Corinthiaca, p. 59) says he saw, 
not far from the ruins of Mycenae, an image of 
Juno holding in one hand a scepter, and in the 
other a pomegranate; but he likewise declines 
assigning any explanation of the emblem, 
merely declaring that it was &ropprrr6r(pot 
yJryot — "a forbidden mystery." That is, one 
which was forbidden by the Cabiri to be di- 
vulged. 

In the festival of the Thesmophoria, ob- 
served in honor of the goddess Ceres, it was 
held unlawful for the celebrants (who were 
women) to eat the pomegranate. Clemens 
Alexandrinus assigns as a reason, that it was 
supposed that this fruit sprang from the blood 
of Bacchus. 

Bryant (Anc. Myth., in., 237) says that the 
Ark was looked upon as the mother of man- 
kind, and on this account it was figured under 
the semblance of a pomegranate; for as this 
fruit abounds with seeds, it was thought no 
improper emblem of the Ark, which con- 
tained the rudiments of the future world. In 
fact, few plants had among the ancients a 
more mythical history than the pomegranate. 

From the Hebrews, who used it mystically 
at the Temple, it passed over to the Masons, 
who adopted it as the symbol of plenty, for 
which it is well adapted by its swelling and 
seed-abounding fruit. 

Pomme Verte (Green Apple), Order of 
the* An androgynous Order, instituted in 
Germany in 1780, and afterward introduced 
into France. (Thory, Acta Lot., i., 333.) 

Pommel. A round knob; a term applied 
to the globes or balls on the top of the pillars 
which stood at the porch of Solomon's Temple. 
It was introduced into the Masonic lectures 
from Scriptural language. The two pommels 
of the chapiter8 is in 2 Chron. iv. 13. It is. 
however, an architectural term, thus defined 
by Parker (Gloss. Arch., p. 365): "Pommel de- 
notes generally any ornament of a globular 
form." 

Ponttf es Freres. See Bridge Builders. 

Pontifex* See Bridge Builders. 

Pontiff. In addition to what has been said 
of this word in the article on the "Bridge 
Builders of the Middle Ages." the following 
from Athanase Cocjuerel, fils. in a recent 
essay entitled The Rise and Decline of the Rom' 
ish Church K will be interesting. 

"What is the meaning of 'pontiff'? 'Pon- 
tiff' means bridge maker, bridge builder. 
Why are they called in that way? Here is the 
explanation of the fact: In the very first years 
of the existence of Rome, at a time of which 
we have a very fabulous history and but few 
existing monuments, the little town of Rome, 
not built on seven hills, as is generally sup- 
posed — there are eleven of them now; then 



576 PONTIFF 

there were within the town less than seven, 
even — that little town had a great deal to fear 
from an enemy which should take one of the 
hills that were out of town — the Janiculum — 
because the Janiculum is higher than the 
others, and from that hill an enemy could very 
easily throw stones, fire, or any means of de- 
struction into the town. The Janiculum was 
separated from the town by the Tiber. Then 
the first necessity for the defense of that little 
town of Rome was to have a bridge. They 
had built a wooden bridge over the Tiber, and 
a great point of interest to the town was, that 
this bridge should be kept always in good order, 
so that at any moment troops could pass over. 
Then, with the special genius of the Romans, 
of which we have other instances, they or- 
dained, curiously enough, that the men, who 
were a corporation, to take care of that bridge 
should be sacred; that their function, neces- 
sary to the defense of the town, should be con- 
sidered holy; that they should be priests; and 
the highest of them was called 1 the high bridge 
maker/ So it happened that there was m 
Rome a corporation of bridge makers — pon- 
Hfces — of whom the head was the most sacred 
of all Romans; because in those days his life 
and the life of his companions was deemed 
necessary to the safety of the town/' 

And thus it is that the title of Pontifex Max- 
imus, assumed by the Pope of Rome, literally 
means the Grand Bridge builder. 

Pontiff, Grand. See Grand Pontiff. 

Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Jesus Christ. 
(Pauperee commilitones Jeeu Chrieti.) This 
was the title first assumed by the Knights 
Templars. 

Pooroosh. The spirit or essence of Brahm 
in the Indian religious system. 

Poppy. In the mysteries of the ancients, 
the poppy was the symbol of regeneration. 
The somniferous qualities of the plant ex- 
pressed the idea of quiescence; but the seeds 
of a new existence which it contained were 
thought to show that nature, though her pow- 
ers were suspended, yet possessed the capabil- 
ity of being called into a renewed existence. 
Thus the poppy planted near a grave sym- 
bolised the idea of a resurrection. Hence, it 
conveyed the same symbolism as the ever- 
green or sprig of acacia does in the Masonic 
mysteries. 

Porch of the Temple. See Temple of 

Solomon. 

Porta, Gambattfsta. A physicist of 
Naples, who was born in 1545 and died in 1615. 
He was the founder of the SegretL or "Acad- 
emy of Secrets, " which see. He devoted 
himself to the study of the occult sciences, was 
the inventor of the camera obscura, ana the 
author of several treatises on Magic, Physi- 
ognomy, and Secret Writing. De Feller 
(Biog. Univ.) classes him with Cornelius 
Agrippa, Cardan, Paracelsus, and other dis- 
ciples of occult philosophy. 

Portlforlum. A banner like unto the gon- 
falon, used as an ensign in cathedrals, and 
borne at the head of religious processions. 

Portugal. Freemasonry was introduced 



PBACTICUS 



into Portugal in 1736, when a Lodge was in* 
stituted at Lisbon, under a Deputation to 
George Gordon from Lord Weymouth, Grand 
Master of England. An attempt was made 
by John Coustos to establish a second in 1743, 
but he and his companions were arrested by 
the Inquisition, ana the Lodge suppressed. 
Freemasonry must, however, have continued 
to exist, although secretly practised, for in 
1776 other arrests of Freemasons were made 
by the Holy Office. But through the whole 
of the eighteenth century the history of Ma- 
sonry in Portugal was the history of an unin- 
terrupted persecution by the Church and the 
State. In 1805 a Grand Lodge was estab- 
lished at Lisbon, and Egaz-Moriti was elected 
Grand Master. John vl., during his exile, 
issued from Santa Crui, in 1818. a decree 
against the Masons, which declared that 
every Mason who should be arrested should 
suffer death, and his property be confiscated to 
the State; and this law was extended to for- 
eigners residing in Portugal, as well as to na- 
tives. This bigoted sovereign, on his res- 
toration to the throne, promulgated in 1823 
another decree against the Order, and Free- 
masonry fell into abeyance; but m 1834 the 
Lodges were again revived. But dissensions 
in reference to Masonic authority unfortu- 
nately arose among the Fraternity of Portugal, 
which involved the history of the Order in 
that country in much confusion. There were 
in a few years no less than four bodies claim- 
ing Masonic jurisdiction, namely, a Grande 
Onente Lusitano, which nad existed for more 
than a quarter of a century, and which, in 
1846, received Letters-Patent from the Su- 
preme Council of Brazil for the establishment 
of a Supreme Council; a Provincial Grand 
Lodge, under the jurisdiction of the Grand 
Lodge of Ireland, with a Chapter of Rose 
Croix working under the authority of the 
Grand Council of Rites of Ireland; and two 
Grand Orients working under contending 
Grand Masters. Many attempts were made 
to reconcile these opposing bodies, but without 
success; and, to add to the difficulty, we find, 
about 1862. another body calling itself the 
Orient of the Masonic Confederation. But 
all embarrassments were at length removed 
by the alliance, in 1871, of the United Grand 
Orient with the Supreme Council, and the 
Masonic interests of Portugal are now pros- 
perously conducted by the "Grande Onente 
Lusitano Unido, Supremo Conselho de Ma- 
conaria Portugueza. 

Postulant. The title given to the candi- 
date in the degree of Knight Kadosh. From 
the Latin postulane, asking for, wishing to 
have. 

Pot of Incense. As a symbol of the sacri- 
fice which should be offered up to Deity, it has 
been adopted in the Third Degree. (See /n- 
cense.) 

Pot of Manna. See Manna, Pot of. 

Ponrsulvant. More correctly, Pursui- 
vant, which see. 

Practtcus. The Third Degree of the Ger- 
man Rose Croix. 



PRAXOEANS 



Fraxoeans. The followers of Praxeas in 

the second century, who proclaimed a unity 
in God, and that He had suffered upon the 
cross. 

Prayer. Freemasonry is a religious insti- 
tution, and hence its regulations inculcate the 
use of prayer "as a proper tribute of grati- 
tude." to borrow the language of Preston, "to 
the oeneficent Author of Life." Hence it is 
of indispensable obligation that a Lodge, a 
Chapter, or any other Masonic body, should 
be both opened, and closed with prayer; and 
in the Lodges working in the English and 
American systems the obligation is strictly 
observed. The prayers used at opening and 
closing in America differ in language from the 
early formulas found in the second edition of 
Preston, and for the alterations we are prob- 
ably indebted to Webb. The prayers used in 
the middle and perhaps the beginning of the 
eighteenth century are to be found in Preston 
(ed. 1775), and are as follows: 

At Opening. — "May the favor of Heaven 
be upon this our happy meeting; may it be 
begun, carried on, and ended m order, har- 
mony, and brotherly love: Amen." 

At doting. — "May the blessing of Heaven 
be with us and all regular Masons, to beautify 
and cement us with every moral and social 
virtue: Amen." 

There is also a prayer at the initiation of 
a candidate, which has, at the present day. 
been very slightly varied from the original 
form. This prayer, but in a very different 
form, is much older than Preston, who 
changed and altered the much longer for- 
mula which had been used previous to his 
day. It was asserted by Dermott that the 
prayer at initiation was a ceremony only 
in use among the "Ancients" or Atholl 
Masons, and that it was omitted by the 
"Moderns." But this cannot be so, as is 
proved by the insertion of it in the earliest 
editions of Preston. We have moreover a 
fom of prayer "to be used at the admis- 
sion of a brother," contained in the Pocket 
Companion, published in 1754, by John 
Scott, an adherent of the "Moderns, which 
proves that they as well as the "Ancients" 
observed the usage of prayer at an initiation. 
There is a still more ancient formula of 
"Prayer to be used of Christian Masons at 
the empointing of a brother," said to have 
been used in the reign of Edward IV., from 
1461 to 1483, which is as follows: 

"The might of Godj the Father of Heaven, 
with the wisdom of his glorious Son through 
the goodness of the Holy Ghost, that hath 
been three persons in one Godhead, be with 
us at our beginning, give us grace to govern 
in our living here, that we may only come to 
his bliss that shall never have an end." 

The custom of commencing and ending 
labor with prayer was adopted at an early 
period by the Operative Freemasons of Eng- 
land. Findel sayB (Hist., p. 78), that "then- 
Lodges were opened at sunrise, the Master 
taking his station in the East ana the brethren 
forming a hah* circle around him. After 
S8 



PREFERMENT 577 

prayer, each craftsman had his daily work 
pointed out to him. and received his instruc- 
tions. At sunset they again assembled after 
labor, prayer was offered, and their wages paid 
to them." We cannot doubt that the German 
S tone-Masons, who were even more religiously 
demonstrative than their English brethren, 
must have observed the same custom. 
As to the posture to be observed in Masonic 
rayer, it may be remarked that in the lower 
egrees the usual posture is standing. At 
an initiation the candidate kneels, but the 
brethren stand. In the higher degrees the 
usual posture is to kneel on the right knee. 
These are at least the usages which are 
generally practised in America. 

Preadamlte. A degree contained in the 
Archives of the Mother Lodge of the Philo- 
sophic Scottish Rite. 

Precaution. In opening and closing the 
Lodge, in the admission of visitors, in con- 
versation with or in the presence of strangers, 
the Mason is charged to use the necessary 
precaution, lest that should be communicated 
to the profane which should only be known 
to the initiated. 

Precedency of Lodges. The precedency 
of Lodges is always derived from the date 
of their Warrants of Constitution, the oldest 
Lodge ranking as No. 1. As this precedency 
confers certain privileges^ the number of the 
Lodge is always determined by the Grand 
Lodge, while the name is left to the selection 
of the members. 

Preceptor. Grand Preceptor, or Grand 
Prior, or Preceptor, or Prior, was the title 
indifferently given by the Knights Templar 
to the officer who presided over a province or 
kingdom, as the Grand Prior or Grand Pre- 
ceptor of England, who was called in the East 
the Prior or Preceptor of England. The 
principal of these Grand Preceptors were those 
of Jerusalem, Tripolis, and Antioch. 

Preceptory. The houses or residences of 
the Knights Templar were called Preceptories, 
and the superior of such a residence was 
called the Preceptor. Some of the residences 
were also called Commanderies. The latter 
name has been adopted by the Masonic 
Templars of America. An attempt was made 
in 1856, at the adoption of a new Constitution 
by the Grand Encampment of the United 
States, which met at Hartford, to abolish the 
title "Commanderies," and adopt that of 
"Preceptories," for the Templar organiza- 
tions; a change which would undoubtedly 
have been more in accordance with history, 
but unfortunately the effort to effect the 
change was not successful. 
Precious Jewels. See Jewels, Precious. 
Preferment. In all the Old Constitutions 
we find a reference made to ability and 
skill as the only claims for preferment or 

Sromotion. Thus in one of them, the Lans- 
owne Manuscript, whose date is about 
1560. it is said that Nimrod gave a charge to 
the Masons that "they should ordaine the 
most wise and cunninge man to be Master 
of the King or Lord's worke that was amongst 



578 PRELATE 

them, and neither for love, riches, nor favour, 
to sett another that had little cunninge to be 
Master of that worke, whereby the Lord 
should bee ill served and the science ill de- 
famed." And again, in another part of the 
same Manuscript, it is ordered, "that noe 
Mason take on him noe Lord's worke nor 
other man's but if he know himselfe well 
able to performe the worke, so that the Craft 
have noe slander." Charges to the same 
effect, almost, indeed, in the same words, are 
to be found in all the Old Constitutions. So 
Anderson, when he compiled The Charges of a 
Freemason, which he savs were " extracted 
from the ancient records " and which he 
published in 1723, in the first edition of the 
Book of Constitutions, lays down the rule of 
preferment in the same spirit, and in these 
words: 

"All preferment among Masons is grounded 
upon real worth and personal merit only; 
that so the Lords may be well served, the 
brethren not put to shame, nor the royal 
Craft despised ; therefore no Master or Warden 
is chosen by seniority, but for 1 is merit." 

And then he goes on to show how the 
skilful and qualified Apprentice may in due 
time become a Fellow-Craft, and, "when 
otherwise qualified, arrive to the Honour of 
being the Warden, and then the Master of 
the Lodge, the Grand Warden, and at length 
the Grand Master of all the Lodges, according 
to his merit." (Constitutions, 1723, p. 51.) 
This ought to be now, as it has always been, 
the true law of Masonry; and when ambitious 
men are seen grasping for offices, and seeking 
for positions whose duties they are not 
aualified to discharge, one is inclined to regret 
that the Old Charges are not more strictly 
obeyed. 

Prelate. The fourth officer in a Comman- 
dery of Knights Templar and in a Council 
of Companions of the Red Cross. His duties 
are to conduct the religious ceremonies of 
the organization. His jewel is a triple tri- 
angle, the symbol of Deity, and within each 
of the triangles is suspended a cross, in allu- 
sion to the Christian character of the chiv- 
alric institution of which he is an officer. 
The corresponding officer in a Grand Com- 
manderv and in the Grand Encampment 
is called a Grand Prelate. 

Prelate of Lebanon. (Prilat duLiban.) 
A mystical degree in the collection of Pyron. 

Prentice* An archaism, or rather a vul- 
garism for Apprentice, constantly found in 
the Old Records. It is now never used. 

Prentice Pillar. In the southeast part 
of the Chapel of Roslyn Castle, in Scotland, 
is the celebrated column which goes by this 
name, and with which a Masonic legend is 
connected. The pillar is a plain fluted shaft, 
having a floral garland twined around it, all 
carved out of the solid stone. The legend 
is, that when the plans of the chapel were 
sent from Rome, the master builder did not 
clearly understand about this pillar, or, as 
another account states, had lost this particular 
portion of the plans, and, in consequence, had 



PRESIDENT 



to go to Rome for further instructions or to 
procure a fresh copy. During his absence, 
a clever apprentice, the only son of a widow, 
either from memory or from his own invention, 
carved and completed the beautiful pillar. 
When the master returned and found the 
work completed, furious with jealous rage, 
he killed the apprentice, by striking him a 
frightful blow on the forehead with a heavy 
setting-maul. In testimony of the truth of 
the legend, the visitor is shown three heads 
in the west part of the chapel — the master's, 
the apprentice's (with the gash on his fore- 
head), and the widow's. There can be but 
little doubt that this legend referred to that 
of the Third Degree, which is thus shown to 
have existed, at least substantially, at that 
early period. 

Preparation of the Candidate. Great 
care was taken of the personal condition of 
every Israelite who entered the Temple for 
Divine worship. The Talmudic treatise en- 
titled Baracoth, which contains instructions 
as to the ritual worship among the Jews, 
lays down the following rules for the prepara- 
tion of all who visit the Temple: "No man 
shall go into the Temple with his staff, nor 
with shoes on his feet, nor with his outer 
garment, nor with money tied up in his 
purse." There are certain ceremonial usages 
m Freemasonry which furnish what may he 
called at least very remarkable coincidences 
with this old Jewish custom. 

The preparation of the candidate for in- 
itiation in Masonry is entirely symbolic. 
It varies in the different degrees, and there- 
fore the symbolism varies with it. Not 
being arbitrary and unmeaning, but, on the 
contrary, conventional and full of significa- 
tion, it cannot be altered, abridged, or 
added to in any of its details, without affect- 
ing its esoteric design. To it, in its fullest 
extent, every candidate must, without excep- 
tion, submit. 

The preparation of a candidate is one of the 
most delicate duties we have to perform and 
care should be taken in appointing the officer, 
who should bear in mind that "that which is 
not permittible among gentlemen should be 
impossible among Masons." [E. E. C.] 

Preparing Brother. The brother who 
prepares the candidate for initiation. In 
English, he has no distinctive title. In 
French Lodges he is called "Frere terrible," 
and in German he is called "Vorbereitender 
Bruder," or "Furchterlicher Bruder." His 
duties require him to have a competent 
knowledge of the ritual of reception, and 
therefore an experienced member of the 
Lodge is generally selected to discharge the 
functions of this office. In most jurisdictions 
in America this is performed by the Master 
of Ceremonies. 

President. The presiding officer in a 
convention of High Priests, according to the 
American system, is so called. The second 
officer is styled Vice-President. On Sep- 
tember 6, 1871, the Grand Orient of France, 
in violation of the landmarks, abolished the 



PRESIDING 



office of Grand Master, and conferred his 
powers on a Council of the Order. The 
President of the Council is now the official 
representative of the Grand Orient and the 
Craft, and exercises several of the preroga- 
tives hitherto administered by the Grand 
Master. 

Presiding Officer. Whoever acts, al- 
though temporarily and pro hoc vice, as 
the presiding officer of a Masonic -body, as- 
sumes for the time all the powers and func- 
tions of the officer whom he represents. 
Thus, in the absence of the Worshipful 
Master, the Senior Warden presides over 
the Lodge, and for the time is invested with 
all the prerogatives that pertain to the 
Master of a Lodge, and can, while he is 
in the chair, perform any act that it would 
be competent for the Master to perform 
were he present. 

Press, Masonic. The number of the 
Masonic press throughout the world is small, 
but the literary ability commands attention. 
In every nation Masonry has its advocate 
and newsbearer, in the form of a weekly or 
semi-monthly chronicle of events, or the more 
sedate magazine or periodical, sustaining the 
literature of the Fraternity. 

Preston, William. This distinguished 
Mason was born at Edinburgh on the 7th of 
August. 1742. The usual statement, that 
he was born on the 28th of July, refers to old 
style, and requires therefore to be amended. 
He was the son of William Preston, Esq., 
a writer to the Signet, and Helena Cumming. 
The elder Preston was a man of much intel- 
lectual culture and abilities, and in easy 
circumstances, and took, therefore, pains to 
bestow upon nis son an adequate education. 
He was sent to school at a very early age, 
and having completed his preliminary educa- 
tion in English under the tuition of Mr. 
Stirling, a celebrated teacher in Edinburgh, 
he entered the High School before he was 
six years old, and made considerable progress 
in the Latin tongue. From the High School 
he went to college, where he acquired a 
knowledge of the rudiments of Greek. 

After the death of his father he retired 
from college, and became the amanuensis 
of that celebrated linguist, Thomas Ruddi- 
man { to whose friendship his father had 
consigned him. Mr. Ruddiman having greatly 
impaired and finally lost his sight by his 
intense application to his classical studies, 
Preston remained with him as his secretary 
until his decease. His patron had, however, 
previously bound young Preston to his 
brother, Walter Ruddiman, a printer, but 
on the increasing failure of his sight, Mr. 
Thomas Ruddiman withdrew Preston from 
the printing-office, and occupied him in read- 
ing to him and translating such of his works 
as were not completed, and in correcting the 
proofs of those that were in the press. Sub- 
sequently Preston compiled a catalogue of 
Ruddiman's books, under the title of nxblio- 
tkeca Ruddimana, which is said to have ex- 
hibited much literary ability. 



PRESTON 579 

After the death of Mr. Ruddiman, Pres- 
ton returned to the printing-office, where he 
remained for about a year; but his inclina- 
tions leading him to literary pursuits, he, 
with the consent of his master, repaired to 
London in 1760, having been furnished with 
several letters of introduction by his friends 
in Scotland. Among them was one to Will- 
iam Strahan, the king's printer, in whose 
service, and that of his son ana successor, 
he remained for the best years of his life 
as a corrector of the press, devoting him- 
self, at the same time, to other literary 
vocations, editing for many years the London 
Chronicle, and furnishing materials for various 
periodical publications. 

Mr. Preston's critical skill as a corrector 
of the press led the literary men of that day 
to submit to his suggestions as to style 
and language; and many of the most dis- 
tinguished authors who were contemporary 
with him honored him with their friend- 
ship. As an evidence of this, there were 
found in his library, at his death, presenta- 
tion copies of their works, with their auto- 
graphs, from Gibbon, Hume, Robertson, 
Blair, and many others. 

It is, however, as a distinguished teacher 
of the Masonic ritual, and as the founder 
of a system of lectures which still retain 
their influence, that William Preston more 
especially claims our attention. 

Stephen Jones, the disciple and intimate 
friend of Preston, published in 1795, in the 
Freemasons' Magazine, a sketch of Preston's 
life and labors; and as there can be no doubt, 
from the relations of the author and the 
subject, of the authenticity of the facts 
related, I shall not hesitate to use the lan- 
guage of this contemporary sketch, inter- 
polating such explanatory remarks as I may 
deem necessary. 

Soon after Preston's arrival in London, 
a number of brethren from Edinburgh re- 
solved to institute a Freemasons' Lodge in 
that city, under the sanction of a Constitu- 
tion from Scotland; but not having suc- 
ceeded in their application, they were recom- 
mended by the Grand Lodge of Scotland 
to the ancient Lodge in London, which imme- 
diately granted them a Dispensation to form 
a Lodge and to make Masons. They accord- 
ingly met at the White Hart in the Strand, 
and Mr. Preston was the second person 
initiated under that Dispensation. This was 
in 1762. Lawrie records the application as 
having been in that year to the Grand Lodge 
of Scotland. It thus appears that Preston 
was made a Mason under the Dermott sys- 
tem. It will be seen, however, that he sub- 
sequently went over to the legitimate Grand 
Lodge. 

The Lodge was soon after regularly con- 
stituted by the officers of the ancient Grand 
Lodge in person. Having increased con- 
siderably in numbers, it was found necessary 
to remove to the Horn Tavern in Fleet 
Street, where it continued some time, till, 
that house being unable to furnish proper 



580 PRESTON 



acoommodatioDB, it was removed to Soots 9 
Hall, Blackfriars. Here it oontinued to 
flourish about two years, when the decayed 
state of that building obliged it to remove 
to the Half Moon Tavern, Cheapside. where 
it continued to meet for a considerable time. 

At length Mr. Preston and some others 
of the members having joined the Lodge, 
under the regular EngTisn Constitution, at 
the Talbot Cm, in the Strand, they Pre- 
vailed on the rest of the Lodge at the Half 
Moon Tavern to petition for a Constitution. 
Lord Blaney t at that time Grand Master, 
readily acquiesced with the desire of the 
brethren, and the Lodge was soon after 
constituted a second time, in ample form, 
by the name of "The Caledonian Lodge. 1 ' 
The ceremonies observed, and the numerous 
assembly of respectable brethren who attended 
the Grand Officers on that occasion, were 
long remembered to the honor of the Lodge. 

This circumstance, added to the absence 
of a very skilful Mason, to whom Mr. Pres- 
ton was attached, and who had departed for 
Scotland on account of his health, induced 
him to turn his attention to the Masonic 
lectures; and to arrive at the depths of the 
science, short of which he did not mean to 
stop, he spared neither pains nor expense. 

Preston's own remarks on this subject, in 
the introduction to his Illustrations of Ma- 
sonry, are well worth the perusal of every 
brother who intends to take office. " When/' 
says he, "I first had the honor to be elected 
Master of a Lodge, I thought it proper to 
inform myself fully of the general rules of 
the society, that I might be able to fulfil 
my own duty, and officially enforce obedi- 
ence in others. The methods which I 
adopted, with this view, excited in some of 
superficial knowledge an absolute dislike 
of what they considered as innovations; 
and in others, who were better informed, a 
Jealousy of pre-eminence, which the prin- 
ciples of Masonry ought to have checked. 
Notwithstanding these discouragements, how- 
ever t I persevered in my intention 01 sup- 
porting the dignity of the society, and of 
discharging with fidelity the trust reposed 
in me. Masonry has not changed. We 
still too often find the same mistaking of 
research for innovation, and the same un- 
generous jealousy of preeminence of which 
Preston complains. 

Wherever instruction could be acquired, 
thither Preston directed his course; ana 
with the advantage of a retentive memory, 
and an extensive Masonic connection, added 
to a diligent literary research, he so tar suc- 
ceeded in his purpose as to become a com- 
petent master of the subject. To increase 
the knowledge he had acquired, he solicited 
the company and conversation of the most 
experienced Masons from foreign countries; 
and, in the course of a literary correspond- 
ence with the Fraternity at home and abroad, 
made such progress in the mysteries of the 
art as to become very useful in the connections 
he had formed. He was frequently heard to 



PRESTON 

say. that in the ardor of his inquiries he 
had explored the abodes of poverty and 
wretchedness, and. where it might have 
been least expected, acauired very valuable 
scraps of information. The poor brother in 
return, we are assured, had no cause to think 
his time or talents ill bestowed. He was 
also accustomed to convene his friends once 
or twice a week, in order to illustrate the lec- 
tures; on which occasion objections were 
started, and explanations given, for the pur- 
pose of mutual improvement. At last, with 
the assistance of some sealous friends, he was 
enabled to arrange and digest the whole of the 
first lecture. To establish its validity, he 
resolved to submit to the society at large 
the progress he had made; and for thai 
purpose he instituted, at a very considerable 
expense, a grand gala at the Crown and 
Anchor Tavern, in the Strand, on Thursday, 
May 21, 1772. which was honored with the 
presence of the then Grand Officers, and 
many other eminent and respectable breth- 
ren. On this occasion he delivered an ora- 
tion on the Institution, which, having met 
with general approbation, was afterward 
printed in the first edition of the Illustrations 
of Masonry, published by him the same year. 

Having thus far succeeded in his design, 
Mr. Preston determined to prosecute the 

})lan he had formed, and to complete the 
ectures. He employed, therefore, a num- 
ber of skilful brethren, at his own expense, 
to visit different town and country Lodges, 
for the purpose of gaining information; 
and these brethren communicated the re- 
sult of their visits at a weekly meeting. 

When by study and application he had 
arranged his system, he issued proposals 
for a regular course of lectures on au the 
degrees of Masonry, and these were publicly 
delivered by him at the Miter Tavern, in 
Fleet Street, in 1774. 

For some years afterward, Mr. Preston 
indulged his friends by attending several 
schools of instruction, and other stated 
meetings, to propagate the knowledge of 
the science, which had spread far beyond 
his expectations, and considerably enhanced 
the reputation of the society. Having ob- 
tained the sanction of the Grand Lodge, 
he continued to be a sealous encourager 
and supporter of all the measures of that 
assembly which tended to add dignity to 
the Craft, and in all the Lodges in which 
his name was enrolled, which were very 
numerous, he enforced a due obedience to 
the laws and regulations of that body. By 
these means the subscriptions to the charity 
became much more considerable; and daily 
acquisitions to the society were made of 
some of the most eminent and distinguished 
characters. At last he was invited by his 
friends to visit the Lodge of Antiquity, 
No. 1, then held at the Miter Tavern, m 
Fleet Street, when on June 15, 1774, the 
brethren of that Lodge were pleased to admit 
him a member, and, what was very unusual, 
elected him Master at the same meeting. 



PRESTON 

He had been Master of the Philanthropic 
Lodge at the Queen's Head, Gray's-inn- 
gate, Holborn, for over six years, and of 
several other Lodges before that time. But 
he was now taught to consider the impor- 
tance of the first Master under the English 
Constitution; and he seemed to regret that 
some eminent character in the walks of 
life had not been selected to support so 
distinguished a station. Indeed, this too 
small consideration of his own importance 
pervaded his conduct on all occasions; and 
he was frequently seen voluntarily to assume 
the subordinate offices of an assembly, over 
which he had long presided, on occasions 
where, from the absence of the proper per- 
sons, ne had conceived that his services would 
promote the purposes of the meeting. 

To the Lodge of Antiquity he now began 
chiefly to confine his attention, and during 
his Mastership, which continued for some 
years, the Lodge increased in numbers and 
improved in its finances. 

That he might obtain a complete knowl- 
edge of the state of the society under the 
English Constitution, he became an active 
member of the Grand Lodge, was admitted 
a member of the hall committee, and during 
the secretaryship of Mr. Thomas French, 
under the auspices of the Duke of Beaufort, 
then Grand Master, had become a useful 
assistant in arranging the general regulations 
of the society, and reviving the foreign and 
country correspondence. Having been ap- 
pointed to the office of Deputy Grand Secre- 
tary under James Heseltine. Esq., he com- 
piled, for the benefit of the charity, the 
History of Remarkable Occurrences, inserted 
in the first two publications of the Freemasons 9 
Calendar; prepared for the press an Appendix 
to the Booh of Constitutions, and attended 
so much to the correspondence with the 
different Lodges as to merit the approbation 
of his patron. This enabled him, from the 
various memoranda he had made, to form 
the History of Masonry, which was after- 
ward printed in his Illustrations. The office 
of Deputy Grand Secretary he afterward 
resigned. 

An unfortunate dispute having arisen in 
the society in 1777, between the Grand 
Lodge and the Lodge of Antiquity, in which 
Mr Preston took the part of the Lodge and 
his private friends, his name was ordered 
to be erased from the hall committee; and 
he was afterward, with a number of gentle- 
men, members of that Lodge, expelled. 

Tne treatment he and his friends received 
at that time was circumstantially narrated 
in a well-written pamphlet, printed by 
Mr. Preston at his own expense, and cir- 
culated among his friends, but never pub- 
lished, and the leading circumstances were 
recorded in some of the later editions of 
the Illustrations of Masonry. Ten years 
afterward, however, on a reinvestigation 
of the subject in dispute, the Grand Lodge 
was pleased to reinstate Mr. Preston, with 
all the other members of the Lodge of An- 



FRESTON 581 

tiquity, and that in the most handsome 
manner, at the grand feast in 1790, to the 
general satisfaction of the Fraternity. 

During Mr. Preston's exclusion, he seldom 
or ever attended any of the Lodges, though 
he was actually an enrolled member of a 
great many Lodges at home and abroad, all 
of which he politely resigned at the time 
of his suspension, and directed his attention 
to his other literary pursuits, which may 
fairly be supposed to have contributed more 
to the advantage of his fortune. 

So much of the life of Preston we get 
from the interesting sketch of Stephen 
Jones. To other sources we must look for 
a further elucidation of some of the circum- 
stances which he has so concisely related. 

The expulsion of such a man as Preston 
from the Order was a disgrace to the Grand 
Lodge which inflicted it. It was, to use 
the language of Oliver, who himself, in after- 
times, naa undergone a similar act of in- 
justice, "a very ungrateful and inadequate 
return for his services." 

The story was briefly this: It had been 
determined by the brethren of the Lodge of 
Antiquity, held on December 17, 1777. that 
at the annual festival on St. John's day, a 
procession should be formed to St. Dun- 
stan's Church, a few steps only from the 
tavern where the Lodge was held; a protest 
of a few of the members was entered against 
it on the day of the festival. In conse- 
quence of this only ten members attended, 
who, having clothed themselves as Masons 
in the vestry room, sat in the same pew and 
heard a sermon, after which they crossed 
the street in their gloves and aprons to re- 
turn to the Lodge room. At the next meet- 
ing of the Lodge, a motion was made to re- 
pudiate this act; and while speaking against 
it, Mr. Preston asserted the inherent privi- 
leges of the Lodge of Antiquity, which, not 
working under a Warrant of the Grand 
Lodge, was, in his opinion, not subject in 
the matter of processions to the regulations 
of the Grand Lodge. It was for maintain- 
ing this opinion, which, whether right or 
wrong, was after all only an opinion, Preston 
was, under circumstances which exhibited 
neither magnanimity nor dignity on the part 
of the Grand Lodge, expelled from the 
Order. One of the unhappy results of this 
act of oppression was that the Lodge of 
Antiquity severed itself from the Grand 
Lodge, and formed a rival body under the 
style of the " Grand Lodge of England South 
of the River Trent," acting under authority 
from the Lodge of All England at York. 

But ten years afterward, in 1787, the 
Grand Lodge saw the error it had com- 
mitted, and Preston was restored with all 
his honors and dignities and the new Grand 
Lodge collapsed. And now, while the name 
of Preston is known and revered by all who 
value Masonic learning, the names of all his 
bitter enemies, with the exception of Noor- 
thouck, have sunk into a well-deserved ob- 
livion. 



682 PRESTON 



Preston had no sooner been restored to 
his Masonic rights than he resumed his labors 
for the advancement of the Order. In 1787 
he organised the Order of Harodim, a society 
in which it was intended to thoroughly 
teach the lectures which he had prepared. 
Of this Order some of the most distinguished 
Masons of the day became members, and it 
is said to have produced great benefits by its 
well-devised plan of Masonic instruction. 

But William Preston is best known to us 
by his invaluable work entitled Illustrations 
of Masonry. The first edition of this work 
was published in 1772. Although it is spoken 
of in some resolutions of a Lodge, published 
in the second edition, as "a very ingenious 
and elegant pamphlet/' it was really a work 
of some sue. consisting, in its introduction 
and text, of 288 pages. It contained an 
account of the "grand gala/' or banquet, 

S'ven by the author to the Fraternity in 
[ay, 1772, when he first proposed his system 
of lectures. This account was omitted in 
the second and all subsequent editions "to 
make room for more useful matter." The 
second edition, enlarged to 324 pages, was 
published in 1775, and this was followed by 
others in 1776, 1781, 1788, 1792, 1799, 1801, 
and 1812. There must have been three 
other editions, of which I can find no account 
in the bibliographies, for Wilkie calls his 
1801 edition the tenth, and the edition of 

1812, the last published by the author, is 
called the twelfth. The thirteenth and 
fourteenth editions were published after the 
author's death, with additions — the former 
by Stephen Jones in 1821, and the latter by 
Dr. Oliver in 1829. Other English editions 
have been subsequently published. [The 
last being edited by Dr. Oliver in 1861.] The 
work was translated into German, and two 
editions published, one in 1776 and the other 
in 1780. In America, two editions were 
published in 1804, one at Alexandria, in Vir- 
ginia, and the other, with numerous important 
additions, by George Richards, at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire. Both claim, on the 
title-page, to be the "first American edition"; 
and it is probable that both works were pub- 
lished by their respective editors about 
the same time, and while neither had any 
knowledge of the existence of a rival copy. 

Preston died, after a long illness, in Dean 
Street, Fetter Lane, London, on April 1, 

1813, at the age of seventy-six. and was 
buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. In the 
latter years of his life he seems to have taken 
no active public part in Masonry, for in 
the very full account of the proceedings at 
the union in 1813 of the two Grand Lodges, 
his name does not appear as one of the 
actors, and his system was then ruthlessly 
surrendered to the newer but not better 
one of Dr. Hemming. But he had not lost 
his interest in the Institution which he had 
served so well and so long, and by which 
he had been so illy requited. For he be- 
queathed at his death £300 in Consols, 
tne interest of which was to provide for 



PRETENDER 



the annual delivery of a lecture according 
to his system. He also left £500 to the 
Royal Freemasons' Charity, for female 
children, and a like sum to the General 
Charity Fund of the Grand Lodge. He 
was never married, and left behind him 
only his name as a great Masonic teacher 
and the memory of his services to the Craft. 
Jones's edition of his Illustrations contains 
an excellently engraved likeness of him by 
Ridley, from an original portrait said to 
be by S. Drummond, Royal Academician. 
There is an earlier engraved likeness of him 
in the Freemasons 9 Magazine for 1795, from 
a painting known to be by Drummond, and 
taken in 1794. They present the differences 
of features which may naturally be ascribed 
to a lapse of twenty-six years. The latter 
print is said, by those who personally knew 
him, to be an excellent likeness. 

Prestonian Lecture* In 1818, Bro. Pres- 
ton, the author of the Illustrations of Masonry, 
bequeathed £300 in Consols, the interest of 
which was to provide for the annual delivery 
of a lecture according to the system which he 
had elaborated. The appointment of the 
Lecturer was left to the Grand Master for 
the time being. Stephen Jones, a Past 
Master of the Lodge of Antiquity, and an 
intimate friend of Preston, received the 
first appointment; and it was subsequently 
given to Bro. Laurence Thompson, the only 
surviving pupil of Preston. He held it until 
his death, after which no appointment of a 
Lecturer was made until 1857. when the 
W. M. of the Royal York Lodge was re- 

Suested by Lord Zetland, Grand Master, to 
eliver the lecture, which he did in January, 
1858: twice again in the same year the lecture 
was delivered^ and again, in subsequent years 
until 1862, since which time the lecture 
seems to have been abandoned. 

Prestonian Lectures. About the year 
1772, Preston submitted his course of lectures 
on the first three degrees to the Craft of Eng- 
land. These lectures were a revision of those 
which had been practised, with various 
modifications, since the revival of 1717, and 
were intended to confer a higher literary 
character on the Masonic ritual Preston 
had devoted much time and labor to the 
compilation of these lectures, a syllabus of 
which will be found in his Illustrations. They 
were adopted eagerly by the English Frater- 
nity, and continued to be the authoritative 
system of the Grand Lodge of England until 
the union in 1813, when, for the sake of secur- 
ing uniformity, the new and inferior system 
of Dr. Hemming was adopted. But the 
Prestonian lectures and ritual are still used 
by many Lodges in England. In America 
they were greatly altered by Webb, and are 
no longer practised there. 

Pretender. James Stuart, the son of 
James II., who abdicated the throne of Great 
Britain, and Charles Edward, his son, are 
known in history as the Old and the Young 
Pretender. Their intrigues with Masonry, 
which they are accused of attempting to 



PREVIOUS 

use as an instrument to aid in a restoration 
to the throne, constitute a very interesting 
episode in the history of the Order. (See 
Stuart Masonry.) 

Previous Question. A parliamentary 
motion intended to suppress debate. It is 
utterly unknown in the parliamentary law of 
Masonry, and it would be always out of order 
to move it in a Masonic body. 

Prichard, Samuel. "An unprincipled 
and needy brother," as Oliver calls him, who 
published at London, in 1730, a book with the 
following title: Masonry Dissected; being a 
Universal and Genuine Description of all its 
Branches, from the Original to this Present 
Time: as it is delivered in the constituted, 
regular Lodges, both in City and Country, 
according to the several Degrees of Admission; 
owing an impartial account of their regular 
Proceedings in initiating their New Members 
in the whole Three Degrees of Masonry, viz., 
I. Entered Prentice; II. Fellow Craft; III. 
Master. To which is added, The Author's 
Vindication of Himself, by Samuel Prichard, 
Late Member of a constituted Lodge. This 
work, which contained a great deal of plau- 
sible matter, mingled with some truth as 
well as falsehood, passed through a great 
many editions, was translated into the French, 
German, and Dutch languages, and became 
the basis or model on which all the subseauent 
so-called expositions, such as Tubal-Cain, 
Jachin and Boaz, etc., were framed. In the 
same year of the appearance of Prichard's 
book, a Defence of Masonry, as a reply to the 
Masonry Dissected was anonymously pub- 
lished, and has often been erroneously attrib- 
uted to Dr. Anderson, but it has been dis- 
covered that its author was Bro. Martin 
Clare (q. v.). No copy is now known to 
exist of this Defence, but it will be found at 
the end of the 1738 edition of the Constitutions. 
It is not, however, a reply to Prichard, but 
rather an attempt to interpret the ceremonies 
which are described in the Masonry Dissected 
in their symbolic import, and this it is that 

fives to the Defence a value which ought to 
ave made it a more popular work among the 
Fraternity than it is. Prichard died in ob- 
scurity; but the Abb6 Larudan, in his Franc- 
Morons ecrasis (p. 135), has manufactured 
a wild tale about his death; stating that he 
was carried by force at night into the Grand 
Lodge at London, put to death, his body 
burned to ashes, and all the Lodges in the 
world informed of the execution. The Abbe* 
is satisfied of the truth of this wondrous 
narrative because he had heard it told in 
Holland and in Germany, all of which only 
proves that the French calumniator of Ma- 
sonry abounded either in an inventive faculty 
or in a trusting faith. 

Price, Henry. He received a Deputation 
as Provincial Grand Master of New England, 
which was issued on April 30, 1733, by Vis- 
count Montague, Grand Master of England. 
On the 30th of the following July, Price or- 
ganized a Provincial Grand Lodge; and he 
may thus be considered as the founder of Ma- 



PRIESTLY 583 



sonry in New England. He was born in Eng- 
land about the year 1697, and died in Mas- 
sachusetts in 1780. A very able memoir of 
Price, by Bro. William Sewell Gardner, will 
be found in the Proceedings of the Grand 
Lodge of Massachusetts for the year 1871. 

Priest. In the primitive ages of the 
world every father was the priest of his 
family, and offered prayer and sacrifice for 
his household. So. too ; the patriarchs ex- 
ercised the same function. Melchizedek is 
called "the priest of the most high God"; 
and everywhere in Scripture we find the 
patriarchs perf onr ng the duties of prayer 
and sacrifice. But when political society 
was or^aniied, a necessity was found, in 
the religious wants of the people, for a 
separate class, who should become, as they 
have been described, the mediators between 
men and God, and the interpreters of the will 
of the gods to men. Hence arose the sacer- 
dotal class— the cohen among the Hebrews, 
the hiereus among the Greeks, and the 
sacerdos among; the Romans. Thereafter 
prayer and sacrifice were entrusted to these, 
and the people paid them reverence for the 
sake of the deities whom they served. Ever 
since, in all countries, the distinction has 
existed between the priest and the layman, 
as representatives of two distinct, classes. 

But Masonry has preserved in its relig- 
ious ceremonies, as m many of its other 
usages, the patriarchal spirit. Hence the 
Master of the Lodge, like the father of a 
primitive family, on all occasions offers 
up prayer and serves at the altar. A chap- 
lain is sometimes, through courtesy, invited 
to perform the former duty, but the Master 
is really the priest of the Lodge*. 

Having then such solemn duties to dis- 
charge, and sometimes, as on funereal occa- 
sions, in public, it becomes every Master 
so to conduct his life and conversation as 
not, by contrast, to make his ministration 
of a sacred office repulsive to those who see 
and hear him, and especially to profanes. 
It is not absolutely required that he should 
be a religious man, resembling the clergy- 
man in seriousness of deportment; but m 
his behavior he should be an example of 
respect for religion. He who at one time 
drinks to intoxication, or indulges in pro- 
fane swearing, or obscene and vulgar lan- 
guage, is unfit at any other time to conduct 
the religious services of a society. Such a 
Master could inspire the members of his 
Lodge with no respect for the ceremonies 
he was conducting; and if the occasion 
was a public one, as at the burial of a brother, 
the circumstance would subject the Order 
which could tolerate such an incongruous 
exhibition to contempt and ridicule. 

Priest, Grand High. See Grand High 
Priest. 

Priest, High. See High Priest. 

Priesthood, Order of High. See High 
Priesthood, Order of. 

Priestly Order. A Rite which Bro. 
John Yarker, of Manchester, says (Myst. of 



584 FREEST 



Antiq., p. 126) was formerly practised in 
Ireland, and formed the system of the York 
Grand Lodge. It consisted of seven de- 

res, as follows: 1. 2. 3. Symbolic degrees; 
Past Master: 5. Royal Arch; 6. Knight 
Templar; 7. knight Templar Priest, or 
Holy Wisdom. The last degree was called 
a Tabernacle, and was governed by seven 
"Pillars." Bro. Hughan (Hist, of Freem. in 
York, p. 32} doubts the York origin of the 
Priestly Order, as well as the claim it made 
to have been revived in 1786. It is now ob- 

Priest, Royal. The Pifth Degree of the 
Initiated Brothers of Asia. 

Priest Theosophlst. Thory says that it is 
the Sixth Degree of the Kabbaustic Rite. 

Priestly Vestments* The high priest 
ministered in eight vestments, and the ordi- 
nary priest in four — the tunic, drawers, bonnet . 
ana girdle. To these the high priest added 
the breastplate, ephod, robe and golden plate, 
and when occasion required the Urim ana 
Thummim. 

Primitive Freemasonry. The Primitive 
Freemasonry of the antediluvians is a term for 
which we are indebted to Oliver, although the 
theory was broached by earlier writers, and 
among them by the Chevalier Ramsay. The 
theory is, that the principles and doctrines of 
Freemasonry existed in the earliest apes of the 
world, and were believed and practised by a 
primitive people, or priesthood, under the 
name of Pure or Primitive Freemasonry : and 
that this Freemasonry, that is to say, the re- 
ligious doctrine inculcated by it, was, after the 
flood, corrupted by the Pagan philosophers and 
priests, and, receiving the title of Spurious Free- 
masonry, was 'exhibited in the Ancient Mys- 
teries. The Noachidfie, however, preserved the 
principles of the Primitive Freemasonry, and 
transmitted them to succeeding ages, when at 
length they assumed the name of Speculative 
Masonry. The Primitive Freemasonry was 
probably without ritual or symbolism, and 
consisted only of a series of abstract proposi- 
tions derived from antediluvian traditions. 
Its dogmas were the unity of God and the 
immortality of the soul. Dr. Oliver, who 
gave this system its name, describes it (Hist. 
Landm., i.. p. 61) in the following language: 
"It included a code of simple morals. It 
assured men that they who did well would be 
approved of God: and if they followed evil 
courses, sin would be imputed to them, and 
they would thus become subject to punish- 
ment. It detailed the reasons why the sev- 
enth day was consecrated and set apart as a 
Sabbath, or day of rest; and showed why the 
bitter consequences of sin were visited upon 
our first parents, as a practical lesson that it 
ought to be avoided. But the great object 
of this Primitive Freemasonry was to pre- 
serve and cherish the promise of a Redeemer, 
who should provide a remedy for the evil that 
their transgression had introduced into the 
world. when the appointed time should come. 1 ' 

In nis History of Initiation he makes the 
supposition that the ceremonies of this Prim- 



PREvnnvE 



itive Freemasonry would be few and unosten- 
tatious, and consist, perhaps, like that of 
admission into Christianity, of a simple 
lustration, conferred alike on all, in the hope 
that they would practise the social duties of 
benevolence and good-will to man, and unso- 
phisticated devotion to God. 

He does not, however, admit that the sys- 
tem of Primitive Freemasonry consisted only 
of those tenets which are to be found in the 
first chapters of Genesis, or that he intends, in 
his definition of this science, to embrace so 
general and indefinite a scope of all the prin- 
ciples of truth and light, as Preston has done 
in his declaration, that from the commence- 
ment of the world, we may trace the founda- 
tion of Masonry." On the contrary, Oliver 
supposes that this Primitive Freemasonry in- 
cluded a particular and definite system, made 
up of legends and symbols, and confined to 
those who were initiated into its myster- 
ies. The knowledge of these mysteries was 
of course communicated by God himself to 
Adam, and from him traditionally received by 
his descendants, throughout the patriarchal 
line. 

This view of Oliver is substantiated by the 
remarks of Rosenberg, a learned French 
Mason, in an article in the Freemasons' Quar- 
terly Review, on the Book of Rasiel ( an ancient 
Kabbalistic work, whose subject is these Di- 
vine mysteries. "This book," says Rosen- 
berg, "informs us that Adam was the first to 
receive these mysteries. Afterward, when 
driven out of Paradise, he communicated them 
to his son Seth; Seth communicated them to 
Enoch; Enoch to Methuselah; Methuselah 
to Lamech: Lamech to Noah; NoahtoShem; 
Shem to Abraham; Abraham to Isaac; Isaac 
to Jacob; Jacob to Levi: Levi to Kelhoth; 
Kelhoth to Amram; Amram to Moses; 
Moses to Joshua; Joshua to the Elders; the 
Elders to the Prophets; the Prophets to the 
Wise Men; and then from one to another 
down to Solomon. 19 

Such, then, was the Pure or Primitive Free- 
masonry, the first system of mysteries which, 
according to modern Masonic writers of the 
school of Oliver, has descended, of course with 
various modifications, from age to age, in a 
direct and uninterrupted line, to the Free- 
masons of the present day. 

The theory is an attractive one, and may be 
qualifiedly adopted, if we may accept what 
appears to have been the doctrine of Ander- 
son, of Hutchinson, of Preston, and of Oliver, 
that the purer theosophic tenets of "the 
chosen people of God" were similar to those 
subsequently inculcated in Masonry, and dis- 
tinguished from the corrupted teaching of the 
Pagan religions as developed in the mysteries. 
But if we attempt to contend that there was 
among the Patriarchs any esoteric organiza- 
tion at all resembling the modern system of 
Freemasonry, we shall find no historical data 
on which we may rely for support. 

Primitive Rite. This Kite was founded 
at Narbonne, in France, on April 19, 1780, by 
the pretended "Superiors of the Order of Free 



PRIMITIVE 



PRINCE 585 



and Accepted Masons." It was attached to 
the Lodge of the Pkiladelphes, under the title 
of the "First Lodge of St. John united to the 
Primitive Rite for the country of France." 
Hence it is sometimes called the Primitive 
Rite of Narbonne, and sometimes the Rite of 
the Philadelphes. It was divided into three 
classes, which comprised ten degrees of in- 
struction. These were not, in the usual sense, 
degrees, but rather collections of grades, out 
of which it was sought to develop all the in- 
structions of which they were capable. These 
classes and degrees were as follows: 

First Class. 1. Apprentice. 2. Fellow- 
Craft. 3. Master Mason. These were con- 
formable to the same degrees in all the other 
Rites. 

Second Class. , Fourth Degree, comprising 
Perfect Master^ Elu, and Architect. Fifth 
Degree, comprising the Sublime Ecossais. 
Sixth Degree, comprising the Knight of the 
Sword, Knignt of the East, and Prince of 
Jerusalem. 

Third Class. 7. The First Chapter of Rose 
Croix, comprising ritual instructions. 8. 
The Second Chapter of Rose Croix. It is the 
depository of historical documents of rare 
value. 9. The Third Chapter of Rose Croix, 
comprising physical and philosophical instruc- 
tions. 10. The Fourth and last Chapter of 
Rose Croix, or Rose Croix Brethren of the 
Grand Rosary, engaged in researches into the 
occult sciences, the object being the rehabili- 
tation and reintegration of man in his prim- 
itive rank and prerogatives. The Primitive 
Rite was united to the Grand Orient in 1786, 
although some of its Lodges, objecting to 
the union, maintained their independence. It 
secured, at one time, a high consideration 
among French Masons, not only on account of 
the objects in which it was engaged, but on 
account also of the talents and position of 
many of its members. But it is no longer 
practised . 

Primitive Scottish Rite. This Rite 
claims to have been established in 1770, at 
Namur, in Belgium, by a body called the Met- 
ropolitan Grand Lodge of Edinburgh. But 
the truth, according to Clavel (Hist. Pitt., p. 
220), is that it was the invention of oneMar- 
chot, an advocate of Nivelles, who organized 
it in 1818, at Namur, beyond which city, and 
the Lodge of "Bonne Amitie\" it scarcely ever 
extended. It consists of thirty-three degrees, 
as follows: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 
3. Master: 4. Perfect Master; 5. Irish Mas- 
ter; 6. Elect of Nine: 7. Elect of the Un- 
known; 8. Elect of Fifteen; 0. Illustrious 
Master; 10. Perfect Elect; 11. Minor Archi- 
tect; 12. Grand Architect; 13. Sublime Ar- 
chitect; 14. Master in Perfect Architecture; 
15. Royal Arch; 16. Prussian Knight; 17. 
Knight of the East; 18. Prince of Jerusalem; 
19. Master of All Lodges; 20. Knight of the 
West: 21. Knight of Palestine: 22. Sover- 
eign Prince of Rose Croix; 23. Sublime Scot- 
tish Mason; 24. Knight of the Sun; 25. 
Grand Scottish Mason of St. Andrew; 26. 
Master of the Secret; 27. Knight of the Black 



Eagle; 28. Knight of K H; 29. Grand 

Elect of Truth: 30. Novice of the Interior; 
31. Knight of the Interior; 32. Prefect of the 
Interior; 33. Commander of the Interior. 
The Primitive Scottish Rite appears to have 
been founded upon the Rite of Perfection, 
with an intermixture of the Strict Observance 
of Hund, the Adonhiramite, and some other 
Rites. 

Prince. The word Prince is not attached 
as a title to any Masonic office, but is prefixed 
as a part of the name to several degrees, as 
Prince of the Royal Secret, Prince of Rose 
Croix, and Prince of Jerusalem. In all of 
these instances it seems to convey some idea 
of sovereignty inherent in the character of the 
degree. Thus the Prince of the Royal Secret 
was the ultimate, and, of course, controlling 
degree of the Rite of Perfection, whence, shorn, 
however, of its sovereignty, it has been trans- 
ferred to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 
Rite. The Prince of Rose Croix, although 
holding in some Rites a subordinate position, 
was originally an independent degree, and the 
representative of Rosicrucian Masonry. It is 
still at the head of the French Rite. The 
Princes of Jerusalem, according to the Old 
Constitutions of the Kite of Perfection, were 
invested with power of jurisdiction over all 
degrees below the Sixteenth, a prerogative 
which they exercised long after the promulga- 
tion of the Constitutions of 1786; and even now 
they are called, in the ritual of the Ancient 
and Accepted Kite, "Chiefs in Masonry," a 
term borrowed from the Constitutions of 1762. 
But there are several other Prince degrees 
which do not seem, at least now, to claim any 
character of sovereignty — such are the Prince 
of Lebanon, Prince of the Tabernacle, and 
Prince of M.ercy, all of which are now subor- 
dinate degrees m the Scottish Rite. 

Prince Adept. See Adept, Prince. 

Prince Depositor, Grand. (Grand Prince 
Depositaire.) A degree in the collection of 
Pyron. 

Prince Edward Island. Previous to 
November, 1798, Prince Edward Island was 
called St. John's Island, the name being 
changed by Imperial Act on that date. 

On the 9th of October, 1797, St. John's 
Lodge, now No. 1 on the Registry of that 
Province, was established by Warrant at 
Charlottetown by the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land. The then Lieutenant-Governor. Gen- 
eral Edward Fanning, was one of the Charter 
members. In 1857, Victoria Lodge at Char- 
lottetown was chartered by Scotland. In 
1875 there were seven lodges in this Province 
working under English Warrants, viz., St. 
John's, King Hiram. St. George, Alexandra, 
Mount Lebanon, ana True Brothers, and one 
under the Scottish Register, "Victoria." 

On the 23d day of June, 1875, these eight 
Lodges met and formed the Grand Lodge of 
Prince Edward Island. The Hon. John Yeo 
was elected Grand Master and was installed, 
together with his officers, the following day 
by M. Wor. Bro. John V. Ellis, Grand Master 
of New Brunswick. 



586 



PRINCE 



PRINCE 



Prince Mason. A term applied in the old 
Scottish Rite Constitutions to the possessors of 
the high degrees above the Fourteenth. It was 
first assumed by the Council of the Emperors 
of the East and West. Rose Croix Masons 
in Ireland are still known by this name. 

Prince of Jerusalem. (Prince de Jerusa- 
lem.) This was the Sixteenth Degree of the 
Rite of Perfection, whence it was transferred 
to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 
where it occupies the same numerical position. 
Its legend is founded on certain incidents 
which took place during the rebuilding of the 
second Temple, when the Jews were so much 
incommoded by the attacks of the Samaritans 
and other neighboring nations, that an em- 
bassy was sent to King Darius to implore his 
favor and protection, which was accordingly 
obtained. This legend, as developed in the 
degree, is contained neither in Ezra nor in 
the apocryphal books of Esdras. It is found 
only m the Antiquities of Josephus (lib. xi., 
cap. iv., sec. 0) t and thence there is the strong- 
est internal evidence to show that it was de- 
rived by the inventor of the degree. Who that 
inventor was we can only conjecture. But 
as we have the statements of both Ragon and 
Kloss that the Baron de Tschoudy composed 
the degree of Knight of the East, and as that 
degree is the first section of the system of 
which the Prince of Jerusalem is the second, 
we may reasonably suppose that the latter was 
also composed by him. The degree beingone 
of those adopted by the Emperors of the East 
and West in their system, which Stephen 
Morin was authorized to propagate in Amer- 
ica, it was introduced into America long be- 
fore the establishment of the Supreme Council 
of the Scottish Rite. A Council was estab- 
lished by Henry A. Francken, about 1767, at 
Albany, in the State of New York { ana a 
Grand Council organized by Myers, m 1788, 
in Charleston, South Carolina. This body 
exercised sovereign powers even after the 
establishment of the Supreme Council, 
May 31, 1801, for, in 1802, it granted a 
Warrant for the establishment of a Mark 
Lodge in Charleston, and another in the same 
year, for a Lodge of Perfection, in Savannah, 
Georgia. But under the present regulations 
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 
this prerogative has been abolished, and 
Grand Councils of Princes of Jerusalem no 
longer exist. The old regulation, that the 
Master of a Lodge of Perfection must be at 
least a Prince of Jerusalem, which was con- 
tained in the Constitution of the Grand Coun- 
cil, has also been repealed, together with most 
of the privileges which formerly appertained 
to the degree. A decision of the Supreme 
Council, in 1870, has even obliterated Coun- 
cils of the Princes of Jerusalem as a separate 
organization, authorized to confer the pre- 
liminary degree of Knights of the East, and 
placed such Councils within the bosom of 
Rose Croix Chapters, a provision of which, as 
a manifest innovation on the ancient system, 
the expediency, or at least the propriety, may 
be greatly doubted. 



Bodies of this degree are called Councils. 
According to the old rituals, the officers were 
a Most Equitable, a Senior and Junior Most 
Enlightened, a Grand Treasurer, and Grand 
Secretary. The more recent ritual of the 
Southern Jurisdiction of the United States 
has substituted for these a Most Illustrious 
Tarshatha, a Most Venerable High Priest, a 
Most Excellent Scribe, two Most Enlightened 
Wardens, and other officers. Yellow is the 
symbolic color of the degree, and the apron is 
crimson (formerly white), lined and bordered 
with yellow. The jewel is a medal of sold, on 
one side of which is inscribed a band holding 
an equallv poised balance, and on the other a 
double-edged, cross-hiltea sword erect, be- 
tween three stars around the point, and the 
letters D and Z on each side. 

The Prince of Jerusalem is also the Fifty- 
third Degree of the Metropolitan Chapter of 
France, and the Forty-fifth of the Rite of Miz- 
raim. 

Prince of Jerusalem, Jewel of. Should 
be a gold incrustation on a lozenge-shaped 

Eiece of mother-of-pearl. Equipoise scales 
eld by hand, sword, five stars, one larger than 





the other four, and the letters D and Z in He- 
brew, one on either side of the scales. The 
five-pointed crown, within a triangle of gold, 
has also been used as a jewel of this Sixteenth 



ce of Lebanon. See Knight of the 
Royal Ax. 

Prince of Llbanus. Another title for 
Prince of Lebanon. 

Prince of Mercy. (Prince du Merci.) 
The Twenty-sixth Degree of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite, called also Scottish 
Trinitarian or Ecossais Trinitaire. It is one 
of the eight degrees which were added on the 
organization of the Scottish Rite to the origi- 
nal twenty-five of the Rite of Perfection. 

It is a Christian degree in its construction, 
and treats of the triple covenant of mercy 
which God made with man; first with Abra- 
ham by circumcision: next, with the Israel- 
ites in the wilderness, by the intermediation of 
Moses; and lastly, with all mankind, by the 
death and sufferings of Jesus Christ. It is in 
allusion to these three acts of mercy, that the 
degree derives its two names of Scottish Trin- 
itarian and Prince of Mercy, and not, as 



PRINCE 



Ragon supposes, from any reference to the 
Fathers of Mercy, a religious society formerly 
engaged in the ransoming of Christian cap- 
tives at Algiers. Chemin Dupontes (Mem. 
Sur VEcoes, p. 373) says that the Scottish rit- 
uals of the degree are too full of the Hermetic 
philosophy, an error from which the French 
Cahiers are exempt; and he condemns much 
of its doctrines as "hyperbolique plaisanterie.' r 
But the modern rituals as now practised are 
obnoxious to no such objection. The sym- 
bolic development of the number three of 
course constitutes a large part of its lecture; 
but the real dogma of the degree is the impor- 
tance of Truth, and to this all its ceremonies 
are directed. 

Bodies of the degree are called Chapters. 
The presiding officer is called Most Excellent 
Chief Prince, the Wardens are styled Excel- 
lent. In the old rituals these officers repre- 
sented Moses, Aaron, and Eleazar; but the 
abandonment of these personations in the 
modern rituals is, I think, an improvement. 
The apron is red bordered with white, and the 
jewel is an equilateral triangle, within which is 
a heart. This was formerly inscribed with the 
Hebrew letter tou, now with the letters I. H. S.; 
and, to add to the Chnstianization which 
these letters give to the degree, the American 
Councils have adopted a tessera in the form of 
a small fish of ivory or mother-of-pearl, in 
allusion to the well-known usage of tne prim- 
itive Christians. 

Prince of Rose Croix. See Rose Croix, 
Prince of. 

Prince of the Captivity. According to 
the Talmudists, the Jews, while in captivity 
at Babylon, kept a genealogical table of the 
line of their kings, and he who was the right- 
ful heir of the throne of Israel was called the 
Head or Prince of the Captivity. At the time 
of the restoration. Zerubbabel, being the lineal 
descendant of Solomon, was the Prince of the 
Captivity. 

Prince of the East, Grand. (Grand 
Prince d'Orient.) A degree in the collection 
of Le Page. 

Prince of the Levites. (Prince dee IA- 
vites.) A degree in the collection of the Lodge 
of Saint Louis des Amis Reunis at Calais. 

Prince of the Royal Secret. See Sub- 
lime Prince of the Royal Secret. 

Prince of the Seven Planets, Illustri- 
ous Grand. (IUustre Grand Prince dee sept 
Planetes.) A degree in the manuscript collec- 
tion of Peuvret. 

Prince of the Tabernacle. (Prince du 
Tabernacle.) The Twenty-fourth Degree of 
the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. In 
the old rituals the aegree was intended to 
illustrate the directions given for the building 
of the tabernacle, the particulars of which are 
recorded in the twenty-fifth chapter of Exo- 
dus. The Lodge is called a Hierarchy, and its 
officers are a Most Powerful Chief Prince, rep- 
resenting Moses, and three Wardens, whose 
style is Powerful, and who respectively repre- 
sent Aaron, Bezaleel, and Anoliab. In the 
modern rituals of the United States, the three 



PRINCIPALS 587 

principal officers are called the Leader, the 
High Priest, and the Priest, and respectively 
represent Moses, Aaron, ana Ithamar, his son. 
The ritual is greatly enlarged; and while the 
main idea of the degree is retained, the cere- 
monies represent the initiation into the mys- 
teries of tne Mosaic tabernacle. 

The jewel is the letter A, in gold, sus- 
pended from a broad crimson ribbon. The 
apron is white, lined with scarlet and bor- 
dered with green. The flap is sky-blue. 
On the apron is depicted a representation 
of the tabernacle. 

This degree appears to be peculiar to the 
Scottish Kite and its modifications. I have 
not met with it in any of the other Rites. 

Prince of Wales 9 Grand Lodge. About 
the time of the reconciliation of the two 
contending Grand Lodges in England, in 
1813, they were called, by way of distinc- 
tion, after their Grand Masters. That of 
the "Moderns" was called the "Prince of 
Wales' Grand Lodge," and that of the 
"Ancients" the "Duke of Kent's Grand 
Lodge." The titles were used colloquially, 
and not officially. 

Princess of tne Crown. (Princesse de la 
Couronne.) The Tenth and last degree of 
the Masonry of Adoption according to the 
French regime. The degree, which is said 
to have been composed m Saxony, in 1770. 
represents the reception of the Queen of 
Sheba by King Solomon. The Grand Master 
and Grand Mistress personate Solomon and 
his wife (which one, tne Cahier does not say), 
and the recipiendary plays the part of the 
Queen of Sheba. The aegree, says Ragon 
(Tuil. Gen., p. 78), is not initiatory, but 
simply honorary. 

Principal Officers. The number three, as 
a sacred number in the Masonic system, is, 
among many other ways, developed in the 
fact that in all Masonic bodies there are three 
principal officers. 

Principals. The three presiding officers 
in a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, accord- 
ins to the system practised in England, are 
called the Three Principals, or King, Prophet, 
and Priest, and, under the titles of Z, H. 
and J, represent Zerubbabel. Haggai, ana 
Joshua. No person is eligible to the First 
Principal's chair unless he nas served twelve 
months in each of the others; and he must 
also be the Master or Past Master of a Lodge, 
and have served in the Chapter the office 
of Scribe, Sojourner, or Assistant Sojourner. 
At his installation, each of the Principals 
receives an installing degree like that of the 
Master of a Blue Lodge. There is, however, 
no resemblance between any of these degrees 
and the order of High Priesthood which is 
conferred in this country. 

The presiding officers of the Grand Chap- 
ter are called Grand Principals, and repre- 
sent the same personages. 

The official jewel of Z, is a crown; of H, an 
All-seeing eye; and of J, a book, each sur- 
rounded dv a nimbus^ or rays of glory, and 
placed within an equilateral triangle. 



688 PRINCIPAL 

Principal Sojourner. The Hebrew word 
"0, ger, which we translate "a sojourner/' 
signifies a man living out of his own country, 
and is used in this sense throughout the Old 
Testament. The children of Israel were, 
therefore, during the captivity, sojourners 
in Babylon, ana the person who is repre- 
sented by this officer, performed, as the in- 
cidents of the degree relate, an important 
part in the restoration of the Israelites to 
Jerusalem. He was the spokesman and 
leader of a party of three sojourners, and is, 
therefore, emphatically called the chief, or 
principal sojourner. 

In the English Royal Arch system there 
are three officers called Sojourners. .But in 
the American system the three Historical 
Sojourners are represented by the candi- 
dates, while only the supposed chief of them 
is represented by an officer called the Prin- 
cipal Sojourner. His duties are those of a 
conductor, and resemble, in some respects, 
those of a Senior Deacon in a Symbolic 
Lodge; which office, indeed, he occupies when 
the Chapter is open on any of the preliminary 
decrrees 

Printed Proceedings* In 1741, the Grand 
Lodge of England adopted a regulation, 
which Entick (Constitutions, 1756, p. 236) is 
careful to tell us, "was unanimously agreed 
to," forbidding any brother "to print, or 
cause to be printed, the proceedings of any 
Lodge or any part thereof, or the names of 
the persons present at such Lodge, but by 
the direction of the Grand Master or his 
deputy, under pain of being disowned for a 
brother, and not to be admitted into any 
Quarterly Communication or Grand Lodge, 
or any Lodge whatsoever, and of being 
rendered incapable of bearing any office in 
the Craft." The law has never been re- 
pealed, but the Grand Lodge of England 
issues reports of its meetings, as also do 
most of the Grand Lodges of the world. 
Bulletins are published at stated intervals 
by the Grand Orients of France, Italy, and 
Portugal, and by nearly all those of South 
America. In the United States { every Grand 
Lodge publishes annually the journal of its 
proceedings, and many subordinate Lodges 
print the account of any special meeting held 
on an important or interesting occasion. 

Prior. 1. The superiors of the different 
nations or provinces into which the Order 
of the Templar was divided, were at first 
called Priors or Grand Priors, and afterward 
Preceptors or Grand Preceptors. 

2. Each of the languages of the Order of 
Malta was divided into Grand Priories, of 
which there were twenty-six, over which a 
Grand Prior presided. Under him were 
several Commanderies. 

3. The second officer in a Council of Ka- 
dosh. under the Supreme Council for the 
Southern Jurisdiction of the United States. 

4. The Grand Prior is the third officer in 
the Supreme Council of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite for the Southern 
Jurisdiction of the United States. 



PROBATION 

Prior, Grand. See Grand Prior. 

Priory* The jurisdiction of a Grand Prior 
in the Order of Malta or St. John of Jerusalem, 

Priory. Great. See Great Priory. 

Prison. A Lodge having been held in 
1782, in the King's Bench prison, London, 
the Grand Lodge of England passed a reso- 
lution declaring that "it is inconsistent with 
the principles of Masonry for any Free- 
mason's Lodge to be held for the purposes 
of making, passing, or raising Masons in 
any prison or place of confinement." (Con- 
stitutions, 1784, p. 349.) The resolution is 
founded on the principle that there must be 
perfect freedom of action in all that relates 
to the admission of candidates, and that 
this freedom is not consistent with the neces- 
sary restraints of a prison. 

Private Committee. See Committee, Pri- 
vate. 

Privileged Questions. In parliamentary 
law, privileged questions are defined to be 
those to which precedence is given over all 
other questions. They are of four kinds: 
1. Those which relate to the rights and 
privileges of the assembly or any- of its 
members. 2. Motions for adjournment. 
3. Motions for reconsideration. 4. Special 
orders of the day. The first, third, and 
fourth only are applicable to Masonic par- 
liamentary law. 

Privilege, Questions of. In all parlia- 
mentary or legislative bodies, there occur 
certain questions which relate to matters 
affecting the dignity of the assembly or 
the rights and privileges of some of its mem- 
bers, and these are hence called "questions 
of privilege such, for instance, are motions 
arising out of or having relation to a quarrel 
between two of the members^ an assault upon 
any member, charges affecting the integrity 
of the assembly or any of its members, or 
any other matters of a similar character. 
Questions referring to any of these matters 
take precedence of all other business, and 
hence are alwayB in order. These questions 
of privilege are not to be confounded with 
privileged questions; for, although all ques- 
tions of privilege are privileged questions, 
all privileged questions are not questions of 
privilege. Strictly speaking, questions of 
privilege relate to the house or its members, 
and privileged questions relate to matters of 
business. (See Dr. Mackey's Parliamentary 
Law, as applied to the Government of Masonic 
Bodies, ch. xxiv., xxv.) 

Probation. The interval between the 
reception of one degree and the succeeding 
one is called the probation of the candidate, 
because it is during this period that he is 
to prove his qualification for advancement. 
In England and in this country the time of 
probation between the reception of degrees 
is four weeks, to which is generally added 
the further safeguard of an open examination 
in the preceding degree. In France and 
Germany the probation is extended to one 
year. The time is greatly extended in the 
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The 



PROBLEM 

statutes of the Southern Supreme Council 
require an interval of two years to be passed 
between the reception of the Fourteenth and 
the Thirty-second degrees. An extraordinary 
rule prevailed in the Constitutions of 1762, 
by which the Rite of Perfection was governed. 
According to this rule, a candidate was 
required to pass a probation, from the time 
of his application as an Entered Apprentice 
until his reception of the Twenty-fifth or 
ultimate degree of the Rite, of no less than 
six years ana nine months. But as all the 
separate times of probation depended on 
symbolic numbers, it is not to be presumed 
that this regulation was ever practically 
enforced. 

Problem, Forty-Seventh. See Forty- 
Seventh Problem. 

Processions. Public processions of the 
Order, although not as popular as they were 
some years ago, still have the warrant of 
early and long usage. The first procession, 
after the revival, of which we have a record, 
took place June 24, 1721, when, as Anderson 
tells us (ConaHtutions. 1738, p. 112), " Payne, 
Grand Master, with nis Wardens, the former 
Grand officers, and the Masters and Wardens 
of twelve Lodges, met the Grand Master 
elect in a Grand Lodge at the King's Arms 
Tavern, St. Paul's Churchyard, in the morn- 
ing, . . . and from thence they marched 
on foot to the Hall in proper clothing and 
due form." Anderson and Entick con- 
tinue to record the annual processions of the 
Grand Lodge and the Craft on the feast 
day, with a few exceptions, for the next 
twenty-five years: but after this first pedes- 
trian procession all the subsequent ones were 
made in carriages, the record being, "the 
procession of March was made in coaches 
and chariots." {Constitutions, 1756, p. 227.) 
But ridicule being thrown by the enemies 
of the Order upon these processions, by a 
mock one in 1741 (see Scald Miserable*), and 
in subsequent years, in 1747 the Grand 
Lodge unanimously resolved to discontinue 
them, nor have they since been renewed. 
(Ibid., p. 248.)* 

In America, public processions of the Craft 
were some years ago very common, nor have 
they yet been altogether abandoned; al- 
though now practised with greater discretion 
and less frequently, being in general restricted 
to special occasions of importance, such as 
funerals, the laying of corner-stones, or the 
dedication of public edifices. 

The question has been often mooted, 
whether public processions, with the open 
exhibition of its regalia and furniture, are 
or are not of advantage to the Order. In 
1747 it was thought not to be so, at least in 
London, but the custom was continued, to 
a great extent, in the provinces. Dr. Oliver 
was in favor of what he calls (Symb. of 
Glory) "the good old custom, so strongly 



* On the subject of these mock processions, 
see an article by Dr. W. J. Chetwode Crawley in 
An Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. 18. 



PROCESSIONS 589 

recommended and assiduously practised by 
the Masonic worthies of the last century, 
and imitated by many other public bodies 
of men, of assembling the brethren of a 
province annually under their own banner, 
and marching in solemn procession to the 
house of God, to offer up their thanksgiving 
in the public congregation for the blessings 
of the preceding year; to pray for mercies 
in prospect, and to hear from the pulpit a 
disquisition on the moral and religious pur- 
poses of the Order." 

Processions are not peculiar to the Masonic 
Fraternity. The custom comes to us from 
remote antiquity. In the initiations at 
Eleusis, the celebration of the Mysteries was 
accompanied each day by a solemn pro- 
cession of the initiates from Athens to the 
temple of initiation. Apuleius describes the 
same custom as prevailing in the celebration 
of the Mysteries of Isis. Among the early 
Romans, it was the custom, in times of 
public triumph or distress, to have solemn 
processions to the temples, either to thank 
the gods for their favor or to invoke their 
protection. The Jews also went in pro- 
cession to the Temple to offer up their prayers. 
So, too, the primitive Christians walked in 
procession to the tombs of the martyrs. 
Ecclesiastical processions were first intro- 
duced in the fourth century. They are now 
used in the Catholic Church on various 
occasions, and the Pontificate Romanum sup- 

Elies the necessary ritual for their observance, 
a the Middle Ages these processions were 
of ten carried to an absurd extent. Polydore 
describes them as consisting of "ridiculous 
contrivances, of a figure with a great gaping 
mouth, and other pieces of merriment. 
But these displays were abandoned with the 
increasing refinement of the age. At this 
day, processions are common in all countries, 
not only of religious confraternities, but of 
political and social societies. 

There are processions also in Masonry 
which are confined to the internal concerns 
of the Order, and are not therefore of a 
public nature. The procession "round the 
Hall, 1 ' at the installation of the Grand 
Master, is first mentioned in 1721. Previous 
to that year there is no allusion to any such 
ceremony. From 1717 to 1720 we are 
simply told that the new Grand Master 
" was saluted." and that he was " homaged," 
or that " his health was drunk in due form." 
But in 1721 a processional ceremony seems 
to have been composed, for in that year we 
are informed (Const., 1738, p. 113) that 
" Brother Payne, the old Grand Master, 
made the first procession round the Hall, 
and when returned, he proclaimed aloud the 
most noble prince and our brother." This 
procession was not abolished with the public 
processions in 1747, but continued for many 
years afterward. In America it gave rise to 
the procession at the installation of Masters, 
which, although provided for by the ritual, 
and practised by most Lodges until very 
recently, has been too often neglected by 



590 PROCLAMATION 

many. The form of the procession, as 
adopted in 1724, is given by Anderson 
(Constitutions, 1738, p. 117), and is almost 
precisely the same as that used in all Masonic 
processions at the present day, except funeral 
ones. The rule was then adopted, which has 
ever since prevailed, that in all processions 
the juniors in degree and in office shall go 
first, so that the place of honor shall be the 
rear. 

Proclamation. At the installation of the 
officers of a Lodge, or any other Masonic 
body, and especially a Grand Lodge or 
Grand Chapter, proclamation is made in a 
Lodge or Chapter by the installing officer, 
and in a Grand Lodge or Grand Chapter 
by the Grand MarahaL Proclamation is 
also made on some other occasions, and on 
such occasions the Grand Marshal performs 
the duty. 

Proclamation of Cyras. A ceremony in 
the American Royal Arch. We learn from 
Scripture that in the first year of Cyrus, the 
King of Persia, the captivity of the Jews was 
terminated. Cyrus, from his conversations 
with Daniel and the other Jewish captives 
of learning and piety, as well as from his 
perusal of their sacred books, more especially 
the prophecies of Isaiah, had become imbued 
with a knowledge of true religion, and hence 
had even publicly announced to nis subjects 
his belief m the God "which the nation of 
the Israelites worshipped." He was conse- 
quently impressed witn an earnest desire to 
fulfil the prophetic declarations of which he 
was the subject, and to rebuild the Tem- 
ple of Jerusalem. Accordingly, he issued a 
proclamation, which we find in Ezra, as 
follows: 

"Thus saith Cyrus, King of Persia, The 
Lord God of heaven hath given me all the 
kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged 
me to build him a house at Jerusalem, which 
is in Judea. Who is there among you of 
all his people? his God be with him, and let 
him go up to Jerusalem, which is in Judea. 
and build the house of the Lord God of 
Israel (he is the God) which is in Jerusalem. 1 ' 

With the publication of this proclamation 
of Cyrus commences what may De called the 
second part of the Royal Arch Degree. 

Proclus* Known as the successor of Syri- 
anus as the head of the Athenian school. 
Born in Constantinople, 412, died at Athens. 
485. Proclus was a Neo-Platonist, ana 
waged war against the new religion of Chris- 
tianity, which caused him to be banished 
from the city; but was subsequently read- 
mitted. His works were chiefly mystical, 
such as devoting hymns to the sun, Venus, 
or the poetic muses, and so far were harmless. 

Profane* There is no word whose tech- 
nical and proper meaning differs more than 
this. In its ordinary use profane signifies 
one who is irreligious and irreverent, but in 
its technical adaptation it is applied to one 
who is ignorant of sacred rites. The word 
is compounded of the two Latin words pro 
and fanum, and literally means before or 



PROFICIENCY 



outside of the temple; and hence a prof an us 
among the ancients was one who was not 
allowed to enter the temple and behold the 
mysteries. "Those," says Vossius, "were 
called profane who were not initiated in the 
sacred rites, but to whom it was allowed only 
to stand before the temple — pro fano— not 
to enter it and take part m the solemnities." 
The Greek equivalent, B^Xot, had a similar 
reference; for its root is found in Byxbs, a 
threshold, as if it denoted one who was not 
permitted to pass the threshold of the temple, 
in the celebrated hymn of Orpheus, which it 
is said was sung at the Mysteries of Eleusis, 
we meet with this phrase, ^Bry^oftm dtt 
B4fus iar\ Bbpas ^Arffar* BcMxmi. "I 
speak to those to whom it is lawfuLbut 
close the doors against the profane." When 
the mysteries were about to begin, the Greeks 
used the solemn formula, fcas, 4«*t, fort 
Bc04&of; and the Romans, "Procul, O procul 
este profani," both meaning. "Depart, de- 
part, ye profane!" Hence the original and 
inoffensive signification of profane is that 
of being uninitiated; and it is in this sense 
that it is used in Masonry, simply to designate 
one who has not been initiated as a Mason, 
The word profane is not recognized as a noun 
substantive m the general usage of the 
language, but it has been adopted as a tech- 
nical term in the dialect of Freemasonry, 
in the same relative sense in which the word 
layman is used in the professions of law and 
divinity. 

Proficiency* The necessity that anyone 
who devotes himself to the acquisition of a 
science should become a proficient in its 
elementary instructions before he can expect 
to grasp and comprehend its higher branches, 
is so almost self-evident as to need no argu- 
ment. But as Speculative Masonry is a 
science, it is equally necessary that a requisite 
qualification for admission to a higher degree 
should be a suitable proficiency m the pre- 
ceding one. It is true, that we do not find in 
express words in the Old Constitutions any 
regulations requiring proficiency as pre- 
liminary to advancement, but their whole 
spirit is evidently to that effect; and hence 
we find it prescribed in the Old Constitutions, 
that no Master shall take an apprentice for 
less than seven years, because it was expected 
that he should acguire a competent knowledge 
of the mystery before he could be admitted as 
a Fellow. Tne modern Constitution of the 
Grand Lodge of England provides that no 
Lodge shall confer a higher degree on any 
brother until he has passed an examination 
in open Lodge on the preceding degrees 
(Rule 195), and many, perhaps most, of the 
Grand Lodges of this country nave adopted a 
similar regulation. The ritual of all the 
Symbolic degrees, and, indeed, of the higher 
degrees, and that too in all rites, makes 
the imperative demand of every candidate 
whether he has made suitable proficiency in 
the preceding degree, an affirmative answer to 
which is required before the rites of initiation 
can be proceeded with. This answer is, 



PRO GRAND MASTER 

according to the ritual, that "he has"; but 
some Masons have sought to evade the 
consequence of an acknowledgment of ignor- 
ance and want of proficiency by a change of 
the language of the ritual into "such as time 
and circumstances would permit." But 
this is an innovation, unsanctioned by any 
authority, and should be repudiated. If the 
candidate has not made proper proficiency, 
the ritual, outside of all statutory regula- 
tions, refuses him advancement. 

Anderson, in the second edition of his 
Constitutions (p. 71), cites what he calls "an 
old record," which says that in the reign of 
Edward III. of England it was ordained 
"that Master Masons, or Masters of work, 
shall be examined whether they be able of 
cunning to serve their respective Lords, as 
well the Highest as the Lowest, to the Honour 
and Worship of the aforesaid Art, and to the 
Profit of their Lords." 

Here, then, we may see the origin of that 
usage, which is still practised in every well- 
governed Lodge, not only of demanding a 
proper degree of proficiency in the candidate, 
but also of testing that proficiency by an 
examination. 

This cautious and honest fear of the Fra- 
ternity lest any brother should assume the 
duties of a position which he could not 
faithfully discharge, and which is, in our 
time, tantamount to a candidate's advancing 
to a degree for which he is not prepared, is 
again exhibited in all the Old Constitutions. 
Thus in the Lansdowne Manuscript, whose 
date is referred to the middle of the sixteenth 
century, it is charged "that no Mason take 
on him no Lord's work, nor other man's, 
but if [unless] he know himself well able to 
perform the work, so that the Craft have no 
slander." The same regulation, and almost 
in the same language, is to be found in all 
the subsequent manuscripts. 

In the Charges of 1722, it is directed that 
"a younger brother shall be instructed in 
working, to prevent spoiling the materials 
for want of judgment, and for encreasing and 
continuing of brotherly love." {Constitutions, 
1723, p. 53.) It was, with the same view, 
that all of the Old Constitutions made it 
imperative that no Master should take an 
apprentice for less than seven years, because 
it was expected that he should acquire a com- 
petent knowledge of the mystery of the Craft 
before he could be admitted as a Fellow. 

Notwithstanding these charges had a more 
particular reference to the operative part 
of the art, they clearly show the great stress 
that was placed by our ancient brethren 
upon the necessity of skill and proficiency; 
and they have furnished the precedents upon 
which are based all the similar regulations 
that have been subsequently applied to 
Speculative Masonry. 

Pro Grand Master. An officer known 
only to the English system, and adopted for 
the first time in 1782, when, on the election 
of the Duke of Cambiidge to the office of 
Grand Master, a regulation was adopted by 



PROGRESSIVE 591 



the Grand Lodge of England, that whenever 
a prince of the blood accepted the office of 
Grand Master, he should be at liberty to 
nominate any peer of the realm to be the 
Acting Grand Master, and to this officer is 
now given the title of Pro Grand Master. 
His collar, jewel, and authority are the same 
as those of a Grand Master, and in the case 
of a vacancy he actually assumes the office 
until the next annual election. 

The following have been Pro Grand Mas- 
ters: 

1782-9, Earl of Effingham. 
1790-1813, Earl of Moira. 
1834-8, Lord Dundas. 
1839-40, Earl of Durham. 
1841-3, Earl of Zetland. 
1874-90, Earl of Carnarvon. 
1891-8, Earl of Lathom. 
1898-1908. Earl Amherst. 
1908, Lord Ampthill. 

Progressive Masonry. Freemasonry is 
undoubtedly a progressive science, and yet 
the fundamental principles of Freemasonry 
are the same now as they were at the very 
beginning of the Institution. Its landmarks 
are unchangeable. In these there can be 
no alteration, no diminution, no addition. 
When, therefore, we say that Freemasonry 
is progressive in its character, we of course 
do not mean to allude to this unalterable 
part of its constitution. But there is a 
progress which every science must undergo, 
and which many of them have already 
undergone, to which the science of Free- 
masonry is subject. Thus we say of chem- 
istry that it is a progressive science. Two 
hundred years ago, all its principles, so far 
as they were known, were directed to such 
futile inquiries as the philosopher's stone 
and the elixir of immortality. Now these 
principles have become more thoroughly 
understood, and more definitely established, 
and the object of their application is more 
noble and philosophic. The writings of 
the chemists of the former and the present 
period sufficiently indicate this progress of 
the science. And yet the elementary prin- 
ciples of chemistry are unchangeable. Its 
truths were the same then as they are now. 
Some of them were at that time unknown, 
because no mind of sufficient research had 
discovered them; but they existed as truths, 
from the very creation of matter; and now 
they have only been developed, not invented. 

So it is with Freemasonry. It too has 
had its progress. Masons are now expected 
to be more learned than formerly in all that 
relates to the science of the Order. Its 
origin, its history, its objects, are now con- 
sidered worthy of the attentive consideration 
of its disciples. The rational explanation of 
its ceremonies and symbols, and tneir connec- 
tion with ancient systems of religion and 
philosophy, are now considered as necessary 
topics of inquiry for all who desire to distin- 
guish themselves as proficients in Masonic 
science. 



592 PROMISE 

In all these things we 0oe ft great difference I 
between the Masons of the present and of 
former days. In Europe, a century ago, 
such inquiries were considered as legitimate 
subjects of Masonic study. Hutchinson 
published in 1760, in England, bis admirable 
work entitled The Spirit of Freemasonry, in 
which the deep philosophy of the Institution 
was fairly developed with much learning 
and ingenuity. Preston's Illustration* m of 
Maeonrv, printed at a not much later period, 
also exhibits the system treated, in many 
places, in a philosophical manner. Lawrie s 
History of Freemasonry, published in Scotland 
in 1804, is a work containing much] profound 
historical and antiquarian research. And 
in the present century, the works of Oliver 
alone would be sufficient to demonstrate to 
the most cursory observer that Freemasonry 
has a claim to be ranked among the learned in- 
stitutions of the day. In Germany and France, 
the press has been borne down with the weight 
of abstruse works on our Order, written Dy 
men of the highest literary pretensions. 

In America, notwithstanding the really 
excellent work of Salem Town on Speculative 
Masonry, published in 1818, and the learned 
Discourses of Dr. T. M. Harris, published 
in 1801, it is only within a few years that 
Masonry has begun to assume the exalted 
position of a literary institution. 

Promise* In entering into the covenant of 
Masonry, the candidate makes a promise to 
the Order; for his covenant is simply a promise 
where he voluntarily places himself under 
a moral obligation to act within certain 
conditions in a particular way. The law of 
promise is, therefore, strictly applicable to 
this covenant, and by that law tne validity 
and obligation of the promises of every can- 
didate must be determined. In every 
promise there are two things to be considered, : 
the intention and the obligation. As to the 
intention: of all casuists, the Jesuits alone 
have contended that the intention may be 
concealed within the bosom of the promiser. 
All Christian and Pagan writers agree on the 
principle that the words expressed must con- 
vey tneir ordinary meaning to the promisee. 
If I promise to do a certain thing to-morrow, 
I cannot, when the morrow comes, refuse to 
do it on the ground that I only promised to 
do it if it suited me when the tune of per- 
formance had arrived. The obligation of 
every promiser is, then, to fulfil the promise 
that he has made, not in any way that he may 
have secretly intended, but in the way in 
which he supposes that the one to whom he 
made it understood it at the time that it was 
made. Hence all Masonic promises are 
accompanied by the declaration that they 
are given without equivocation or mental 
reservation of any kind whatsoever. 

All voluntary promises are binding, unless 
there be some paramount consideration 
which will release the obligation of per- 
formance. It is worth while, then, to in- 
quire if there be any such considerations 
which can impair the validity of Masonic 



PROOFS 

promises. Dr. Wayland (Rlem. of Mot. 
Science, p. 285) lays down five conditions in 
which promises are not binding: 1. Where 
the performance is impossible; 2. Where the 
promise is unlawful; 3. Where no expectation 
is voluntarily excited by the promiser: 4. 
Where they proceed upon a condition which 
the promiser subsequently finds does not 
exist; and, 5. Where either of the parties is 
not a moral agent. 

It is evident that no one of these condi- 
tions will apply to Masonic promises, for, 
1. Every promise made at the altar of Ma- 
sonry is possible to be performed; 2. No 
promise is exacted that is unlawful in its 
nature; for the candidate is expressly told 
that no promise exacted from him will inter- 
fere with the duty which he owes to God 
and to his country: 3. An expectation is 
voluntarily excited by the promiser. and 
that expectation is that he will faithfully 
fulfil his part of the covenant; 4. No false 
condition of things is placed before the can- 
didate, either as to the character of the 
Institution or the nature of the duties which 
would be required of him; and, 5. Both 
parties to the promise, the candidate who 
makes it and the Craft to whom it is made, 
are moral agents, fully capable of entering 
into a contract or covenant. 

This, then, is the proper answer to those 
adversaries of Freemasonry who contend for 
the invalidity of Masonic promises on the 
very grounds of Wayland ana other moralists. 
Their conclusions would be correct, were it 
not that every one of their premises is false. 

Promotion. Promotion in Masonry should 
not be governed, as in other societies, by 
succession of office. The fact that one has 
filled a lower office gives him no claim to 
a higher, unless he is fitted, by skill and 
capacity, to discharge its duties faithfully. 
This alone should be the true basis of pro- 
motion. (See Preferment.) 

Proofs. What the German Masons call 
"proben und prufungen," trials and proofs. 
and the French, "epreuves Maconniaiies, 
or Masonic proofs, are defined by Baiot 
(Manuel, p. 141) to be "mysterious methods 
of discovering the character and disposition 
of a recipiendary." They are, in fact, those 
ritualistic ceremonies of initiation which are 
intended to test the fortitude and fidelity of 
the candidate. They seem to be confined 
to continental Masonry, for they are not 
known to any extent in the English or 
American systems, where all the ceremonies 
are purely symbolic. Erause (KunsturkumL 
i., 152, n. 37) admits that no trace of them, 
at least in the perilous and fearful forms 
which they assume in the continental rituals, 
are to be found in the oldest English cate- 
chisms; and he admits that, as appealing to 
the sentiments of fear and hope, and adopting 
a dramatic form, they are contrary to the 
spirit of Masonry, ana greatly interfere with 
its symbolism ana with the pure and peace- 
ful sentiments which t is intended to imprest 
upon the mind of the neophyte. 



PROPERTY 

Property of a Lodge* As a Lodge owes 
its existence, and all the rights and pre- 
rogatives that it exercises, to the Grand 
Lodge from which it derives its Charter or 
Warrant of Constitution, it has been de- 
cided, as a principle of Masonic law, that 
when such Lodge ceases to exist, either by a 
withdrawal or a surrender of its Warrant, all 
the property which it possessed at the time 
of its dissolution reverts to the Grand Lodge. 
But should the Lodge be restored by a revival 
of its Warrant, its property should be restored, 
because the Grand Lodge held it only as the 
general trustee or guardian of the Craft. 

Prophet* Haggai, who in the American 
system of the Royal Arch is called the scribe, 
in the English system receives the title of 
vrophet, and hence in the order of precedence 
he is placed above the high priest. 

Prophets, Schools of the. See Schools of 
the Prophets. 

Proponenda* The matters contained in 
the ''notices of motions." which are required 
by the Grand Lodge 01 England to be sub- 
mitted to the members previous to the 
Quarterly Communication when they are 
to be discussed, are sometimes called the 
proponenda, or subjects to be proposed. 

Proposing Candidates* The only meth- 
od recognized in America of proposing 
candidates for initiation or membership is 
by the written petition of the applicant, who 
must at the same time be recommended by 
two members of the Lodge. In England, 
the applicant for initiation must previously 
sign the declaration, which in America is 
only made after his election. He is then 
proposed by one brother, and, the proposition 
being seconded by another, he is balloted for 
at the next regular Lodge. Applicants for 
membership are also proposed without 
petition, but the certificate of the former 
Lodge must be produced, as in the United 
States the demit is required. Nor can any 
candidate for affiliation be balloted for 
unless previous notice of the application be 
given to all the members of the Lodge. 

Propylaeum (also Propylon). The court 
er«yestibule in front of an edifice. 

Proscription* The German Masons em- 
ploy this word in the same sense in which 
we do expulsion, as the highest Masonic 
punishment that can be inflicted. They 
also use the word verbannung, banishment, 
for the same purpose. 

Proselyte of Jerusalem. (Proselyte de 
Jerusalem). The Sixty-eighth Degree of the 
Metropolitan Chapter of France. 

Proselytism* Brahmanism is, perhaps, 
the only religion which is opposed to prose- 
lytism. The Brahman seeks no convert to 
his faith, but is content with that extension 
of his worship which is derived from the 
natural increase only of its members. The 
Jewish Church, perhaps one of the most 
exclusive, and which has always seemed in- 
different to progress, yet provided a special 
form of baptism for the initiation of its 
proselytes into the Mosaic rites. 

89 



PROSELYTISM 598 



Buddhism, the great religion of the Eastern 
world, which, notwithstanding the opposition 
of the leading Brahma ns, spread with amazing 
rapidity over the Oriental nations, so that 
now it seems the most popular religion of 
the world, owes its extraordinary growth to 
the energetic propagandism of Sakya-muni, 
its founder, and to the same proselyting 
spirit which he inculcated upon his disciples. 

The Christian church, mindful of the 
precept of its Divine founder, "Go ye into 
all the world, and preach the Gospel to 
every creature," has always considered the 
work of missions as one of the most important 
duties of the Church, and owes its rapid 
increase, in its earlier years, to the proselyt- 
ing spirit of Paul, and Thomas, and the other 
apostles. 

Mohammedanism, springing up and linger- 
ing for a long time in a single family, at 
length acquired rapid growth among the 
Oriental nations, through the energetic 
proselytism of the Prophet and his adherents. 
But the proselytism of the religion of the 
New Testament and that of the Koran 
differed much in character. The Christian 
made his converts by persuasive accents and 
eloquent appeals; the Mussulman converted 
his penitents by the sharp power of the 
sword. Christianity was a religion of peace, 
Mohammedanism of war; yet each, though 
pursuing a different method, was equally 
energetic in securing converts. 

In respect to this doctrine of proselytism, 
Freemasonry resembles more the exclusive 
faith of Brahma than the inviting one of 
Moses, of Buddha, of Christ, or of Mo- 
hammed. 

In plain words, Freemasonry is rigor- 
ously opposed to all proselytism. While its 
members do not hesitate, at all proper 
times and on all fitting occasions, to defend 
the Institution from all attacks of its enemies, 
it never seeks, by voluntary laudation of 
its virtues, to make new accessions of friends, 
or to add to the number of its disciples. 

Nay, it boasts, as a peculiar beauty of its 
system, that it is a voluntary Institution. 
Not only does it forbid its members to use 
any efforts to obtain initiates, but actually 
requires every candidate for admission into 
its sacred rites to seriously declare, as a pre- 
paratory step, that in this voluntary offer of 
himself he has been unbiased by the improper 
solicitations of friends. Without this declara- 
tion, the candidate would be unsuccessful 
in his application. Although it is required 
that he shoud be prompted to solicit the 

Privilege by the favorable opinion which he 
ad conceived of the Institution, yet no 
provision is made by which that opinion 
can be inculcated in the minds of the profane; 
for were a Mason, by any praises of the Order, 
or any exhibitions of its advantages, to in- 
duce anyone under such representations to 
seek admission, he would not only himself 
commit a grievous fault, but would subject 
the candidate to serious embarrassment at the 
very entrance of the Lodge. 



594 PROSELYTISM 

This Brahmanical spirit of anti-prosely- 
tism, in which Masonry differs from every 
other association, has imprinted upon the 
Institution certain peculiar features. In 
the first place, Freemasonry thus becomes, 
in the most positive form, a voluntary asso- 
ciation. Whoever comes within its mystic 
circle, comes there of his "own free will 
and accord, and unbiased by the influence 
of friends. 1 ^ These are the terms on which 
he is received, and to all the legitimate 
consequences of this voluntary connection 
he must submit. Hence comes the axiom, 
"Once a Mason, always a Mason"; that is 
to say, no man { having once been initiated 
into its sacred rites, can, at his own pleasure 
or caprice, divest himself of the obligations 
and duties which, as a Mason, he has assumed. 
Coming to us freely and willingly, he can 
urge no claim for retirement on the plea 
that he was unduly persuaded, or that the 
character of the Institution had been falsely 
represented. To do so, would be to convict 
himself of fraud and falsehood, in the declara- 
tions made by him preliminary to his 
admission. And if these declarations were 
indeed false, he at least cannot, under the 
legal maxim, take advantage of his own 
wrong. The knot which binds him to the 
Fraternity has been tied by himself, and is 
indissoluble. The renouncing Mason may, 
indeed, withdraw from his connection with 
a Lodge, but he cannot release himself from 
his obligations to the regulation, which 
requires every Mason to be a member of one. 
He may abstain from all communication with 
his brethren, and cease to take any interest 
in the concerns of the Fraternity; but he 
is not thus absolved from the performance 
of any of the duties imposed upon him by 
his original admission into the brotherhood. 
A proselyte, persuaded against his will, 
might claim his right to withdraw; but the 
voluntary seeker must take and hold what 
he finds. 

Another result of this anti-proselyting 
spirit of the Institution is, to relieve its 
members from all undue anxiety to increase 
its membership. It is not to be supposed that 
Masons have not the very natural desire 
to see the growth of their Order. Toward 
this end, they are ever ready to defend its 
character when attacked, to extol its virtues, 
and to maintain its claims to the confidence 
and approval of the wise and good. But the 
growth they wish is not that abnormal one. 
derived from sudden revivals or ephemeral 
enthusiasm, where passion too often takes 
the place of judgment; but that slow and 
steady, and therefore healthy, growth which 
comes from the adhesion of wise and virtuous 
and thoughtful men. who are willing to 
join the brotherhood, that they may the 
better labor for the good of their fellow-men. 

Thus it is that we find the addresses of 
our Grand Masters, the reports of our com- 
mittees on foreign correspondence, and the 
speeches of our anniversary orators, annually 
denouncing the too rapid increase of the 



PROVINCIAL 



Order, as something calculated to affect iti 
stability and usefulness. 

And hence, too, the black ball, that an- 
tagonist of proselytism, has been long and 
familiarly called the bulwark of Masonry. 
Its faithful use is ever being inculcated by 
the fathers of the Order upon its younger 
members: and the unanimous ballot is 
universally admitted to be the most effectual 
means of preserving the purity of the In- 
stitution. 

And so, this spirit of anti-proselytism, 
impressed upon every Mason from his 
earliest initiation, although not itself a 
landmark, has come to be invested with all 
the sacredness of such a law, and Free- 
masonry stands out alone, distinct from every 
other human association, and proudly pro- 
claims, "Our portals are open to all the 
good and true, but we ask no man to enter.' 9 

Protector of English Freemasons. A 
title assumed by King Edward VII. on his 
accession to the throne of England in 1901. 

Protector of Innocence. (Protecleur de 
V Innocence.) A degree in the nomenclature 
of Fustier, cited by him from the collection 
of Viany. 

t Protocol. In French, the formula or tech- 
nical words of legal instruments; in Ger- 
many, the rough draft of an instrument or 
transaction; in diplomacy, the original copy 
of a treaty. Gaaicke says that, in Masonic 
language, the protocol is the rough minutes 
of a Lodge. The word is used in this sense 
in Germany only. 

Prototype. The same as Archetype, which 
see. 

Provincial Grand Lodge. In each of the 
counties of England is a Grand Lodge 
composed of the various Lodges within that 
district, with the Provincial Grand Master 
at then* head, and this body is called a 
Provincial Grand Lodge. It derives its 
existence, not from a Warrant, but from the 
Patent granted to the Provincial Grand 
Master by the Grand Master, and at his 
death, resignation, or removal, it becomes 
extinct, unless the Provincial Grand Regis- 
trar keeps up its existence by presiding over 
the province until the appointment of another 
Provincial Grand Master. Its authority is 
confined to the framing of by-laws, making 
regulations, hearing disputes, etc., but no 
absolute sentence can be promulgated by 
its authority without a reference to the Grand 
Lodge. Hence Oliver (Jurisprvd., 272) 
says that a Provincial Grand Lodge "has a 
shadow of power, but very little substance. 
It may talk, but it cannot act." The system 
does not exist in the United States. In 
England and Ireland the Provincial Grand 
Master is appointed by the Grand Master, 
but in Scotland his commission emanates 
from the Grand Lodge. 

Provincial Grand Master. The presiding 
officer of a Provincial Grand Lodge. He is 
appointed by the Grand Master, during whose 
pleasure he holds his office. An appeal lies 
from his decisions to the Grand Lodge. 



PROVINCIAL 

Provincial Grand Officers. The officers 
of a Provincial Grand Lodge correspond in 
title to those of the Grand Lodge. The 
Provincial Grand Treasurer is elected, but 
the other officers are nominated by the 
Provincial Grand Master. They are not 
by such appointment members of the Grand 
Lodge, nor do they take any rank out of 
their province. They must ail be residents 
of the province and subscribing members to 
some Lodge therein. Provincial Grand Ward- 
ens must be Masters or Past Masters of 
a Lodge, and Provincial Grand Deacons, 
Wardens, or Past Wardens. 

Provincial Master of the Red Cross. 
The Sixth Degree of the Rite of Clerks of 
Strict Observance. 

Provost and Judge. (Prtvdt et Juge.) 
The Seventh Degree of the Ancient and 
Accepted Scottish Rite. The history of 
the degree relates that it was founded by 
Solomon, Kins of Israel, for the purpose of 
strengthening his means of preserving order 
among the vast number of craftsmen en- 
gaged in the construction of the Temple. 
Tito. Prince Harodim, Adoniram, and Aoda 
his lather, were first created Provosts and 
Judges, who were afterward directed by 
Solomon to initiate his favorite and intimate 
secretary, Joabert, and to give him the keys 
of all the building. In the old rituals, the 
Master of a Lodge of Provosts and Judges 
represents Tito, Prince Harodim, the first 
Grand Warden and Inspector of the three 
hundred architects. The number of lights 
is six, and the symbolic color is red. In the 
more recent ritual of the Southern Juris- 
diction of the United States there has been 
a slight change. The legend is substantially 
preserved, but the presiding officer represents 
Az arias, the son of Nathan. 

The jewel is a golden key, having the letter 
A within a triangle engraved on the ward. 
The collar is red. The apron is white, lined 
with red, and is furnished with a pocket. 

This was one of Ramsay's degrees, and 
was originally called MaUre Irlandats, or 
Irish Master. 

Proxy Installation. The Regulations of 
1721 provide that, if the new Grand Master 
be absent from the Grand Feast, he may be 

Eroclaimed if proper assurance be given that 
e will serve, in which case the old Grand 
Master shall act as his proxy and receive 
the usual homage. This has led to a custom, 
once very common in America, but now 
getting into disuse, of installing an absent 
officer by proxy. Such installations are 
called proxy installations. Their propriety 
is very questionable. 

Proxy Master. In the Grand Lodge of 
Scotland, a Lodge is permitted to elect any 
Master Mason who holds a diploma of the 
Grand Lodge, although he may not be a 
member of the Lodge, as its Proxy Master. 
He nominates two Proxy Wardens, and the 
three then become members of the Grand 
Lodge and representatives of the Lodge. 
Great opposition has recently been made to 



PRUSSIAN 595 

this system, because by it a Lodge is often 
represented by brethren who are m no way 
connected with it, who never were present 
at any of its meetings, and who are per- 
sonally unknown to any of its members. A 
similar system prevailed in the Grand Lodge 
of South Carolina, but was, after a hard 
struggle, abolished in I860, at the adoption 
of a new Constitution. 

Prudence* This is one of the four cardinal 
virtues, the practise of which is inculcated 
upon the Entered Apprentice. Preston first 
introduced it into the degree as referring to 
what was then, and long before had been 
called the four principal signs, but which are 
now known as the perfect points of entrance. 
Preston's eulogium on prudence differs from 
that used in the lectures of this country, which 
was composed by Webb. It is in these 
words: " Prudence is the true guide to human 
understanding, and consists m judging and 
determining with propriety what is to be 
said or done upon all our occasions, what 
dangers we should endeavor to avoid, and 
how to act in all our difficulties." Webb's 
definition, which is much better, may be 
found in all the Monitors. The Masonic 
reference of prudence to the manual point 
reminds us of the classic method of repre- 
senting her statutes with a rule or measure 
in her hand. 

Prussia. Frederick William I. of Prussia 
was so great an enemy of the Masonic In- 
stitution, that until his death it was scarcely 
known in his dominions, and the initiation, 
in 1738, of his son, the Crown Prince, was 
necessarily kept a secret from his father. But 
in 1740 Frederick II. ascended the throne, 
and Masonry soon felt the advantages of 
a royal patron. The Baron de Bielefeld 
says (Lettres, i.. 157) that in that year the 
king himself opened a Lodge at Charlotten- 
burg, and initiated his brother, Prince 
William, the Margrave of Brandenburg, and 
the Duke of Holstein-Beck. Bielefeld and 
the Counselor Jordan, in 1740, established 
the Lodge of the Three Globes at Berlin, 
which soon afterward assumed the rank of a 
Grand Lodge. There are now in Prussia 
three Grand Lodges, the seats of all of them 
being at Berlin. These are the Grand Lodge 
of the Three Globes, established in 1740, the 
Grand Lodge Royal York of Friendship, 
established m 1760, and the National Grand 
Lodge of Germany, established in 1770. 
There is no country in the world where 
Freemasonry is more profoundly studied as 
a science than in Prussia, and much of the 
abstruse learning of the Order, for which 
Germany has been distinguished, is to be 
found among the members of the Prussian 
Lodges. Unfortunately, they have, for a 
long time, been marked with an intolerant 
spirit toward the Jews, whose initiation was 
strictly forbidden until very recently, when 
that stain was removed, and the tolerant 
principles of the Order were recognized by 
the abrogation of the offensive laws. 

Prussian Knight. See Noachite. 



596 PSATERIANS 



Psftterlans* A sect of Ari&ns who main- 
tained, at the Council of Antioch, a.d. 360, 
that the Son was dissimilar to the Father in 
will; that He was made from nothing; and 
that in God, creation and generation were 
synonymous terms. 

PseuJemym. A false or fictitious name. 
Continental writers on Freemasonry in the 
last century often assumed fictitious names, 
sometimes from affectation, and sometimes 
becaust the subjects they treated were un- 
popular with the government or the church. 
Thus, Carl Rossler wrote under the pseu- 
donym of Acerrellas, Arthuseus under that 
of IrensBUB Agnostus, Guillemain de St. 
Victor under that of De Gaminville or 
Querard, Louis Travenol under that of 
Leonard Gabanon, etc. 

The Illuminati also introduced the custom 
of giving pseudonyms to the kingdoms and 
cities of Europe; thus, with them, Austria 
was Achaia; Munich, Athens; Vienna, Rome; 
Ingolstadt, Eleusis, etc. But this practise 
was not confined to the Illuminati, for we 
find many books published at Paris, Berlin, 
etc., with the fictitious imprint of Jerusa- 
lem, Cosmopohs. Latomopolis, Philadelphia, 
Edessa. etc. This practise has long since 
been abandoned. 

PvfcMeaiftens, Masonic. The fact that, 
within the past few years, Freemasonry has 
taken its place — and an imposing one, too — 
in the literature of the times; that men of 
genius and learning have devoted themselves 
to its investigation; that its principles and 
its system have become matters of study and 
research; and that the results of this labor 
of inquiry have been given, and still con- 
tinue to be given, to the world at large, in the 
form of treatises on Masonic science, have 
at length introduced the new question among 
the Fraternity, whether Masonic books are 
of good or of evil tendency to the Institution. 
Many well-meaning but timid members of 
the Fraternity object to the freedom with 
which Masonic topics are discussed in printed 
works. They think that the veil is too much 
withdrawn by modern Masonic writers, and 
that all doctrine and instruction should be 
confined to oral teaching, within the limits 
of the Lodge room. Hence, to them, the 
art of printing becomes useless for the diffu- 
sion of Masonic knowledge; and thus, what- 
ever may be the attainments of a Masonic 
scholar, the fruits of his study and experience 
would be confined to the narrow limits of 
his personal presence. Such objectors draw 
no distinction between the ritual and the 
philosophy of Masonry. Like the old priests 
of Egypt, they would have everything con- 
cealed under hieroglyphics, and would as 
soon think of opening a Lodge in public as 
they would of discussing, in a printed book, 
dhe"prmciples and design of the Institution. 

The Grand Lodge of England, some years 
ago, adopted a regulation which declared it 
penal to print or publish any part of the 
proceedings of a Lodge, or the names of the 
persons present at such a Lodge, without 



PUBLICATIONS 



the permission of the Grand Master. His 
rule, however, evidently referred to local 
proceedings only, and had no relation what- 
ever to the publication of Masonic authors 
and editors; for the English Masonic press, 
since the dayB of Hutchinson, in the Middle 
of the last century, has been distinguished 
for the freedom, as well as learning, with 
which the most abstruse principles of our 
Order have been discussed. 

Fourteen years ago the Committee of 
Foreign Correspondence of a prominent 
Grand Lodge affirmed that Masonic litera- 
ture was doing more "harm than good to 
the Institution." About the same tune the 
committee of another equally prominent 
Grand Lodge were not ashamed to express 
their regret that so much prominence of 
notice is, "in several Grand Lodge proceed- 
ings, given to Masonic publications. Ma- 
sonry existed and flourished, was harmo- 
nious and happy, in their absence." 

When one reads such diatribes against 
Masonic literature and Masonic progress — 
such blind efforts to hide under the Dushel 
the light that should be on the hill-top— 
he is incontinently reminded of a similar 
iconoclast, who, more than four centuries 
ago, made a like onslaught on the pernicious 
effects of learning. * 

The immortal Jack Cade, in condemning 
Lord Say to death as a patron of learning, 
gave vent to words of which the language 
of these enemies of Masonic literature seems 
to be but the echo: 

"Thou hast most traitorously corrupted 
the youth of the realm, in erecting a gram- 
mar-school: and whereas, before, our fore- 
fathers had no other books but the s score 
and the tally, thou hast caused printing to 
be used; and contrary to the king, his crown, 
and dignity, thou hast built a paper-mill. 
It will be proved to thy face that thou hast 
men about thee that usually talk of a noun 
and a verb, and such abominable words as 
no Christian ear can endure to hear." 

I belong to no such school. On the con- 
trary, I believe that too much cannot be 
written and printed and read about the phi- 
losophy and history, the science and sym- 
bolism of Freemasonry; provided always the 
writing is confided to those who rightly 
understand their art. In Masonry, as in 
astronomy, in geology, or in any other of 
the arts and sciences, a new book by an 
expert must always be esteemed a valuable 
contribution. The production of silly and 
untutored minds will fall of themselves into 
oblivion without the aid of official perse- 
cution; but that which is really valuable — 
which presents new facts, or furnishes sug- 
gestive thoughts— will, in spite of the de- 
nunciations of the Jack Cades of Masonry, 
live to instruct the brethren, and to elevate 
the tone and standing of the Institution. 

Dr. Oliver, who has written more on Ma- 
sonry than any other author, says on this 
subject: "I conceive it to be an error in 
judgment to discountenance the publication 



PUBLICATIONS 

of philosophical disquisitions on the sub- 
ject of Freemasonry, because such a pro- 
ceeding would not only induce the world 
to think that our pretensions are incapable 
of enduring the test of inquiry, but would 
also have a tendency to restore the dark 
ages of superstition, when even the sacred 
writings were prohibited, under an appre- 
hension that their contents might be mis- 
understood or perverted to the propagation 
of unsound doctrines and pernicious prac- 
tices; and thus would ignorance be trans- 
mitted, as a legacy, from one generation 
to another." 

Still further pursuing this theme, and 
passing from the unfavorable influence which 
must be exerted upon the world by our 
silence, to the injury that must 'accrue to 
the Croft, the same learned writer goes on 
to say. that "no hypotheses can be more 
untenable than that which forebodes evil to 
the Masonic Institution from the publica- 
tion of Masonic treatises illustrative of its 
philosophical and moral tendency." And 
m view of the meager and unsatisfactory 
nature of the lectures, in the form in which 
they are delivered in the Lodges, he wisely 
suggests that "if strictures on the science 
ana philosophy of the Order were placed 
within every brother's reach, a system of 
examination and research would soon be 
substituted for the dull and uninteresting 
routine which, in so many instances, char- 
acterizes our private meetings. The breth- 
ren would become excited by the mquiry, 
and a rich series of new beauties ana ex- 
cellences would be their reward." 

Of such a result I have no doubt. In 
consequence of the increase of s Masonic 
publications in this country within a few 
years, Masonry has already been elevated 
to a high position. If there be any who 
still deem it a merely social institution, 
without a philosophy or literature; if there 
be any who speak of it with less admira- 
tion than it justly deserves, we may be 
assured that such men have read as little as 
they have thought on the subject of its 
science and its history. A few moments of 
conversation with a Mason will show whether 
he is one of those contracted craftsmen 
who suppose that Masonic "brightness" con- 
sists merely in a knowledge of the correct 
mode of working one's way into a Lodge, 
or whether he is one who has read and prop- 
erly appreciated the various treatises on the 
"royal art," in which men of genius and 
learning have developed the true spirit and 
design of the Order. 

Such is the effect of Masonic publications 
upon the Fraternity; and the result of all my 
experience is, that enough has not been pub- 
lished. Cheap books on all Masonic sub- 
jects, easily accessible to the masses of the 
Order, are necessaries essential to the ele- 
vation and extension of the Institution. 
Too many of them confine their acquire- 
ments to a knowledge of the signs ana the 
ceremonies of initiation. There they cease 



PUBLICATIONS 597 

their researches. They make no study of 
the philosophy and the antiquities of the 
Order. They do not seem to know that 
the modes of recognition are simply in- 
tended as means of security against impo- 
sition, and that the ceremonial rites are worth 
nothing without the symbolism of which 
they are only the external exponents. Ma- 
sonry for them is nerveless—senseless — 
lifeless; it is an empty voice without meaning 
— a tree of splendid foliage, but without a 
single fruit. 

The monitorial instructions of the Order, 
as they are technically called, contain many 
things which probably, at one time, it would 
have been deemed improper to print; and 
there are some Masons, even at this day, 
who think that Webb and Cross were too 
free in their publications. And yet we 
have never heard of any evil effects arising 
from the reading of our Monitors, even upon 
those who have not been initiated. On the 
contrary, meager as are the explanations 
given m those works, and unsatisfactory 
as they must be to one seeking for the full 
light of Masonry, they have been the means, 
in many instances, of inducing the profane, 
who have read them, to admire our Insti- 
tution, and to knock at the "door of Ma- 
sonry" for admission — while we regret to 
say that they sometimes comprise the whole 
instruction that a candidate gets from an 
ignorant Master. Without these published 
Monitors, even that little beam of light 
would be wanting to illuminate his path. 

But if the publication and general dif- 
fusion of our elementary text-books have 
been of acknowledged advantage to the 
character of the Institution, and have, by 
the information, little as it is, which they 
communicate, been of essential benefit to 
the Fraternity, we cannot see why a more 
extensive system of instruction on the leg- 
ends, traditions, and symbols of the Order 
should not be productive of still greater good. 

Years ago, we uttered on this subject 
sentiments which we now take occasion to 
repeat. 

Without an adequate course of reading, 
no Mason can now take a position of any 
distinction in the ranks of the Fraternity. 
Without extending his studies beyond what 
is taught in the brief lectures of the Lodge, 
he can never properly appreciate the end 
and nature of Freemasonry as a speculative 
science. The lectures constitute but the 
skeleton of Masonic science. The muscles 
and nerves and blood-vessels, which are to 
give vitality, and beauty, and health, and 
vigor to that lifeless skeleton, must be found 
in the commentaries on them which the 
learning and research of Masonic writers 
have given to the Masonic student. 

The objections to treatises and disquisi- 
tions on Masonic subjects, that there is 
danger, through them, of giving too much 
light to the world without, has not the 
slightest support from experience. In Eng- 
land, in France, and in Germany, scarcely 



598 PUBLIC 

any restriction has been observed by Masonic 
writers, except as to what is emphatically 
esoteric; and yet we do not believe that the 
profane world is wiser in those countries 
than in our own in respect to the secrets of 
Freemasonry. In the face of these publi- 
cations, the world without has remained as 
ignorant of the aporrheta of our art, as if 
no work had ever been written on the sub- 
ject; while the world within — the Craft 
themselves — have been enlightened and in- 
structed, and their views of Masonry (not as 
a social or charitable society, but as a phi- 
losophy, a science, a religion) have been 
elevated and enlarged. 

The truth is, that men who are not Masons 
never read authentic Masonic works. They 
have no interest in the topics discussed, 
and could not understand them, from a 
want of the preparatory education which 
the Lodge alone can supply. Therefore, 
were a writer even to trench a little on what 
may be considered as being really the arcana 
of Masonry t there is no danger of his thus 
making an improper revelation to improper 
persons. 

Public Ceremonies* Most of the cere- 
monies of Masonry are strictly private, and 
can be conducted only in the presence of 
the initiated. But some of tnem, from 
their nature, are necessarily performed in 
public. Such are the burials of deceased 
brethren, the laying of corner-stones of 
public edifices, and the dedications of Ma- 
sonic halls. The installation of the officers 
of a Lodge, or Grand Lodge, are also some- 
times conducted in public m America. But 
the ceremonies in this case differ slightly 
from those of a private installation in the 
Lodge room, portions of the ceremony 
having to be omitted. The reputation of 
the Order requires that these ceremonies 
should be conducted with the utmost pro- 
priety, and the Manuals and Monitors 
furnish the fullest details of the order of 
exercises. Preston, in his Illustrations, was 
the first writer who gave a printed account 
of the mode of conducting these public 
ceremonies, and to him we are most probably 
indebted for their ritual Anderson, how- 
ever, gave in the first edition of the Con- 
stitutions the prescribed form for constitut- 
ing new Lodges, and installing their officers, 
which is the model upon which Preston, 
and other writers, have subsequently framed 
their more enlarged formula?. 

Puerility of Freemasonry. "The ab- 
surdities and puerilities of Freemasonry 
are fit only for children, and are unworthy 
of the time or attention of wise men." Such 
is the language of its adversaries, and the 
apothegm is delivered with all that self- 
sufficiency which shows that the speaker is 
well satisfied with his own wisdom, and is 
very ready to place himself in the category 
of those wise men whose opinion he invokes. 
This charge of a puerility of design and 
object of freemasonry is worth examination. 

Is it then possible, that those scholars of 



PUERILITY 

unquestioned strength of intellect and depth 
of science, who have devoted themselves to 
the study of Masonry, and who have in 
thousands of volumes given the result of 
their researches, have been altogether mis- 
taken in the direction of their labors, and 
have been seeking to develop, not the prin- 
ciples of a philosophy, but the mechanism 
of a toy? Or is the assertion that such is 
the fact a mere sophism, such as ignorance 
is every day uttering, and a conclusion to 
which men are most likely to arrive when 
they talk of that of which they know noth- 
ing, like the critic who reviews a book that 
he has never read, or the skeptic who at- 
tacks a creed that he does not comprehend? 
Such claims to an inspired infallibility are 
not uncommon among men of unsound 

i'udgment. Thus, when Gall and Spurs- 
ieim first gave to the world their wonderful 
discoveries in reference to the organization 
and the functions of the brain— -discoveries 
which have since wrought a marked revolu- 
tion in the sciences of anatomy, physiology, 
and ethics — the Edinburgh reviewers at- 
tempted to demolish these philosophers 
and their new system, but succeeded only 
in exposing their own ignorance of the science 
they were discussing. Time, which is con- 
tinually evolving truth out of every in- 
tellectual conflict, has long since shown that 
the German philosophers were right and 
that their Scottish critics were wrong. How 
common is it, even at this day, to hear men 
deriding Alchemy as a system of folly and 
imposture, cultivated only by madmen and 
knaves, when the researches of those who 
have investigated the subject without preju- 
dice, but with patient learning, have snown, 
without any possibility of doubt, that these 
old alchemists t so long the objects of de- 
rision to the ignorant, were religious phi- 
losophers, and that their science had really 
nothing to do with the discovery of an elixir 
of life or the transmutation of the baser 
metals into gold, but that they, like the 
Freemasons, with whom they have a strong 
affinity, concealed under profound symbols, 
intelligible only to themselves, the search 
after Divine Truth and the doctrine of 
immortal life. Truth was the gold which 
they eliminated from all mundane things, 
and the immortality of the soul was the 
elixir of everlasting life which perpetually 
renewed youth, and took away the power 
of death. 

So it is with Freemasonry. Those who 
abuse it know nothing of its inner spirit, 
of its profound philosophy, of the pure re- 
ligious life that it inculcates. 

To one who is at all acquainted with 
its organization, Freemasonry presents itself 
under two different aspects: 

First, as a secret society distinguished by 
a peculiar ritual; 

And secondly, as a society having a phi- 
losophy on which it is founded, and which 
it proposes to teach to its disciples. 

These by way of distinction may be called 



PUERILITY 

the ritualistic and the philosophical elements 
of Freemasonry. 

The ritualistic element of Freemasonry is 
that which relates to the due performance 
of the rites and ceremonies of the Order. 
Like the rubrics of the church, which indi- 
cate when the priest and congregation shall 
kneel and when they shall stand, it refers 
to questions such as these: What words 
shall be used in such a place, and what 
ceremony shall be observed on such an 
occasion? It belongs entirely to the inner 
organization of the Institution, or to the 
manner in which its services shall be con- 
ducted, and is interesting or important only 
to its own members. The language of its 
ritual or the form of its ceremon'es has 
nothing more to do with the philosophic 
designs of Freemasonry than the rubrics of 
a church have to do with the religious creed 
professed by that church. It might at any 
time be changed in its most material points, 
without in the slightest degree affecting the 
essential character of the Institution. 

Of course, this ritualistic element is in 
one sense important to the members of the 
society, because, by a due observance of the 
ritual, a general uniformity is preserved. 
But beyond this, the Masonic ritual makes 
no claim to the consideration of scholars, 
and never has been made, and, indeed, from 
the very nature of its secret character, never 
can be made, a topic of discussion with those 
who are outside of the Fraternity. 

But the other, the philosophical element 
of Freemasonry, is one of much importance. 
For it, and through it, I do make the plea 
that the Institution is entitled to the respect, 
and even veneration, of all good men, ana 
is well worth the careful consideration of 
scholars. 

A great many theories have been ad- 
vanced by Masonic writers as to the real 
origin of the Institution, as to the time 
when and the place where it first had its 
birth. It has been traced to the mysteries 
of the ancient Pagan world, to the Temple 
of King Solomon, to the Roman Colleges of 
Artificers, to the Crusades for the recovery 
of the Holy Land, to the Gilds of the Mid- 
dle Ages, to the Stone-Masons of Strasburg 
and Cologne and even to the revolutionary 
struggle in England in the time of the com- 
monwealth, and to 4 <he secret efforts of the 
adherents of the house of Stuart to recover 
the throne. But whatever theory may be 
selected, and wheresoever and whensoever 
it may be supposed to have received its 
birth, one thing is certain, namely, that for 
generations past, and yet within the records 
of history, it has, unlike other mundane 
things, presented to the world an unchanged 
organization. Take, for instance, the theory 
which traces it back to one of the most 
recent periods, that, namely, which places 
the organization of the Order of Freemasons 
at the building of the Cathedral of Strasburg, 
in the year 1275. During all the time that 
has since elapsed, full six hundred years. 



PUERILITY 599 

how has Freemasonry presented itself? Why. 
as a brotherhood organized and controlled 
by a secret discipline, engaged in important 
architectural labors, and combining with 
its operative tasks speculations of great 
religious import. If we see any change, 
it is simply this, that when the necessity 
no longer existed, the operative element 
was laid aside, and the speculative only 
was retained, but with a scrupulous preser- 
vation (as if it were for purposes of iden- 
tification) of the technical language, the 
rules and regulat'ons, the working-tools, 
and the discipline of the operative art. The 
material only on which they wrought was 
changed, The disciples and followers of 
Erwin of Steinbach, the Master Builder of 
Strasburg, were engaged, under the influence 
of a profoundly religious sentiment, in the 
construction of a material edifice to the 
glory of God. The more modern workers 
m Freemasonry are under the same religious 
influence, engaged in the construction of a 
spiritual temple. Does not this long con- 
tinuance of a brotherhood employed in 
the same pursuit, or changing it only from 
a material to a spiritual character, but re- 
taining its identity of organization, demand 
for itself some respect, and t if for nothing 
else, at least for its antiquity, some share 
of veneration? 

But this is not all. This society or brother- 
hood, or confraternity as it might more 
appropriately be called, is distinguished 
from all other associations by the possession 
of certain symbols, myths, and, above all 
else, a Golden Legend, all of which are directed 
to the purification of the heart, to the eleva- 
tion of the mind, to the development of the 
great doctrine of immortality. 

Now the question where and when these 
symbols, myths, and legends arose is one 
that is well worth the investigation of scholars, 
because it is intimately connected with the 
history of the human intellect. Did the 
Stone-Masons and building corporations of 
the Middle Ages invent them? Certainly 
not, for they are found in organizations that 
existed ages previously. The Greeks at 
Eleusis taught the same dogma of immortal 
life in the same symbolic mode, and their 
legend, if it differed from the Masonic in 
its accidents, was precisely identical in its 
substance. For Hiram there was Dionysus, 
for the acacia the myrtle, but there were 
the same mourning, the same discovery, the 
same rejoicing, because what had been lost 
was found, and then the same ineffable 
light, and the same sacred teaching of the 
name of God and the soul's immortality. 
And so an ancient orator, who had passed 
through one of these old Greek Lodges — 
for such, without much violence of language, 
they may well be called — declared that 
those who have endured the initiation into 
the mysteries entertain better hopes both 
of the end of life and of the eternal future. 
Is not this the very object and design of the 
legend of the Master s Degree? And this 



600 PUERILITY 



same peculiar form of symbolic initiation 
is to be found among the old Egyptians and 
in the island of Samothracia, thousands of 
years before the light of Christianity dawned 
upon the world to give the seal of its Master 
and Founder to the Divine truth of the 
resurrection. 

This will not, it is true, prove the descent of 
Freemasonry, as now organized, from the re- 
ligious mysteries of antiquity; although this 
is one of the theories of its origin entertained 
and defended by scholars of no mean preten- 
sion. But it will prove an identity of design 
in the moral and intellectual organization of 
all these institutions, and it will give the Ma- 
sonic student subjects for profound study 
when he asks the interesting questions — 
Whence came these symbols, myths, and 
legends? Who invented them? How and 
why have they been preserved? Looking 
back into the remotest clays of recorded his- 
tory, we find a priesthood in an island of 
Greece and another on the banks of the Nile, 
teaching the existence of a future life by sym- 
bols ana legends, which convey the lesson m a 
peculiar mode. And now, after thousands of 
years have elapsed, we find the same sym- 
bolic and legendary method of instruction, for 
the same purpose, preserved in the deposi- 
tory of what is comparatively a modern in- 
stitution. And between these two extremes 
of the long past and the present now, we find 
the intervening period occupied by similar 
associations, succeeding each other from time 
to time, and spreading over different countries, 
but all engaged in the same symbolic instruc- 
tion, with substantially the same symbols and 
the same mythical history. 

Does not all this present a problem in moral 
and intellectual philosophy, and in the arche- 
ology of ethics, which is well worthy of an at- 
tempted solution? How unutterably puerile 
seem the objections and the objurgations of a 
few contracted minds, guided only by preju- 
dice, when we consider the vast questions of 
deep interest that are connected with Free- 
masonry as a part of those > great brotherhoods 
that have filled the world for so many apes, so 
far back, indeed, that some philosophic His- 
torians have supposed that they must have 
derived their knowledge of the doctrines which 
they taught in their mystic assemblies from 
direct revelation through an ancient priest- 
hood that gives no other, evidence of its former 
existence but the results which it produced. 

Man needs something more than the gratifi- 
cation of his animal wants. The mind re- 
quires food as well as the body, and nothing 
can better give that mental nutriment than 
the investigation of subjects which relate to 
the progress of the intellect and the growth of 
the religious sentiment. 

Again, man was not made for himself alone. 
The old Stoic lived only for and within him- 
self. But modern philosophy and modern 
religion teach no such selfish doctrine. Man 
is but part of the great brotherhood of man, 
and each one must be ready to exclaim with 
the old post, "Homo sum; humani nihil a 



FUNJAUB 



me alienum puto," lam a man. and I deem noth- 
ing relating to mankind to be foreign to my feel- 
ings. Men study ancient history simply that 
they may learn what their brother men have 
done in former times, and they read the phi- 
losophers and poets of Greece and Rome that 
they may know what were the speculations of 
those old thinkers, and they strive to measure 
the intellect of man as it was then and as it is 
now, because the study of the growth of intel- 
lectual philosophy and the investigation of 
the mental ana moral powers come home to 
us all as subjects of common interest. 

Looking, then, upon Freemasonry as one of 
those associations which furnish the evidence 
and the example of the progress of man in in- 
tellectual, moral, and religious development, it 
may be well claimed for it that its design, its 
history, and its philosophy, so far from being 
puerile, are well entitled to the respect of the 
world, and are worth the careful research of 
scholars. 

Puissant. A title given to the presiding 
officer in several of the nigh degrees. 

Puissant Irish Master. The Eighth 
Degree of Ramsay's Irish Colleges. 

Pullen, William Hyde. An eminent and 
accomplished craftsman of England, who was 
renowned among English and American 
"workmen" for his excellence in the conduct 
of the forms and varied ceremonies of Ma- 
sonry. 

Pulsantl Operietur. Latin. To him who 
knocks it shall be opened. An inscription some- 
times placed over the front door of Masonic 
temples or Lodge rooms. 

Punishments, Masonic. Punishment in 
Masonry is inflicted that the character of the 
Institution may remain unsullied, and that 
the unpunished crimes of its members may not 
injuriously reflect upon the reputation of the 
whole society. The nature of the punish- 
ment to be inflicted is restricted by the pe- 
culiar character of the Institution, which is 
averse to some forms of penalty, and by the 
laws of the land, which do not give to private 
corporations the right to impose certain spe- 
cies of punishment. 

The infliction of fines or pecuniary penal- 
ties has, in modern times at least, been con- 
sidered as contrary to the genius of Masonry, 
because the sanctions of Masonic law are of 
a higher nature than any that could be fur- 
nished by a pecuniary penalty. 

Imprisonment and corporal punishment are 
equally adverse to the spirit of the Institu- 
tion, and are also prohibited by the laws of 
the land, which reserve the infliction of such 
penalties for their own tribunals. 

Masonic punishments are therefore re- 
stricted to an expression of disapprobation or 
the deprivation of Masonic rights, and are: 
1. Censure; 2. Reprimand; 3. Exclusion; 
4. Suspension. Definite or Indefinite; and 5. 
Expulsion — all of which see under their re- 
spective titles. 

Punjaub. Freemasonry was founded in 
Punjaub, India, in 1872, by an ardent Mason, 
W. Bro. Major Henry Basevi, whose failing 



PURANAS 



PURPLE 



601 



health caused him to forsake his post shortly 
thereafter, leaving as his successor Major M. 
Ramsay, who became R. W. D. Grand Master. 
By last returns received there were 26 Lodges 
in the District. It is reported authorita- 
tively that in 1879 the Institution maintained, 
clothed, and educated twenty-one children. 

Puranas. ("Knowledge. 1 ') The text-books 
of the worshipers of Vishnu and of Siva, form- 
ing, with the Tantras, the basis of thepopular 
creed of the Brahmanical Hindus. There are 
about 18 Puranas, and as many more minor 
works, called Upapuranas, all written in San- 
skrit, and founded to some extent upon the 
Mahabharata and Ramayana. Otherwise 
their date is very uncertain. The followers 
of Brahman ism number about 175,000,000. 

Purchase. In the Cooke MS. (line 630) it 
is said that the son of Athelstan "purchased a 
free patent of the kyng that they [the Ma- 
sons] shulde make a sembly." This does not 
mean that he bought the patent, but that he 
obtained or procured it. Such was the use 
of purchase m old English. The booty of a 
thief was called his purchase, because he had 
acquired it. Colloquially, the word is still 
used to designate the getting a hold on any- 
thing. 

Pure Freemasonry. See Primitive Free- 
masonry. 

Purification. As the aspirant in the An- 
cient Mysteries was not permitted to pass 
through any of the forms of initiation, or to 
enter the sacred vestibule of the temple, until, 
by water or fire, he had been symbolically 
purified from the corruptions of the world 
which he was about to leave behind, so in 
Masonry there is in the First Degree a sym- 
bolical purification by the presentation to the 
candidate of the common gavel, an imple- 
ment whose emblematic use teaches a puri- 
fication of the heart. (See Lustration.) 

Purity* In the Ancient Mysteries purity 
of heart and life was an essential prerequisite 
to initiation, because by initiation the as- 
pirant was brought to a knowledge of God, to 
know whom was not permitted to the impure. 
For, says Origen OCont. Cel.. vi.), "a defiled 
heart cannot see God, but tie must be pure 
who desires to obtain a proper view of a pure 
Being." And in the same spirit the Divine 
Master says: "Blessed are the pure in heart, 
for they shall see God." But "to see God" is 
a Hebraism, signifying to possess him, to be 
spiritually in communion with him, to know 
his true character. Now to acquire this 
knowledge of God, symbolized by the knowl- 
edge of his Name, is the great object of Ma- 
sonic, as it was of all ancient initiation; and 
hence the candidate in Masonry is required 
to be pure, for " he only can stand in the holy 
place who hath clean hands and a pure heart." 
(See While.) 

Purity, Brothers of. An association of 
Arabic philosophers, founded at Bosra, in 
Syria, in the tenth century. Many of their 
writings, which were much studied by the 
JewB of Spain in the twelfth century, were 
mystical. Steinschneider {Jew. Lit., 174, 295) 



calls them "the Freemasons of Bosra," and 
says that they were "a celebrated society of a 
kind of Freemasons." 

Purple* Purple is the appropriate color 
of those degrees which, in the American Rite, 
have been interpolated between the Royal 
Arch and Ancient Craft Masonry, namely, 
the Mark, Past, and Most Excellent Masters. 
It is in Masonry a symbol of fraternal union, 
because, being compounded of blue, the color 
of the Ancient Craft ? and red, which is that of 
the Royal Arch, it is intended to signify the 
close connection and harmony which should 
ever exist between those two portions of the 
Masonic system. It may be observed that 
this allusion to the union and harmony be- 
tween blue and red Masonry is singularly car- 
ried out in the Hebrew word which signifies 
purple. This word, which is ]tt3")N, argaman, 
is derived from ragam or regem, one of 
whose significations is " a friend." But Portal 
(Coul. Symb., 230) says that purple, in the 
profane language of colors, signifies constancy 
m spiritual combats, because blue denotes 
fidelity, and red, war. 

In the religious services of the Jews we find 
purple employed on various occasions. It 
was one of the colors of the curtains of the 
tabernacle, where, Josephua says, it was sym- 
bolic of the element of water, of the veils, and 
of the curtain over the great entrance : it was 
also used in the construction of the epnod and 
girdle of the high priest, and the cloths for 
Divine service. 

Among the Gentile nations of antiquity 
purple was considered rather as a color of dig- 
nity than of veneration, and was deemed an 
emblem of exalted office. Hence Homer men- 
tions it as peculiarly appropriated to royalty, 
and Virgil speaks of purpura regum, or "the 
purple of kings." Pliny says it was the color 
of tne vestments worn by the early kings of 
Rome; and it has ever since, even to the pres- 
ent time, been considered as the becoming 
insignia of regal or supreme authority. 

In American Masonry, the purple color 
seems to be confined to tne intermediate de- 
grees between the Master and the Royal Arch, 
except that it is sometimes employed in the 
vestments of officers representing either kings 
or men of eminent authority — such, for in- 
stance, as the Scribe in a Chapter of Royal 
Arch Masons. 

In the Grand Lodge of England, Grand 
Officers and Provincial Grand Officers wear 
purple collars and aprons. As the symbolic 
color of the Past Master's Degree, to which 
all Grand Officers should have attained, it is 
also considered in this country as the appro- 

Eriate color for the collars of officers of a 
rrand Lodge. 

Purple Brethren. In English Masonry, 
the Grand Officers of the Grand Lodge and the 
Past Grand and Deputy Grand Masters and 
Past and Present Provincial Grand Masters 
are called "purple brethren," because of the 
color of their decorations, and at meetings of 
the Grand Lodge are privileged to sit on the 
dais. 



602 PURPLE 

Purple Lodges. Grand and Provincial 
Grand Lodges are thus designated by Dr. 
Oliver in his Institutes of Masonic Jurisprur 
dence. The term is not used in this country. 

Purrah, The* A society of Sussu negroes 
exercising similar powers to, and for a some- 
what similar purpose as. the Vehmgericht. 

Pursuivant. The third and lowest order 
of heraldic officers. In Masonry the lowest 
officer in rank except the Tiler, if he may be 
termed an officer. 

Pyron, Jean Baptlste Pierre Jullen. A 
distinguished French Mason of the latter part 
of the last and beginning of the present cen- 
tury, who died at Paris in September. 1821. He 
was the author of many Masonic discourses, 
but his most important work was a profound 
and exhaustive History of the Oraanxzation of 
the Ancient and Accepted Rite in France, pub- 
lished in 1814. He was one of the founders 
of the Grand Orient, and having received the 
Thirty-third Degree from the Count de 
Grasse Tilly, he afterward assisted in the or- 
ganization of the Supreme Council of Italy, 
at Milan, and the Supreme Council of France. 
In 1805, nis name was struck from the register 
of the Grand Orient in consequence of his op- 
position to that body, but he remained the 
Secretary-General of the Supreme Council 
until his death. Ragon calls mm an intriguer 
and bold innovator { but Thory speaks more 
highly of his Masonic character. He was un- 
doubtedly a man of talent, learning, and Ma- 
sonic research. He made a manuscript col- 
lection of many curious degrees, which Thory 
has liberally used in his Nomenclature of Rites 
and Degrees. 

Pythagoras. One of the most celebrated 
of the Grecian philosophers, and the founder 
of what has been called the Italic school, 
was born at Samos about 586 B.C. Edu- 
cated as an athlete, he subsequently aban- 
doned that profession and devoted himself to 
the study of philosophy. He traveled through 
Egypt, Chaldea, and Asia Minor, and is said 
to have submitted to the initiations in those 
countries for the purpose of acquiring knowl- 
edge. On his return to Europe, he established 
his celebrated school at Crotona, much re- 
sembling that subsequently adopted by the 
Freemasons. His school soon acquired such a 
reputation that disciples flocked to him from 
all parts of Greece and Italy. Pythagoras 
taught as the principal dogma of his philos- 
ophy the system of metempsychosis, or the 
transmigration of souls. He taught the mys- 
tical power of numbers, and much of the sym- 
bolism on that subject which we now possess 
is derived from what has been left to us by his 
disciples, for of his own writings there is noth- 
ing extant. He was also a geometrician, and 
is regarded as having been the inventor of 
several problems, the most important of which 
is that now known as the forty-seventh prob- 
lem of Euclid. He was also a proficient in 
music, and is said to have demonstrated the 
mathematical relations of musical intervals, 
and to have invented a number of musical in- 
struments. Disdaining the vanity and dog- 



PYTHAGORAS 



matism of the ancient sages, he contented 
himself with proclaiming that ne was simply a 
seeker after knowledge, not its possessor, and 
to him is attributed the introduction of the 
word philosopher, or lover of wisdom, as the 
only title which he would assume. After the 
lawless destruction of his school at Crotona, 
he fled to the Locrians. who refused to receive 
him, when he repaired to Metapontum, and 
sought an asylum from his enemies in the tern- 

Sle of the Muses, where tradition says that he 
ied of starvation 506 B.C., when eighty years 
old. 

Pythagoras, School of. The schools es- 
tablished by Pythagoras at Crotona and other 
cities, have been considered by many writers 
as the models after which Masonic Lodges 
were subsequently constructed. They un- 
doubtedly served the Christian ascetics of the 
first century as a pattern for their monastic 
institutions, with which institutions the Free- 
masonry of the Middle Ages, in its operative 
character, was intimately connected. A 
brief description of the school of Crotona will 
not therefore be inappropriate. The dis- 
ciples of this school wore the simplest kind of 
clothing, and having on their entrance sur- 
rendered all their possessions to the common 
fund, they submitted for three years to vol- 
untary poverty, during which time they were 
also compelled to a rigorous silence. The 
doctrines of Pythagoras were always delivered 
as infallible propositions which admitted of no 
argument, and nence the expression abr6s fyi?, 
he said it, was considered as a sufficient an- 
swer to anyone who demanded a reason. 
The scholars were divided into Exoterics and 
Esoterics. This distinction was borrowed by 
Pythagoras from the Egyptian priests, who 
practised a similar mode of instruction. The 
exoteric scholars were those who attended the 
public assemblies, where general ethical in- 
structions were delivered by the sage. But 
only the esoterics constituted the true school, 
and these alone Pythagoras called, says Jam- 
blichus, his companions and friends. Before 
admission to the privileges of this school, the 
previous life and character of the candidate 
were rigidly scrutinized, and in the prepara- 
tory initiation secrecy was enjoined by an 
oath, and he was made to submit to the sever- 
est trials of his fortitude and self-command. 
He who after his admission was alarmed at 
the obstacles he had to encounter, was per- 
mitted to return to the world, and the dis- 
ciples, considering him as dead, performed his 
funeral obsequies, and erected a monument to 
his memory. 

The mode of living in the school of Crotona 
was like that of the modern communists. 
The brethren, about six hundred in number, 
with their wives and children, resided in one 
large building. Every morning the business 
and duties of the day were arranged, and at 
night an account wan rendered of the day's 
transactions. They arose before day to pay 
their devotions to the sun, and recited verses 
from Homer, Hesiod, or some other poet. 
Several hours were spent in study, after which 



PYTHAGORAS 



there was an interval before dinner, which 
was occupied in walking and in gymnastic 
exercises. The meals consisted principally of 
bread, honey, and water, for though the table 
was often covered with delicacies, no one was 
permitted to partake of them. It was in this 
secret school that Pythagoras gave his instruc- 
tions on his interior doctrine, and explained 
the hidden meaning of his symbols. There 
were three degrees: the first, or Mathematici, 
being engaged in the study of the exact sci- 
ences: and the second, or Theoretici, in the 
knowledge of God and the future state of 
man; but the third, or highest degree, was 
communicated only to a few whose intellects 
were capable of grasping the full fruition of 
the Pythagorean philosophy. This school, 
after existing for thirty years, was finally dis- 
solved through the machinations of Kylo ; a 
wealthy inhabitant of Crotona, who, having 
been refused admission, in revenge excited the 
citizens against it, when a lawless mob at- 
tacked the scholars while assembled in the 
house of Milo, set fire to the building and dis- 
persed the disciples, forty of them being 
burned to death. The school was never re- 
sumed, but after the death of the philosopher 
summaries of his doctrines were made by some 
of his disciples. Still many of his symbols 
and his esoteric teachings have to this day 
remained uninterpreted and unexplained. 

After this account of the Pythagorean 
school, the Mason will find no difficulty in 



QUALIFICATIONS 603 

understanding that part of the so-called Le- 
land Manuscript which is said to have so much 
puzzled the great metaphysician John Locke. 

This manuscript — the question of its au- 
thenticity is not nere entered upon — has the 
following paragraphs: 

"How comede ytt [Freemasonry] yn Enge- 
londe? 

"Peter Gower, a Grecian, journeyeded for 
kunnynge yn Egypte and m Syria, and yn 
everyche londe whereat the Venetians hadde 
plauntedde Maconrye, and wynnynge en- 
traunce yn al Lodges of Maconnes, he lerned 
muche, and retournedde and worked yn Grecia 
Magna wachsynze and becommynge a mygh- 
tye wysacre and gratelyche renowned, and 
here he framed a grate Lodge at Groton, and 
maked many Maconnes, some whereoffe dyd 
journeye yn Fraunce, and maked manye Ma- 
connes wherefromme, yn process of tyme, the 
arte passed yn Engelonde." 

Locke confesses that he was at first puz- 
zled with those strange names, Peter Gower, 
Groton, and the Venetians; but a little thinking 
taught him that they were only corruptions 
of Pythagoras, Crotona, and the Phoenicians. 

It is not singular that the old Masons should 
have called Pythagoras their "ancient friend 
and brother, and should have dedicated to 
him one of their geometrical symbols, the 
forty-seventh problem of Euclid; an epithet 
and a custom that have, by the force of nabit, 
been retained in all the modern rituals. 



Q 



Q. (Heb. p, Q or K, Koph.) The seven- 
teenth letter in the English and modern Latin 
alphabets. In the Phoenician or Ancient He- 
brew its form was one circle within another. 
Its numerical value is 100. The Canaanite 
signification is ear. 

Quadrivium. In classical Latin the word 
quadrivium meant a place where four roads 
met, and trivium, a place where three roads 
met. The scholastics of the Middle Ages, 
looking to the metaphorical meaning of the 
phrase the paths of learning, divided what 
were called the seven liberal arts and sciences, 
but which comprised the whole cycle of in- 
struction in those days, into two classes, call- 
ing grammar, rhetoric, and logic the trivium, 
and arithmetic, geometry, music, and astron- 
omy the quadrivium. These two roads to the 
temple of wisdom, including seven distinct 
sciences, were, in the Middle Ages, supposed to 
include universal knowledge. (See Liberal 
Arts and Sciences.) 

QuadrlYlum and Trivium. The seven 
liberal arts and sciences. The Quadrivium, 
in the language of the schools, were the four 
leaser arts, arithmetic, music, geometry, and 



astronomy; while the Trivium were the triple 
way to eloquence by the study of grammar, 
logic, and rhetoric. 

Quakers* The question of the admis- 
sibility of a Quaker's affirmation in Masonry 
is discussed under the word Affirmation, 
which see. 

Qualifications of Candidates. Every 
candidate for initiation into the mysteries of 
Freemasonry must be qualified by certain es- 
sential conditions. These qualifications are 
of two kinds, Internal and External. The in- 
ternal qualifications are those which lie within 
his own bosom, the external are those which 
refer to his outward and apparent fitness. The 
external qualifications are again divided into 
Moral, Religious, Physical, Menial, and Po- 
litical. 

I. The Internal Qualifications are: 

1. That the applicant must come of his own 
free will and accord. His application must be 
purely voluntary, to which ne has not been 
induced by persuasion of friends. 

2. That he must not be influenced by mer- 
cenary motives. 

3. That he must be prompted to make the 



604 QUARRELS 

application m consequence of a favorable 
opinion that he entertains of the Institution. 

4. That he must be resolved to conform 
with cheerfulness to the established usages 
and customs of the Fraternity. 

II. The External Qualifications are, as 
has already been said, divided into four kinds : 

1. The Moral. That candidate only is 

aualified for initiation who faithfully observes 
tie precepts of the moral law, and leads a vir- 
tuous life, so conducting himself as to receive 
the reward of his own conscience as well as the 
respect and approbation of the world. 

2. The Relioious. Freemasonry is exceed- 
ingly tolerant in respect to creeds, but it does 
require that every candidate for initiation 
shall believe in the existence of God as a super- 
intending and protecting power, and in a 
future hte. No inquiry will be made into 
modifications of religious belief, provided it 
includes these two tenets. 

3. The Physical. These refer to sex. age, 
and bodily conformation. The candidate 
must be a man, not a woman; of mature age, 
that is, having arrived at his majority, and not 
so old as to have sunk into dotage; and he 
must be in possession of all his limbs, not 
maimed or dismembered, but, to use the lan- 
guage of one of the old Charges, "have his 
right limbs as a man ought to have." 

4. The Menial. This division excludes all 
men who are not intellectually aualified to 
comprehend the character of the Institution, 
and to partake of its responsibilities. Hence 
fools or idiots and madmen are excluded. Al- 
though the landmarks do not make illiteracy a 
disqualification, and although it is undeniable 
that a large portion of the Craft in olden times 
was uneducated, yet there seems to be a 
general opinion that an incapacity to read 
and write will, in this day, disqualify a 
candidate. 

5. The Political. These relate to the con- 
dition of the candidate in society. The old 
rule required that none but those who were 
free born could be initiated, which, of course, 
excluded slaves and those torn in servitude: 
and although the Grand Lodge of England 
substituted free man for free born, it is unde- 
niable that that action was a violation of a 
landmark; and the old rule still exists, at 
least in America. 

Quarrels. Contention or quarreling in 
the Lodge, as well as without, is discounte- 
nanced by the spirit of all the Old Constitu- 
tions of Masonry. In the Charges compiled 
from them, approved by the Grand Lodge of 
England in 1722, and published by Dr. An- 
derson, it is said, "No private piques or quar- 
rels must be brought within the door of the. 
Lodge, far less any quarrels about religion, 
or nations, or State policy." {Constilulions. 
1723, p. 64.) 

Quarries* It is an error to speak, as Oliver 
does, misguided by some Masonic traditions, 
of the quarries of Tyre in connection with the 
Temple of Solomon. Modern researches have 
shown without question that the stones used 
in the construction of the Temple were taken 



QUARRIES 

out of quarries in the immediate vicinity; 
and the best traditions, as well as Scripture, 
claim only that the wood from the forests of 
Lebanon was supplied by King Hiram. The 
great quarries of Jerusalem are situated in the 
northeast portion of the city, near the Damas- 
cus gate. The entrance to them was first dis- 
covered by Barclay. A writer, quoted by 
Barclay, thus describes them (City of the 
Great King, p. 466): "Here were blocks of 
stones but half quarried, and still attached by 
one side to the rock. The work of quarrying 
was apparently effected by an instrument re- 
sembling a pickaxe, with abroad chisel-shaped 
end, as tne spaces between the blocks were not 
more than four inches wide, in which it would 
be impossible for a man to work with a chisel 
and mallet. The spaces were, many of them, 
four feet deep and ten feet in height, and the 
distance between them was about tour feet. 
After being cut away at each side and at the 
bottom, a lever was inserted, and the com- 
bined force of three or four men could easily 
pry the block away from the rock behind. 
The stone was extremely soft and friable, 
nearly white, and very easily worked, but, 
like the stone of Malta and Paris, hardening 
by exposure. The marks of the cutting in- 
strument were as plain and well-defined as if 
the workman had just ceased from his labor. 
The heaps of chippings which were found in 
these quarries showed that the stone had been 
dressed there, and confirm the Bible state- 
ment that the stone of which the Temple was 
built was made ready before it was brought 
thither." Barclay remarks (tb. { p. 118) that 
"those extra cyclopean stones m the south- 
east and south-west corners of the Temple wall 
were doubtless taken from this great quarry, 
and carried to their present position down the 
gently inclined plain on rollers — a conjecture 
which at once solves the mystery that has 
greatly puzzled travellers in relation to the 
difficulty of transporting and handling such 
immense masses of rock, and enables us to un- 
derstand why they were called 'stones of roll- 
ing 1 by Ezra." Mr. Prime also visited these 
quarries, and in his Tent Life in the Holy Land 
(p. 114) speaks of them thus: "One thing to 
me is very manifest: there has been solid 
stone taken from the excavation sufficient to 
build the walls of Jerusalem and the Temple 
of Solomon. The size of many of the stones 
taken from here appears to be very great. I 
know of no place to which the stone can have 
been carried but to these works, and I know 
no other quarries in the neighborhood from 
which the great stone of the walls would seem 
to have come. These two connected ideas com- 
pelled me strongly toward the belief that this 
was the ancient quarry whence the city was 
built; and when the magnitude of the exca- 
vation between the two opposing hills and of 
this cavern is considered, it is, to say the least 
of it, a difficult question to answer, what has 
become of the stone once here, on any other 
theory than that I have suggested." And he 
adds: "Who can say that the cavern which 
we explored was not the place where the ham* 



QUARTERLY 



QUORUM 



605 



men rang on the stone which were forbidden 
to sound in the silent growth of the great 
Temple of Solomon?" 

The researches of subsequent travelers, and 
especially the labors of the "Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund," have substantiated these 
statements, and confirmed the fact that the 
quarries where the workmen labored at the 
building of the Solomonic Temple were not in 
the dominions of the King of Tyre, but in the 
immediate vicinity of the Temple. In 1868, 
Rob. Morris held what he calls a "Moot 
lodge" in these quarries, which event he de- 
scribes in his Freemasonry in the Holy Land, a 
work of great interest to Masonic scholars. 

Quarterly Communication. The Old 
Records of the Institution state that the Fra- 
ternity met annually in their General Assem- 
bly. The HalliweU or Regius Manuscript 
savs it is true that the Assembly may be held 
tnennially, "Eche year or third year it should 
be hold" (line 475); but wherever spoken of 
in subsequent records, it is always as an An- 
nual Meeting. It is not until 1717 that we 
find anything said of quarterly communica- 
tions; and the first allusion to these subordi- 
nate meetings in any printed work to which 
we now have access is m 1738. in the edition 
of the Constitutions published in that year. 
The expression there used is that the quarterly 
communications were "forthwith revived." 
This of course implies that they had previ- 
ously existed: but as no mention is made of 
them in the Regulations of 1663, which, on 
♦he contrary, speak expressly only of an "An- 
nual General Assembly," we may infer that 
quarterly communications must have been 
first introduced into the Masonic system after 
the middle of the seventeenth century. They 
have not the authority of antiquity, and have 
been very wisely discarded by nearly all the 
Grand Lodges in this country. They are still 
retained by the Grand Lodges of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, but in the United States 
only by those of Massachusetts and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Quaternion* From the Latin quater, the 
number Four, which see. Oliver calls it the 
quaternary, but quaternion is the better usage. 

Quataor Coronatl. See Four Crowned 
Martyrs. 

Quataor Coronatl Lodge. This Lodge. 
No. 2076 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of 
England, was established in 1886. for the pur- 
pose of studying the History, Symbols, and 
Legends of Freemasonry, and it is in fact a 
Masonic Literary and Archeological Society, 
meeting as a tiled Lodge. Attached to the 
Lodge proper, which is limited to 40 full 
members, is a Correspondence Circle estab- 
lished in 1887, and now numbering over 
3,000 members drawn from all parts of the 
world. The transactions of the Lodge are 
published under the title of Ars Uuatuor 
Coronatorum. The Lodge is named after the 
"Four Crowned Martyrs" (q. v.). All Mas- 
ter Masons in good standing are eligible to 
membership in the Correspondence Circle. 
The dues are $2.50 a year, for which the valu- 



able Transactions of the Lodge are sent to 
each member. [E. L. H.] 

Quebec. From 1855 to 1869 the Grand 
Lodge of Canada was the controlling Masonic 
power in the Province of Quebec, but with the 
birth of the Dominion came also the agitation 
for separate Grand Lodges. Several meetings 
were held, and finally, on the 20th of October. 
1869, the Grand Lodge of Quebec was formed 
by twenty-eight of the Warranted Lodges 
then in the Province, with M. W. Bro. Jonn 
Hamilton Graham. LL.D., as Grand Master. 

[W. H. W.] 

Questions of Henry VI. Questions said 
to have been proposed by King Henry VI. of 
England to the Masons of the kingdom, 



which, with their answers, are contained in 
the manuscript known as the Leland Manu- 
script, which see. 

Quetiialcoatl. The Mexican idea of 
the Deity of Enlightenment. The spirit-man 
from whom they received their civilization, 
and for whose second coming they wait. Him 
for whom they mistook Cortez, and therefore 
welcomed him with joy. 

Quorum. The parliamentary law pro- 
vides that a deliberative body shall not pro- 
ceed to business until a quorum of its mem- 
bers is present. And this law is applicable 
to Masonry, except that, in constituting a 
quorum for opening and working a Lodge, it 
is not necessary that the quorum shall be made 
up of actual members ot the Lodge; for the 
proper officers of the Lodge being present, the 
quorum may be completed by any brethren 
of the Craft. As to the number of brethren 
necessary to make a quorum for the transaction 
of business, the Old Constitutions and Regu- 
lations are silent, and the authorities conse- 
quently differ. In reply to an inquiry directed 
to him in 1857, the editor of the London Free- 
masons* Magazine affirmed that five Masons 
are sufficient to open a Lodge and carry on 
business other than initiation ; for which latter 
purpose seven are necessary. This opinion 
appears to be the general English one, and is 
acquiesced in by Dr. Oliver; but there is no 
authority of law for it. And when, in the 
year 1818, the suggestion was made that some 
regulation was necessary relative to the num- 
ber of brethren requisite to constitute a legal 
Lodge, with competent powers to perform the 
rite of initiation, and transact all other busi- 
ness, the Board of General Purposes of the 
Grand Lodge of England, to whom the sug- 
gestion had been referred, replied, with some- 
thing like Dogberrian astuteness, "that it is a 
matter of so much delicacy and difficulty, that 
it is thought advisable not to depart from 
the silence on the subject which nad been 
observed in all the Books of Constitutions." 

In the absence, then, of all written laws 
upon the subject, and without any constitu- 
tional provision to guide us, we are compelled 
to recur to the ritual for authority. There 
the answer to the question in each degree, 
"How many compose a Lodge?" will supply 
us with the rule by which we are to establish 
the quorum in that degree. For whatever 



606 QUORUM 

number composes a Lodge, that is the number 
which will authorize the Lodge to proceed to 
business. The ritual has thus established the 
number which constitutes a "perfect Lodge/ 1 
and without which number a Lodge could not 
be legally opened, and therefore, necessarily, 
could not proceed to work or business; for 
there is no distinction, in respect to a quorum, 
between a Lodge when at work or when en- 
gaged in business. 
According to the ritualistic rule referred to, 



RAGON 

seven constitute a quorum, for work or busi- 
ness, in an Entered Apprentice's Lodge, five 
in a Fellow-Craft's, and three in a Master 
Mason's. Without this requisite number no 
Lodge can be opened in either of these degrees. 
In a Chapter or Royal Arch Masons nine Com- 
panions constitute a quorum, and in a Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar eleven Knights: 
although, under certain circumstances well 
known to the Order, three Knights are com- 
petent to transact business. 



R 



ft. (Heb. 1, Resh.) The eighteenth letter 
in the English and other Western alphabets. 
The word Resh signifies forehead, and in the 

n Phoenician and hieroglyphic charac- 
ter is thus represented. Its numerical 
value is 200, and the equivalent as a 
name of God is CI HI, Rahum, signify- 
ing clemency. 

Rabbanaim. Rabbinical He- 

brew, and signifying "the chief of the archi- 
tects." A significant word in the high de- 
grees. 

Rabbinlsm. The system of philosophy 
taught by the Jewish Rabbis subsequent 
to the dispersion, which is engaged in mystical 
explanations of the oral law. With the 
reveries of the Jewish teachers was mingled 
the Egyptian, the Arabic, and the Grecian 
doctrines. From the Egyptians, especially, 
Rabbinism derived its allegorical and symbolic 
mode of instruction. Out of it sprang the 
Therapeutists and the Essenians; and it gave 
rise to the composition of the Talmud, many 
of whose legends have been incorporated 
into the mythical philosophy of Speculative 
Masonry. And this it is that makes Rab- 
binism an interesting subject of research to 
the Masonic student. 

Kabbonl. Literally, my Master, 

equivalent to the pure Hebrew, Adoni. As 
a significant word in the higher degrees, it 
has Been translated 11 a most excellent Master." 
and its usage by the later Jews will justify 
that interpretation. Buxtorf (Lex. Talmud.) 
tells us that about the time of Christ this 
title arose in the school of HiUel, and was 
given to only seven of their wise men who 
were preeminent for their learning. Jahn 
(Arch. Bib., § 106) says that Gamaliel, the 
preceptor of St. Paul, was one of these. They 
styled themselves the children of wisdom, 
which is an expression very nearly corre- 
sponding to the Greek <pt\o<ro<poi. The word 
occurs once, as applied to Christ, in the New 
Testament (John xx. 16), "Jesus said unto 
her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith 
unto him, Rabboni. which is to say, Master." 
The Masonic myth in the "Most Excellent 



Master's Degree," that it was the title ad- 
dressed by the Queen of Sheba to King 
Solomon on beholding the magnificence 
and splendor of the Temple, wants the 
element of plausibility, inasmuch as the 
word was not in use in the time of Solomon. 

Ragon, J. M. One of the most dis- 
tinguished Masonic writers of France. His 
contemporaries did not hesitate to call him 
"the most learned Mason of the nineteenth 
century." He was born in the last quarter 
of the eighteenth century, most probably 
at Bruges, in Belgium, where in 1803 he 
was initiated in the Lodge Reunion des 
Amis du Nord, and subsequently assisted 
in the foundation of the Lodge and Chapter 
of Vrais Amis in the same city. On his 
removal to Paris he continued his devotion 
to Freemasonry, and was the founder in 1805 
of the celebrated Lodge of Les Trinosophes. 
In that Lodge he delivered, in 1818, a course 
of lectures on ancient and modern initiations, 
which twenty years afterward were repeated 
at the reouest of the Lodge, and published in 
1841, under the title of Cours PhUosophique 
et Interpratif des Initiations Aneiennes et 
Modernes. This work was printed with the 
express permission of the Grand Orient of 
France, but three years after that body 
denounced its second edition for containing 
some additional matter. Rebold charges 
this act to the petty passions of the day, and 
twenty-five years after the Grand Orient 
made ample reparation in the honor that it 
paid to the memory of Ragon. In 1818 and 
1819, he was editor in chief of the periodical 
published during those years under the title 
of Hermes, ou Archives Maconniques. In 
1853, he published Orthodoxie Maconniaue, 
a work abounding in historical information, 
although some of his statements are inac- 
curate. In 1861, he published the Tuileur 
GSneral de la Fmnc-Maconnerie, ou Manuel 
de Vlnitte; a book not merely confined to 
the details of degrees, but which is enriched 
with many valuable and interesting notes. 
Ragon died at Paris about the year 1866. 
In the preface to his Orthodoxie, he had an- 



RAGOTZKY 



nounced his intention to crown his Masonic 
labors by writing a work to be entitled Les 
Fasles Initiatiques, in which he proposed to 
give an exhaustive view of the Ancient Mys- 
teries, of the Roman Colleges of Architects 
and their successors, the building corpora- 
tions of the Middle Ages, and of the institu- 
tion of Modern or Philosophic Masonry at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
This was to constitute the first volume. The 
three following volumes were to embrace a 
history of the Order and of all its Rites in 
every country. The fifth volume was to be 
appropriated to the investigation of other 
secret associations, more or less connected 
with Freemasonry; and the sixth and last 
volume was to contain a General Tiler or 
manual of all the known rites and degrees. 
Such a work would have been an inestimable 
boon to the Masonic student, but Ragon 
unfortunately began it too late in life. He 
did not live to complete it, and in 1868 the 
unfinished manuscript was purchased, by the 
Grand Orient of France, from his heirs for a 
thousand francs. It was destined to be 
quietly deposited in the archives of that 
body, because, as it was confessed, no Mason 
could be found in France who had ability 
enough to supply its lacunas and prepare it 
for the press. 

Ragon's theory of the origin of Masonry 
was that its primitive idea is to be found 
in the initiations of the Ancient Mysteries, 
but that for its present form it is indebted 
to Elias Ashmole, who fabricated it in the 
seventeenth century. 

Ragotzky, Carl August. A German 
who was distinguished for his labors in 
Masonry, and for the production of several 
works ol high character, the principal of 
which were Der Freidenker in der Maurerei 
oder Freimulhige Brief e uber wichtige Gegen- 
st&nde in der Frei-Maurerei, i. e., The Free- 
thinker in Masonry, or Candid Letters on 
important subjects m Freemasonry, published 
at Berlin, in 1793, in an octavo volume of 
three hundred and eleven pages, of which a 
second edition appeared in 1811 ; and a smaller 
work entitled Ueoer Maurerischt Freiheit, fUr 
eingeweihte und uneingeweihte l i. e., An Essay 
on Masonic Liberty, for initiated and unin- 
itiated readers, published in 1792. He died 
January 5, 1823. 

Rainbow, The Most Ancient Order 
of the* A secret association existing in 
Moorfields in 1760. 

Bains* It was a custom among the 
English Masons of the middle of the last 
century, when conversing together on Ma- 
sonry, to announce the appearance of a 
profane bv the warning expression "it 
rains." The custom was adopted by the 
German and French Masons, with the 
equivalent expression, es reqnet and il pluie. 
Baron Tschoudy, who condemns the usage, 
says that the latter refined upon it by 
designating the approach of a female by il 
neige, it snows. Dr. Oliver says (Rev. Sq., 
142) that the phrase "it rains, to indicate 



RAMSAY 607 

that a cowan is present and the proceed- 
ings must be suspended, is derived from 
the ancient punishment of an eavesdropper, 
which was to place him under the eaves of a 
house in rainy weather, and to retain him 
there till the droppings of water ran in at 
the collar of his coat and out at his shoes. 

liaised. When a candidate has received 
the Third Degree, he is said to have been 
"raised" to the sublime degree of a Master 
Mason. The expression refers, materially, 
to a portion of the ceremony of initiation, 
but symbolically, to the resurrection, which 
it is the object of the degree to exemplify. 

Raising Sheet* A term sometimes given 
to one of the common properties known 
to Master Masons. 

Ramayana* The great epic of ancient 
India, deemed a sacred writing by its people, 
narrating the history of Rama, or Vishnu 
incarnate, and his wife Siva. It contains 
about 24,000 verses, in seven books, written 
in Sanskrit, and is ascribed to Valmfki, who 
lived about the beginning of the Christian 
era. 

Ramsay, Andrew Michael. Commonly 
called the Chevalier Ramsay. He was born 
at Ayr, in Scotland. [There is some un- 
certainty about the date of his birth, but 
according to his own account he must have 
been born in 1680 or 81, because in 1741 he told 
Herr von Gensau that he was 60 years old.] 
His father was a baker, but being the pos- 
sessor of considerable property was enabled to 
give his son a liberal education. He was 
accordingly sent to school in his native burgh, 
and afterward to the University of Edinburgh, 
where he was distinguished for his abilities 
and diligence. In 1709 he was entrtisted with 
the education of the two sons of the Earl of 
Wemyss. Subsequently, becoming unsettled 
in his religious opinions, he resigned that em- 
ployment and went to Holland, residing for 
some time at Leyden. There he became 
acquainted with Pierre Poiret, one of the 
most celebrated teachers of the mystic 
theology which then prevailed on the Con- 
tinent. From him Ramsay learned the 
principal tenets of that system; and it is 
not unreasonable to suppose that he was 
thus indoctrinated with tnat love of mysti- 
cal speculation which he subsequently de- 
veloped as the inventor of Masonic degrees, 
and as the founder of a Masonic Rite. In 
1710. he visited the celebrated Fenelon. 
Archbishop of Cambrai, of whose mystical 
tendencies he had heard, and met with a 
cordial reception. The archbishop invited 
Ramsay to become his guest, and in six 
months he was converted to the Catholic 
faith. Fenelon procured for him the pre- 
ceptorship of the Due de Chateau-Thierry 
and the Prince de Turenne. As a reward 
for his services in that capacity, he was made 
a Knight of the Order of St. Lazarus, whence 
he received the title of "Chevalier" by 
which he was usually known. He was 
subsequently selected by James III., the 
Pretender, as the tutor of his two sons, 



608 RAMSAY 

Charles Edward and Henry, the former of 
whom became afterward trie Young Pre- 
tender, and the latter the Cardinal York. 
For this purpose he repaired, in 1724, to 
Rome. But the political and religious in- 
trigues of that court became distasteful to 
him, and in a short time he obtained per- 
mission to return to France. In 1728, he 
visited England, and became an inmate of 
the family of the Duke of Argyle. Cham- 
bers says (Biog* Did.) that while there he 
wrote his PHncijAes of Natural and Revealed 
Religion, and his Travels of Cyrus. This 
statement is evidently incorrect. The for- 
mer did not appear until after his death, 
and was probably one of the last produc- 
tions of his pen. The latter had already 
been published at Paris in 1727. But he had 
already acquired so great a literary reputa- 
tion, that the University of Oxford con- 
ferred on him the degree of Doctor of Civil 
Law. He then returned to France, and 
resided for many years at Pointoise, a seat 
of the Prince of Turenne, where he wrote his 
Life of F4nelon t and a History of the Viscount 
Turenne. Dunne the remainder of his life he 
resided as Intenaant in the Prince's family, 
and died May 6, 1743, in the sixty-second year 
of his age. 

[He was a Freemason and Grand Chancel- 
lor of the Grand Lodge of Paris, but it is 
not known where and when he became a 
Mason; it was probably during his visit to 
England about 1730.] 

Samsay, although born of humble parent- 
age, was by subsequent association an aristo- 
crat in disposition. Hence, in proposing his 
theory of the origin of Freemasonry, he 
repudiated its connection with an operative 
art, and sought to find its birthplace in 
Palestine, among those kings and knights 
who had gone forth to battle as Crusaders 
for the conquest of Jerusalem. In 1737, 
Ramsay, as Grand Orator, pronounced a 
discourse before the Grand Lodge of France, 
in which he set forth his theory in explicit 
terms. The following is a translation of 
part of the speech: 

"During the time of the holy wars in 
Palestine, several principal lords and citi- 
zens associated themselves together, and 
entered into a vow to re-establish the tem- 
ples of the Christians in the Holy Land; and 
engaged themselves by an oath to employ 
their talents and their fortunes in restoring 
architecture to its primitive institution. 
They adopted several ancient signs and 
symbolic words drawn from religion, by 
which they might distinguish themselves 
from the infidels and recognize each other 
in the midst of the Saracens. They com- 
municated these signs and words only to 
those who had solemnly sworn, often at 
the foot of the altar, never to reveal them. 
This was not an oath of execration, but a 
bond uniting men of all nations into the 
same confraternity. Some time after our 
Order was united with the Knights of St. 
John of Jerusalem. Hence our Lodges 



RAMSAY 



are in all countries called Lodges of St. 
John. This union was made in imitation 
of the Israelites when they rebuilt the second 
Temple, during which tune with one hand 
they managed the trowel and mortar, and 
in the other held the sword and buckler. 

"Our Order must not, therefore, be re- 
garded as a renewal of the Bacchanals and 
a source of senseless dissipation, of unbridled 
libertinism and of scandalous intemperance, 
but as a moral Order, instituted by our an- 
cestors in the Holy Land to recall the recollec- 
tion of the most sublime truths in the midst 
of the innocent pleasures of society. 

"The kings, princes, and nobles, when 
they returned from Palestine into their 
native dominions, established Lodges there. 
At the time of the last Crusade several 
Lodges had already been erected in Ger- 
many, Italy. Spain, France, and, from the 
last, in Scotland, on account of the intimate 
alliance which then existed between those 
two nations. 

"James, Lord Steward of Scotland, was 
the Grand Master of a Lodge established 
at Kilwinning, in the west of Scotland, in 
the year 1230, a short time after the death 
of Alexander III., King of Scotland, and a year 
before John Baliol ascended the throne. This 
Scottish lord received the Earls of Gloucester 
and Ulster, English and Irish noblemen, as 
Masons in his Lodge. 

"By degrees our Lodges, our festivals, 
and our solemnities were neglected in most 
of the countries where they had been estab- 
lished. Hence the silence of the historians 
of all nations, except Great Britain, on the 
subject of the Order. It was preserved, 
however, in all its splendor by the Scotch, 
to whom for several centuries the kings of 
France had intrusted the guardianship of 
their sacred persons. 

"After the lamentable reverses of the 
Crusades, the destruction of the Christian 
armies, and the triumph of Bendocdar, 
Sultan of Egypt, in 1263, during the eighth 
and ninth Crusades, the great Prince Ed- 
ward, son of Henry III., King of England, 
seeing that there would be no security for 
the brethren in the Holy Land when the 
Christian troops should retire, led them 
away, and thus this colony of the Frater- 
nity was established in England. As this 
prince was endowed with all the qualities 
of mind and heart which constitute the 
hero, he loved the fine arts, and declared 
himself the protector of our Order. He 
granted it several privileges and franchises, 
and ever since the members of the con- 
fraternity have assumed the name of Free- 
masons. From this time Great Britain 
became the seat of our sciences, the con- 
servatrix of our lawB, and the depository 
of our secrets. The religious dissensions 
which so fatally pervaded and rent all Europe 
during the sixteenth century, caused our 
Order to degenerate from the grandeur and 
nobility of its origin. Several of our rites 
and usages, which were opposed to the 



RAMSAY 



RAWLINSON 609 



prejudices of the times, were changed, dis- 
guised, or retrenched. Thus it is that sev- 
eral of our brethren have, like the ancient 
Jews, forgotten the spirit of our laws, and 
preserved only the letter and the outer cov- 
ering. But from the British isles the ancient 
science is now beginning to pass again into 
France." 

Such was the peculiar theory of Ramsay. 
Rejecting all reference to the Traveling 
Architects from Como, to the Stone Masons 
of Germany, and the Operative Freema- 
sons of England, he had sought a noble and 
chivalric origin for Freemasonry, which with 
him was not a confraternity founded on a 
system of architecture, but solely on the 
military prowess and religious enthusiasm 
of knighthood. The theory was as clearly 
the result of his own inventive genius as was 
his fable of the travels of Cyrus. He offered 
no documentary or historical authority to 
support his assertions, but gave them as if 
they were already admitted facts. The 
theory was, however, readily accepted by the 
rich, the fashionable, and the noble, because 
it elevated the origin and the social position 
of the Order, and to it we are to attribute 
the sudden rise of so many high degrees, 
which speedily overshadowed the humbler 

{^tensions of primitive Craft Masonry. 
After the delivery of this speech a number of 
Chivalric Degrees were invented in France 
and styled Scottish Masonry, and they have 
been attributed to Ramsay, acting as has 
been supposed in the interests of the exiled 
Stuarts; and he has also been considered the 
inventor of the Royal Arch Degree; but 
R. F. Gould in his History of Freemasonry 
has shown that there is no foundation for 
either of these theories; and that Ramsay's 
influence on Freemasonry was due to his 
speech alone.] 

All writers concur in giving the most favor- 
able opinions of Ramsay's character. Cham- 
bers asserts that he was generous and kind 
to his relatives, and that on his temporary 
return to Great Britain, although he did 
not visit them in Scotland, he sent them 
liberal offers of money, which, however, in- 
censed at his apostasy from the national 
religion, they indignantly refused to accept. 
Clavel (Hi*. Pittor., p. 165) describes him 
as "a man endowed with an ardent imagi- 
nation, and a large amount of learning, wit, 
and urbanity." And Robison (Proofs of a 
Consj)., p. 39) says he was "as eminent for 
his piety as he was for his enthusiasm," and 
speaks of his "eminent learning, his elegant 
talents, and his amiable character." 

His general literary reputation is secured 
by his Life of FSnelon, his Travels of Cyrus, 
and the elaborate work, published after his 
death, entitled The Philosophical Principles 
of Natural and Revealed Religion, Unfolded 
in a Geometrical Order. He is said to have 
been the author of an Apologetic and His- 
torical Relation of the Society of Freemasonry, 
which was published in 1738, and had the 
honor to be burnt the next year at Rome by 

40 



the public executioner, on the sentence of the 
Sacred Congregation of the Inquisition. 

Raphael. (Hebrew interpretation, "The 
healing of God.") The title of an officer in 
a Rose Croix Chapter. The name of the 
angel, under the Kabbalistical system, that 
governed the planet Mercury. A messenger. 

Batlsbon. A city of Bavaria, in which 
two Masonic Congresses have been held. 
The first was convoked in 1459, by Jost 
Dotzinger, the master of the works of the 
Strasburg cathedral. It established some 
new laws for the government of the Frater- 
nity in Germany. The second was called 
in 1464, by the Grand Lodge of Strasburg, 
principally to define the relative rights of, 
and to settle existing difficulties between, 
the Grand Lodges of Strasburg, Cologne, 
Vienna, and Bern. (See Stone Masons of the 
Middle Ages.) 

Rawlinson Manuscript. In 1855, the 
Rev. J. S. Sidebotham, of New College, 
Oxf ord ? published in the Freemasons 1 Monthly 
Magazine a series of interesting extracts from 
a manuscript volume which ne stated was 
in the Bodleian Library, and which he de- 
scribed as seeming "to be a kind of Masonic 
album, or commonplace book, belonging to 
Brother Richard Rawlinson, LL.D. and 
F. R. S., of the following Lodges: Sash and 
Cocoa-tree, Moorfields, 37: St. Paul's Head, 
Ludgate Street, 40; Rose Tavern, Cheapside, 
and Oxford Arms, Ludgate Street. 94 ; in which 
he inserted anything that struck him either 
as useful or particularly amusing. It is 
partly in manuscript, partly in print, and com- 
prises some ancient Masonic Charges, Con- 
stitutions, forms of summons, a list of all 
the Lodges of his time under the Grand 
Lodge of England, whether in London, the 
country, or abroad; together with some ex- 
tracts from the Grub Street Journal, the 
General Evening Post, and other journals of 
the day. The dates range from 1724 to 
1740." (P. M. Monthly Mag., 1855, p. 81.) 

Among the materials thus collected is 
one which bears the following title: The 
Freemasons' Constitutions, Copied from an 
Old MS. in the possession of Dr. Rawlin- 
son. This copy of the Old Constitutions 
does not differ materially in its contents 
from the other old manuscripts, but its 
more modern spelling and phraseology would 
seem to give it a later date, which may be from 
1725 to 1750. In a note to the statement 
that King Athelstan "caused a roll or book 
to be made, which declared how this science 
was first invented, afterwards preserved and 
augmented, with the utility and true intent 
thereof, which roll or book he commanded to 
be read and plainly recited when a man was 
to be made a Freemason," Dr. Rawlinson 
says: "One of these rolls 1 have seen in the 
possession of Mr. Baker, a carpenter in 
Moorfields." The title of the manuscript 
in the scrap-book of Rawlinson is The Free- 
masons 1 Constitution, Copied from an Old 
MS. in the possession of Dr. Rawlinson. The 
original MS. has not yet been traced, but 



610 RECEIVED 



RECOGNITION 



possibly if found would be of about the end 
of the seventeenth century. 

Richard Rawlinson, LL.D., was a cele- 
brated antiquary, who was born in London 
about 1690, and died April 6, 1755. He 
was the author of a Life of Anthony Wood, 
published in 1711, and of The English To- 
pographer, published in 1720. Dr. Rawlin- 
son was consecrated a bishop of the non- 
juring communion of the Church of England, 
March 25, 1728. He was an assiduous 
collector of old manuscripts, invariably 
purchasing, sometimes at high prices, all 
that were offered him for sale. In his will, 
dated June 2, 1752, he bequeathed the whole 
collection to the University of Oxford. The 
manuscripts were placed in the Bodleian 
Library, and still remain there. In 1808, Dr. 
W. J. Chetwode Crawley published in the 
Art Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. xi., a full 
account of the Rawlinson MSS., in which he 
shows that the collection was not really made 
by Dr. Rawlinson, but by one Thomas Towl. 
(P. 15.) 

Received and Acknowledged. A term 
applied to the initiation of a candidate into 
the Sixth or Most Excellent Master's Degree 
of the American Rite. (See Acknowledged.) 

Reception* The ceremony of initiation 
into a degree of Masonry is called a reception. 

Recipient. The French call the candidate 
in any degree of Masonry the Recipiendaire, 
or Recipient. 

Recognition. Modes of. Smith says 
(Use and Abuse, p. 46) that at the institu- 
tion of the Order, to each of the degrees "a 
particular distinguished test was adapted, 
which test, together with the explication, was 
accordingly settled and communicated to the 
Fraternity previous to their dispersion, under 
a necessary and solemn injunction to secrecy : 
and they have been most cautiously preserved 
and transmitted down to posterity by faith- 
ful brethren ever since their emigration." 

Hence, of all the landmarks, the modes of 
recognition are the most legitimate and 
unquestioned. They should admit of no 
variation, for in their universality consist 
their excellence and advantage. And yet 
such variations have unfortunately been 
admitted, the principal of which originated 
about the middle of the eighteenth century, 
and were intimately connected with the 
division of the Fraternity in England into 
the two conflicting societies of the "An- 
cients 11 and the "Moderns": and although 
by the reconciliation in 1813 uniformity 
was restored in the United Grand Lodge 
which was then formed, that uniformity did 
not extend to the subordinate bodies in 
other countries which had derived their 
existence and their different modes of recog- 
nition from the two separated Grand Lodges; 
and this was, of course, equally applicable 
to the high degrees which sprang out of 
them. Thus, while the modes of recognition 
in the York and Scottish Rites are substan- 
tially the same, those of the French or Modern 
Rite differ in almost everything. In this 



there is a P. W. in the First Degree unrecog* 
nised by the two other Rites, and all after- 
ward are different. 

Again, there are important differences in 
the York and American Rites, although 
there is sufficient similarity to relieve Ameri- 
can and English Masons from any embar- 
rassment in mutual recognition. Although 
nearly all the Lodges in the United States, 
before the Revolution of 1776, derived their 
existence from the Grand Lodges of England, 
the American Masons do not use the multi- 
tude of signs that prevail in the English sys- 
tem, while they nave introduced, I think, 
through the teachings of Webb, the D. G., 
which is totally unknown to English Masonry. 
Looking to these differences, the Masonic 
Congress of .Paris, held in 1856, recommended, 
in the seventh proposition, that "Masters 
of Lodges, in coniemng the degree of Master 
Mason, should invest tne candidate with the 
words, signs, and grips of the Scottish and 
Modern Kites." This proposition, if it had 
been adopted, would nave mitigated, if it 
did not abolish, the evil; but, unfortunately, 
it did not receive the general concurrence of 
the Craft. 

As to the antiquity of modes of recogni- 
tion in general, it may be said that, from 
the very nature of things, there was always 
a necessity for the members of every secret 
society to have some means for recognizing 
a brother that should escape the detec- 
tion of the uninitiated. We find evidence 
in several of the classic writings showing 
that such a custom prevailed among the 
initiated in the Pagan mysteries. Livy 
tells us (xxxi., 14) of two Acarnanian youths 
who accidentally entered the temple of 
Ceres during the celebration of the mysteries, 
and, not having been initiated, were speedily 
detected as intruders, and put to death by 
the managers of the temple. They must, 
of course, have owed their detection to the 
fact that they were not in possession of those 
modes of recognition which were known only 
to the initiated. 

That they existed in the Dionysiac rites 
of Bacchus we learn from Plautus, who, in 
his Miles Oloriosus (Act IV., Sc. ii.), makes 
Misphidippa say to Pyrgopolonices, "Cedo 
signum si harunc Bacchanim es," Give the 
sign, if you are one of these Bacchat. 

Jamblichus (Vit. Pyth.) tells the story 
of a disciple of Pythagoras^ who, having 
been taken sick, on a long journey, at an 
inn, and having exhausted his funds, gave, 
before he died, to the landlord, who had 
been very kind to him, a paper, on which 
he had written the account of his distress, 
and signed it with a symbol of Pythagoras. 
This tne landlord affixed to the gate of a 
neighboring temple. Months afterward an- 
other Pythagorean, passing that way, recog- 
nised the secret symbol, and. mquiring into 
the tale, reimbursed the landlord for all his 
trouble and expense. 

Apuleius, who was initiated into the 
Osinan and Isiao mysteries, says, in his 



RECOMMENDATION 



Defensio, "if any one is present who has 
been initiated into the same secret rites as 
xnyBelf, if he will give me the sign, he shall 
then be at liberty to hear what it is that 
I keep with such care." But in another 
place he is less cautious, and even gives an 
inkling of what was one of the signs of the 
Osirian initiation. For in his Golden Ass 
Gib. xi.) he says that in a dream he beheld 
one of the disciples of Osiris, "who walked 
gently, with a hesitating step, the ankle of 
his left foot being slightly bent, in order, 
no doubt, that he might afford, me some 
sign by wnich I could recognize him." The 
Osirian initiates had then, it seems, like the 
Freemasons, mystical steps. 

That the Gnostics had modes of recogni- 
tion we learn from St. Epiphanius, himself 
at one time in early life a Gnostic, who 
says in his Panarium, written against the 
Gnostics and other heretics, that "on the 
arrival of any stranger belonging to the 
same belief, they have a sign given by one 
to another. In holding out the hand, under 
pretence of saluting each other, they feel and 
tickle it in a peculiar manner underneath the 

Ealm, and so discover if the new-comer be- 
mgs to the same sect. Thereupon, however 
poor they may be, they serve up to him a 
sumptuous feast, with abundance of meats 
and wine." 

I do not refer to the fanciful theories of 
Dr. Oliver' — the first one most probably a 
Joke, and therefore out of place in his Sym- 
bolical Dictionary — founded on passages of 
Homer and Quintus Curtius, that Achilles 
and Alexander of Macedon recognized the one 
Priam and the other the High Priest by 
a sign. But there are abundant evidences of 
an authentic nature that a system of recogni- 
tion by signs, and words, and grips has 
existed in the earliest times, and. therefore, 
that they were not invented by tne Masons, 
who borrowed them, as they did much more 
of their mystical system, from antiquity. 

Recommendation. The petition of a 
candidate for initiation must be recom- 
mended by at least two members of the 
Lodge. Preston requires the signature to 
be witnessed by one person (he does not 
say whether he must be a member of the 
Lodge or not), and that the candidate must 
be proposed in open Lodge by a member. 
Webb says that "the candidate must be 
proposed m form, by a member of the Lodge, 
and the proposition seconded by another 
member." Gross says that the recommenda- 
tion "is to be signed by two members of the 
Lodge," and he dispenses with the formal 
proposition. These gradual changes, none 
of them, however, substantially affecting the 
principle, have at last resulted in the present 
simpler usage, which is, for two members 
of the Lodge to affix their names to the 
petition, as recommenders of the applicant. 

The petition for a Dispensation for a new 
Lodge, as preliminary to the application for 
a Warrant of Constitution, must be recom- 
mended by the nearest Lodge. Preston 



RECONSIDERATION 611 



says that it must be recommended "by the 
Masters of three regular Lodges adjacent to 
the place where the new Lodge is to be 
held. This is also the language of the 
Constitution of the Grand Lodge of Ire- 
land. The Grand Lodge of Scotland re- 
quires the recommendation to be signed 
"by the Masters and officers of two of the 
nearest Lodges." The modern Constitu- 
tion of the Grand Lodge of England re- 
quires a recommendation "by the officers 
of some regular Lodge," without saying 
anything of its vicinity to the new Lodge. 
The rule now universally adopted is, that 
it must be recommended by the nearest 
Lodge. 

Reconciliation, Lodge of. When the 
two contending Grand Lodges of England, 
known as the " Ancients " and the " Moderns, 
resolved, in 1813, under the respective 
Grand Masterships of the Dukes of Kent 
and Sussex, to put an end to all differences, 
and to form a united Grand Lodge, it was 
provided, in the fifth article of union, that 
each of the two Grand Masters should 
appoint nine Master Masons to meet at 
some convenient place; and each party 
having opened a just and perfect Lodge in 
a separate apartment, they should give and 
receive mutually and reciprocally the obliga- 
tions of both Fraternities; and being thus 
duly and equally enlightened in both forms, 
they should be empowered and directed to 
hold a Lodge, under the Warrant or Dispensa- 
tion to be entrusted to them, and to be en- 
titled "The Lodge of Reconciliation." The 
duty of this Lodge was to visit the several 
Lodges under both Grand Lodges, and to 
instruct the officers and members of the same 
in the forms of initiation, obligation, etc., in 
both, so that uniformity of working might 
be established. The Lodge of Reconciliation 
was constituted on the 27th of December, 
1813, the day on which the union was per- 
fected. This Lodge was only a temporary 
one, and the duties for which it had been 
organized having been performed, it ceased 
to exist by its own limitation in 1816. [For 
a full account of this Lodge and its proceed- 
ings, see Ars Qualuor Coronatorum, vol. xxiii., 
for 1910.] 

Reconsideration, Motion for. Amotion 
for reconsideration can only be made in a 
Grand Lodge, Grand Chapter, or other Grand 
Body, on the same day or the day after the 
adoption of the motion which it is proposed 
to reconsider. In a Lodge or other subor- 
dinate body, it can only be made at the same 
meeting. It cannot be moved by one who has 
voted m the minority. It cannot be made 
when the matter to be reconsidered has 
passed out of the control of the body, as when 
the original motion was for an appropriation 
which has been expended since the motion for 
it was passed. A motion for reconsideration 
is not debatable if the question proposed 
to be reconsidered is not. It cannot always 
be adopted by a simple majority vote. It 
may be postponed or laid upon the table. 



612 RECONSIDERATION 

If postponed to a time definite, and when 
that time arrives is not acted upon, it cannot 
be renewed. If laid upon the table, it 
cannot be taken up out of its order, and no 
second motion for reconsideration can be 
offered while it lies upon the table, hence 
to lay a motion for reconsideration on the 
table is considered as equivalent to reject- 
ing it. When a motion for reconsideration 
is adopted, the original motion comes up 
immediately for consideration, as if it had 
been for the first time brought before the 
body, in the form which it presented when 
it was adopted. 

Reconsideration of the Ballot. When 
the petition of a candidate for initiation has 
been rejected, it is not permissible for any 
member to move for a reconsideration of 
the ballot. The following four principles 
set forth in a summary way the doctrine of 
Masonic parliamentary law on this subject: 

1. It is never in order for a member to move 
for the reconsideration of a ballot on the 
petition of a candidate, nor for a presiding 
officer to entertain such a motion. 2. The 
Master or presiding officer alone can, for 
reasons satisfactory to himself, order such 
a reconsideration. 3. The presiding officer 
cannot order a reconsideration on any sub- 
sequent night, nor on the same night, after 
any member who was present and voted 
has departed. 4. The Grand Master cannot 
grant a Dispensation for a reconsideration, 
nor in any other way interfere with the 
ballot. The same restriction applies to the 
Grand Lodge. 

Recorder. In some of the high degrees, 
as in a Council of Select Masters and a Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar, the title of 
Recorder is given to the Secretary. The 
recording officer of the Grand Encampment 
of Knights Templar of the United States, 
of State Grand Gommanderies, and of Grand 
Councils of Royal and Select Masters, is 
styled a Grand Recorder. 

Records, Old. The early history of 
Masonry, as written by Anderson, Preston, 
Smith, Calcott, and writers of that genera- 
tion, was little more than a collection of 
fables, so absurd as to excite the smile of 
every reader, or bare statements of inci- 
dents, without any authority to substantiate 
their genuineness. 

The recent writers on the same subject 
have treated it in a very different manner, 
and one that gives to the investigation of 
the early annals of Freemasonry a respecta- 
ble position in the circle of historic studies. 
Much of the increased value that is given 
in the present day to Masonic history is 
derivable from the fact that, ceasing to re- 
peat the gratuitous statements of the older 
writers, some of whom have not hesitated 
to make Adam a Grand Master, and Eden 
the site of a Lodge, our students of this day 
are drawing their conclusions from, and es- 
tablishing tneir theories on, the old records, 
which Masonic archeology is in this gen- 
eration bringing to light. Hence, one of 



RECORDS 

these students (Bro. Woodford, of England) 
has said that, when we begin to investigate 
the real facts of Masonic history, "not only 
have we to discard at once much that we 
have held tenaciously and taught habit- 
ually, simply resting on the reiterated asser- 
tions of others, but we shall also find that 
we have to get rid of what, I fear, we must 
call 'accumulated rubbish/ before we can 
see clearly how the great edifice of Masonic 
history, raised at last on sure and good 
foundations, stands out clearer to the sight, 
and even more honorable to the builders, 
from those needful, if preparatory, labors." 

Anderson tells us that in the year 1719, at 
some of the private Lodges, <r several very 
valuable manuscripts concerning the Frater- 
nity, their Lodges, Regulations, Charges, Se- 
crets, and Usages, were too hastily burnt by 
some scrupulous brothers, that those papers 
might not fall into strange hands." (Constitu- 
tions, 1738, p. 111.) 

In the last quarter of a century the 
archeologists of Masonry have labored very 
diligently and successfully to disinter from 
the old Lodges, libraries, and museums 
many of these ancient manuscripts, and 
much light has thus been thrown upon the 
early history of Freemasonry. 

The following is a list of the most im- 
portant of these old records which the 
industry of Masonic antiquaries has brought 
to light. They are generally called "Manu- 
scripts," because their originals, for the 
most part, exist in manuscript rolls, or there 
is competent evidence that the original 
manuscripts, although now lost, once existed. 
There are, however, a few instances in which 
this evidence is wanting, and the authenticity 
of the manuscript rests only on probability. 
Each of them is noted in this work under its 
respective title. 

1. Halliwell or Regius Manuscript. 

2. Book of the Fraternity of Stone Masons. 

3. Paris Regulations. 

4. Strasburg Constitutions. 

5. Cooke's Manuscript. 

6. Lansdowne Manuscript. 

7. Schaw Manuscript. 

8. St. Clair Charters. 

9. Eglinton Manuscript. 

10. York Manuscripts (six in number). 

11. Grand Lodge Manuscript. 

12. Sloane Manuscripts (two in number). 

13. Aitcheson-Haven Manuscript. 

14. Kilwinning Manuscript. 

15. Harleian Manuscript. 

16. Hope Manuscript. 

17. Alnwick Manuscript. 

18. Papworth Manuscript. 

19. Roberts' Manuscript. 

20. Edward III. Manuscript. 

21. St. Albans' Regulations. 

22. Anderson Manuscript. 

23. Stone Manuscripts. 

24. Constitutions of Strasburg. 

25. Constitutions of Torgan. 

26. Dowland Manuscript. 

27. Wilson Manuscript. 



RECTIFICATION 



28. Spencer Manuscript. 

29. Cole Manuscript. 

30. Plot Manuscript. 

31. Inigo Jones Manuscript. 

32. Rawlinson Manuscript. 

33. Woodford Manuscript. 

34. Krause Manuscript. 

35. Antiquity Manuscript. 

36. Leland Manuscript, sometimes called 
the Locke Manuscript. 

37. Charter of Cologne. 

There may be some other manuscript 
records, especially in France and Germany, 
not here noticed, but the list above contains 
the most important of those now known to 
the Fraternity. Many of them have never 
yet been published, and the collection forms 
a mass of material absolutely necessary 
for the proper investigation of Masonic 
history. Every Mason who desires to 
know the true condition of the Fraternity 
during the last three or four centuries, and 
who would learn the connection between 
the Stone-Masons of the Middle Ages and 
the Free and Accepted Masons of the pres- 
ent day, so as perfectly to understand the 
process by which the Institution became 
changed from an operative art to a specu- 
lative science, should attentively read and 
thoroughly digest these ancient records of 
the Brotherhood. (See also Manuscripts. 
Old.) 

Rectification. The German Masons use 
this word to designate that process of re- 
moving an irregularity of initiation which, 
in American Masonry, is called heeding, which 

Rectified Rite. (Rite RectijU.) See Mar- 
tinism. 

Rectified Rose Croix, Rite of. See Rose 
Croix, Rectified. 

Recusant. A term applied in English 
history to one who refused to acknowledge 
the supremacy of the king as head of the 
church. In Masonic law, the word is 
sometimes used to designate a Lodge or a 
Mason that refuses to obey an edict of the 
Grand Lodge. The arrest of the Charter, 
or the suspension or expulsion of the offender, 
would be the necessary punishment of such an 
offense. 

Red. Red, scarlet, or crimson, for it is 
indifferently called by each of these names, 
is the appropriate color of the Royal Arch 
Degree, and is said symbolically to repre- 
sent the ardor and zeal which should actu- 
ate all who are in possession of that sub- 
lime portion of Masonry. Portal (Coideurs 
Sumb., p. 116) refers the color red to fire, 
which was the symbol of the regeneration 
and purification of souls. Hence there 
seems to be a congruity in adopting it as 
the color of the Royal Arch, which refers 
historically to the regeneration or rebuilding 
of the Temple, and symbolically to the 
regeneration of life. 

In the religious services of the Hebrews, 
red, or scarlet, was used as one of the colors 
of the veils of the tabernacle, in which, ac- 



RED 613 

cording to Josephus, it was an emblem of 
the element of fire; it was also used in the 
ephod of the high priest, in the girdle, and 
in the breastplate. Red was, among the 
Jews, a color of dignity, appropriated to the 
most opulent or honorable, and hence the 
prophet Jeremiah, in describing the rich 
men of his country, speaks of them as those 
who "were brought up in scarlet." 

In the Middle Ages, those knights who 
engaged in the wars of the Crusades, and 
especially the Templars, wore a red cross, 
as a symbol of then: willingness to undergo 
martyrdom for the sake of religion; and the 
priests of the Roman Church still wear red 
vestments when they officiate on the festivals 
of those saints who were martyred. 

Red is in the higher degrees of Masonry 
as predominating a color as blue is in the 
lower. Its symbolic significations differ, 
but they may generally be considered as 
alluding either to the virtue of fervency 
when the symbolism is moral, or to the 
shedding of blood when it is historical. 
Thus in the degree of Provost and Judge, 
it is historically emblematic of the violent 
death of one of the founders of the Institu- 
tion; while in the degree of Perfection it is 
said to be a moral symbol of zeal for the 
glory of God, and for our own advancement 
toward perfection in Masonry and virtue. 

In the degree of Rose CJroix, red is the 
predominating color, and symbolizes the 
ardent zeal which should inspire all who 
are in search of that which is lost. 

Where red is not used historically, and 
adopted as a memento of certain tragical 
circumstances in the history of Masonry, 
it is always, under some modification, a 
symbol of zeal and fervency. 

These three colors, blue, purple, and red, 
were called in the former English lectures 
"the old colors of Masonry," and were said 
to have been selected "because they are 
royal, and such as the ancient kings and 
princes used to wear; and sacred history 
informs us that the veil of the Temple was 
composed of these colors." 

Red Brother. The Sixth and last degree 
of the Swedenborgian system. 

Red Cross Knight. When, in the tenth 
century, Pope Urban II., won by the en- 
thusiasm of Peter the Hermit, addressed the 
people who had assembled at the city of 
Clermont during the sitting of the Council, 
and exhorted them to join m the expedition 
to conquer the Holy Land, he said, in reply 
to their cry that God wills it, Dieux d volt, 
"it is indeed the will of God; let this memo- 
rable word, the inspiration, surely, of our 
Holy Spirit, be forever adopted as your cry 
of battle, to animate the devotion and 
courage of the champions of Christ. His 
cross is the symbol of your salvation: wear 
it, a red, a bloody cross, as an external mark 
on your breasts or shoulders, as a pledge of 
your sacred and irrevocable engagement." 
The proposal was eagerly accepted, and the 
Bishop of Puy was the first who solicited 



614 RED 



REFORMED 



the Pope to affix the cross in red cloth on 
his shoulder. The example was at once fol- 
lowed, and thenceforth the red cross on 
the breast was recognized as the sign of 
him who was engaged in the Holy Wars, 
and Crusader and Red Cross Knight became 
convertible terms. Spenser, in the Fairie 
Queen (Cant. I.), thus describes one of these 
knights: 

"And on his breast a bloody cross he bore, 
The dear remembrance of his dying Lord, 
For whose sweet sake that glorious badge he 
wore, 

And dead, as living, ever him ador'd: 
Upon his shield the like was also soor'd." 

The application of this title, as is some- 
times done in the ritual of the degree, to a 
Masonic degree of Knight of the Red Cross, 
is altogether wrong, and it is now called 
Companion of the Red Cross. A Red Cross 
Knight and a Knight of the Red Cross are 
two entirely different things. 

Bed Cross Legend. The embassy of 
Zerubbabel to the court of Darius consti- 
tutes what has been called the Legend of the 
Red Cross Degree. (See Embassy, and Com- 
panion of the Red Cross.) 

Bed Cross of Babylon. See Babylonish 
Pass. 

Bed Cross of Borne and Constantino. 

A degree founded on the circumstance of 
the vision of a cross, with the inscription 
EN TOTTQ NIKA, which appeared in the 
heavens to the Emperor Constantino. It 
formed originally a part of the Rosaic Rite, 
and is now practised in England, Ireland, 
Scotland, ana some of the English colonies, 
as a distinct Order; the meetings being 
called " Conclaves," and the presiding officer 
of the Grand Imperial Council of the whole 
Order, "Grand Sovereign." Its existence in 
England as a Masonic degree has been traced, 
according to Bro. R. W. Little (Freemas. 
Mag.), to the year 1780, when it was given 
by Bro. Charles Shirreff. It was reorganized 
in 1804 by Walter Rodwell Wright, who sup- 
plied its present ritual. The ritual of the 
Order contains the following legend: 

" After the memorable battle fought at 
Saxa Rubra, on the 28th October, a.d. 
312, the emperor sent for the chiefs of the 
Christian legion, and — we now quote the 
words of an old ritual — 'in presence of his 
other officers constituted them into an 
Order of Knighthood, and appointed them 
to wear the form of the Cross he had seen 
in the heavens upon their shields, with 
the motto In hoc signo vinces round it, sur- 
rounded with clouds; and peace being soon 
after made, he became the Sovereign Patron 
of the Christian Order of the Red Cross.' 
It is also said that this Cross, together with 
a device called the Labarum, was ordered 
to be embroidered upon all the imperial 
standards. The Christian warriors were 
selected to compose the body-guard of Con- 
stantino, and the command of these privi- 
leged soldiers was confided to Eusebius, 



Bishop of Nicomedia, who was thus consid- 
ered the second officer of the Order." 

Bed Cross Sword of Babylon. A degree 
worked in the Royal Arch Chapters of Scot- 
land, and also in some parts of England. It 
is very similar to the Knight of the Red Cross 
conferred in the United States, which is now 
called the Companion of the Red Cross. 

Bed Letters. In the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite, edicts, summonses or other 
documents, written or printed in red letters, 
are supposed to be of more binding obliga- 
tion, and to require more implicit obedience, 
than any others. Hence, in the same Rite, 
to publish the name of one who has been 
expelled in red letters is considered an especial 
mark of disgrace. It is derived from the 
custom of the Middle Ages, when, as Muratori 
shows (Antiq. Ital. Med.), red letters were 
used to give greater weight to documents; 
and he quotes an old Charter of 1020, which 
is said to be confirmed "per literas rubeas," 
or by red letters. 

Beflectlon 9 Chamber of. See Chamber 
of Reflection. 

Beformed Helvetic Bite. The Reformed 
Rite of Wilhelmsbad was introduced into 
Poland, in 1784, by Bro. Glayre, of Lau- 
sanne, the minister of King Stanislaus, and 
who was also the Provincial Grand Master of 
this Rite in the French part of Switserland. 
But, in introducing it into Poland, he sub- 
jected it to several modifications, and called 
it the Reformed Helvetic Rite. The system 
was adopted by the Grand Orient of Poland. 

Beformed Bite. This Rite was estab- 
lished, in 1872, by a Congress of Freemasons 
assembled at Wilhelmsbad, in Germany, over 
whose deliberations Ferdinand, Duke of 
Brunswick, presided as Grand Master. It 
was at this Convention that the Reformed 
Rite was first established, its members assum- 
ing the title of the " Beneficent Knights of the 
Holy City," because they derived their sys- 
tem from the French Rite of that name. It 
was called the Reformed Rite, because it pro- 
fessed to be a reformation of a Rite which nad 
been established in Germany about a quarter 
of a century before under the name of the 
"Rite of Strict Observance." This latter 
Rite had advanced an hypothesis in relation 
to the connection between Freemasonry and 
the Order of Knights Templar, tracing the 
origin of our Institution to those Knights at 
the Crusades. This hypothesis the Conven- 
tion at Wilhelmsbad rejected as unfounded in 
history or correct tradition. By the adoption 
of this Rite, the Congress gave a death-blow 
to the Rite of Strict Observance. 

The Reformed Rite is exceedingly simple in 
its organisation, consisting only of five de- 
grees, namely: 

1. Entered Apprentice; 2. Fellow-Craft; 
3. Master Mason; 4. Scottish Master; 5. 
Knight of the Holy City. 

The last degree is, however^ divided into 
three sections, those of Novice, Professed 
Brother, and Knight, which really gives sevep 
degrees to the Rite, 



REFRESHMENT 

Refreshment. In Masonic language, re- 
freshment is opposed in a peculiar sense to 
labor. While a Lodge is in activity it must be 
either at labor or at refreshment. If a Lodge 
is permanently closed until its next communi- 
cation, the intervening period is one of abey- 
ance, its activity for Masonic duty having for 
the time been suspended; although its powers 
and privileges as a Lodge still exist, and may 
be at any time resumed. But where it is 
only temporarily closed, with the intention of 
soon again resuming labor, the intermediate 
period is called a time of refreshment, and the 
Lodge is said not to be closed, but to be called 
from labor to refreshment. The phrase is an 
old one, and is found in the earliest rituals of 
the last century. Calling from labor to re- 
freshment differs from closing in this, that the 
ceremony is a very brief one, and that the 
Junior Warden then assumes the control of 
the Graft t in token of which he erects his col- 
umn on his stand or pedestal, while the Senior 
Warden lavs his down. This is reversed in 
catting on, in which the ceremony is equally 
brief. 

The word refreshment no longer bears the 
meaning among Masons that it formerly did. 
It signifies not necessarily eating and drinking, 
but simply cessation from labor. A Lodge 
at refreshment may thus be compared to any 
other society when in a recess. During the 
whole of the last century, and a part of the 
present, a different meaning was given to the 
word, arising from a now obsolete usage, which 
Dr. Oliver (Mas. Juris., p. 210) thus describes: 

"The Lodges in ancient times were not 
arranged according to the practice in use 
amongst ourselves at the present day. The 
Worshipful Master, indeed, stood in the east, 
but both the Wardens were placed in the west. 
The south was occupied by the senior Entered 
Apprentice, whose business it was to obey the 
instructions of the Master, and to welcome 
the visiting brethren, after havingduly as- 
certained that they were Masons. The junior 
Entered Apprentice was placed in the north to 
prevent the intrusion of cowans and eaves- 
droppers; and a long table, and sometimes 
two, where the Lodge was numerous, were 
extended in parallel lines from the pedestal 
to the place where the Wardens sat, on which 
appeared not only the emblems of Masonry, 
but also materials for refreshment; — for m 
those days every section of the lecture had its 
peculiar toast or sentiment; — and at its con- 
clusion the Lodge was called from labour to 
refreshment by certain ceremonies, and a 
toast, technically called 'the charge,' was 
drunk in a bumper, with the honours, and not 
unfrequently accompanied by an appropriate 
song. After which the Lodge was called from 
refreshment to labour, and another section 
was delivered with the like result." 

At the present day, the banquets of Lodges, 
when they take place, are always held after 
the Lodge is closed; although they are still 
supposed to be under the charge of the Junior 
Warden. When modern Lodges are called to 
refreshment, it is either as a part of the cere- 



REGENERATION 615 

mony of the Third Degree, or for a brief period; 
sometimes extending to more than a day, 
when labor, which had not been finished, is to 
be resumed and concluded. 

The mythical history of Masonry tells us 
that high twelve or noon was the hour at Sol- 
omon's Temple when the Craft were per- 
mitted to suspend their labor, which was 
resumed an hour after. In reference to 
this myth, a Lodge is at all times supposed to 
be called from labor to refreshment at "high 
twelve," and to be called on again "one hour 
after high twelve." 

Regalia. Strictly speaking, the word re- 
galia, from the Latin, regalia, royal things, 
signifies the ornaments of a king or queen, ana 
is applied to the apparatus used at a coro- 
nation, such as the crown, scepter, cross, 
mound, etc. But it has in modern times been 
loosely employed to signify almost any kind 
of ornaments. Hence the collar and jewel, 
and sometimes even the apron, are called by 
many Masons the regalia. The word has the 
early authority of Preston. In the second 
edition of his Illustrations (1775), when on the 
subject of funerals, he uses the expression, 
"the body, with the regalia placed thereon, 
and two swords crossed. And at the end of 
the service he directs that "the regalia and 
ornaments of the deceased, if an officer of a 
Lodge, are returned to the Master in due form, 
and with the usual ceremonies." Regalia can- 
not here mean the Bible and Book of Consti- 
tutions, for there is a place in another part of 
the procession appropriated to them. It 
might have been supposed that, by regalia, 
Preston referred to some particular decora- 
tions of the Lodge, had not his subsequent 
editors, Jones and Oliver, both interpolated 
the word "other" before ornaments, so as to 
make the sentence read "regalia and other or- 
naments," thus clearly indicating that they 
deemed the regalia a part of the ornaments of 
the deceased. The word is thus used in one 
of the headings of the modern Constitutions 
of the Grand Lodge of England. But in the 
text the more correct words "clothing and 
insignia" (Rule 282) are employed. There 
is, however, so great an error in the use of the 
word reaalia to denote Masonic clothing, that 
it would be better to avoid it. 

Regeneration. In the Ancient Mysteries 
the doctrine of regeneration was taught by 
symbols: not the theological dogma of regen- 
eration peculiar to the Christian church, Dut 
the philosophical dogma as a change from 
death to life-!— a new birth to immortal exist- 
ence. Hence the last day of the Eleusinian 
mysteries, when the initiation was completed, 
was called, says Court de Gebelin (M . P., iv., 
322), the day of regeneration. This is the doc- 
trine in the Masonic mysteries, and more es- 
pecially in the symbolism of the Third Degree. 
We must not say that the Mason is regener- 
ated when he is initiated, but that he has been 
indoctrinated into the philosophy of the re- 
generation, or the new birth of all thingB — of 
fight out of darkness, or life out of death, of 
eternal life out of temporal death. 



616 REGENT 



Regent. The Fourth Degree of the Leaser 

Mysteries of the IUumin&ti. 

Reghellini, M. A learned Masonic writer, 
who was born of Venetian parents on the 
island of Scio, whence he was usually styled 
Reghellini de Scio. The date of 1760, at which 
his Dirth has been placed, is certainly an error. 
Michaud supposes that it is twenty or thirty 
years too soon. The date of the publication 
of his earliest works would indicate that he 
could not have been born much before 1780. 
After receiving a good education, and becom- 
ing especially proficient in mathematics and 
chemistry, he settled at Brussels, where he 
appears to have spent the remaining years of 
his life, and wrote various works, which indi- 
cate extensive research and a lively and, per- 
haps, a rather ill-directed imagination. In 
1834 he published a work entitled Examen du 
Mosaisme et du Christianisme, whose bold 
opinions were not considered as very ortho- 
dox. He had previously become attached to 
the study of Masonic antiquities, and in 1826 
published a work in one volume, entitled 
Esprit du dogme de la Franc-Maconnerie: 
recherches sur son origins et celle de ses differ- 
ent rile*. He subsequently still further de- 
veloped his ideas on this subject, and pub- 
lished at Paris, in 1833, a much larger work, 
in three volumes, entitled, La Maconnerie, 
consider 6e comme le resuUat dee Religions 
Egyptienne, Juive et ChrStienne. In this work 
he seeks to trace both Freemasonry and the 
Mosaic religion to the worship that was prac- 
tised on the banks of the Nile in the time of 
the Pharaohs. Whatever may be thought of 
his theory, it must be confessed that he has 
collected a mass of learned and interesting 
facts that must be attractive to the Masonic 
scholar. From 1822 to 1829 Reghellini de- 
voted his labors to editing the Annates Ckron- 
ologiques, Litteraires et Historiques de la Mar 
gonnerie dee Pays-Bos, a work that contains 
much valuable information. 

Outside of Masonry, the life of Reghellini is 
not well known. It is said that in 1848 he 
became implicated with the political troubles 
which broke out that year in Vienna, and, in 
consequence, experienced some trouble. His 
great age at the time precluded the likelihood 
that the statement is true. In his latter days 
he was reduced to treat penury, and in August, 
1855, was compelled to take refuge in the 
House of Mendicity at Brussels, where ho 
shortly afterward died. 

Regimental Lodge. An expression used 
by Dr. Oliver, in his Jurisprudence, to desig- 
nate a Lodge attached to a regiment in the 
British army. The title is not recognized 
in the English Constitutions, where such a 
Lodge is always styled a Military Lodge, 
which see. 

Register. A list of the officers and mem- 
bers of a Grand or Subordinate Lodge. The 
registers of Grand Lodges are generally pub- 
lished in this country annually, attached to 
their Proceedings. The custom of publishing 
annual registers of subordinate Lodges is 
almost exclusively confined to the Masonry of 



REGULAR 

the Continent of Europe. Sometimes it is 
called a Registry. 

Registrar, Grand. 1. An officer of the 
Grand Lodge of England, whose principal 
duty it is to take charge of the seal, and at- 
tach it, or cause it to be attached by tne Grand 
Secretary, to documents issued by the Grand 
Lodge or Grand Master. Also to superintend 
the records of the Grand Lodge, and to take 
care that the several documents issued be in 
due form. (Constitutions, Rules 31, 32.) 2. 
An officer in a Grand Consistory of the Scot- 
tish Rite, whose duties are those of Grand 
Secretary. 

Registration. The modern Constitutions 
of the Grand Lodge of England require that 
every Lodge must be particularly careful in 
registering the names of the brethren initiated 
therein, and also in making the returns of its 
members; as no person is entitled to partake 
of the general charity, unless his name be duly 
registered, and he shall have been at least five 
years a contributing member of a Lodge, ex- 
cept in the following cases, to which the limi- 
tation of five years is not meant to extend, 
vis., shipwreck, or capture at sea, loss by fire, 
or blindness or serious accident fully attested 
and proved. (Rule 234.) To prevent injury 
to individuals, by their being excluded the 
privileges of Masonry through the neglect of 
their Lodges in not registering their names, 
any brother so circumstanced, on producing 
sufficient proof that he has paid the full fees to 
his Lodge, including the register fee. shall be 
capable of enjoying the privileges of tne Craft. 
But the offending Lodge shall be reported to 
the Board of General Purposes, and rigor- 
ously proceeded against for withholding mon- 
eys which are the property of the Grand 
Lodge. (Rule 237.) 

An unregistered member in England is 
therefore equivalent, so far as the exercise of 
his rights is concerned, to an unaffiliated 
Mason. In America the same rule exists of 
registration in the Lodge books and an annual 
return of the same to the Grand Lodge, but 
the penalties for neglect or disobedience are 
neither so severe nor so well defined. 

Registry. The roll or list of Lodges and 
their members under the obedience of a Grand 
Lodge. Such registries are in general pub- 
lished annually by the Grand Lodges of the 
United States at tne end of their printed Pro- 
ceedings. 

Regius MS. See HaUiweU Manuscript. 

Regular. A Lodge working under the 
legal authority of a Warrant of Constitution is 
said to be regular. The word was first used 
in 1723, in the first edition of Anderson's 
Constitutions. In the eighth General Regu- 
lation published in that work it is said: "If 
any set or number of Masons shall take upon 
themselves to form a Lodge without the Grand 
Master's Warrant, the regular Lodges are not 
to countenance them. 11 Ragon says (Orthod. 
Mac., 72) that the word was first heard of in 
French Masonry in 1773, when an edict of the 
Grand Orient thus defined it: "A regular 
Lodge is a Lodge attached to the Grand Ori- 



REGULATIONS 



ent, and a regular Mason is a member of a 
regular Lodge. 11 

Regulations. See Old Regulations. 

Retrain. Called by Ezra the chancellor. 
He was probably a lieutenant-governor of the 
province of Judea, who, with Shimshai the 
scribe, wrote to Artaxerxes to prevail upon 
him to stop the building of the second Temple. 
His name is introduced into some of the high 
degrees that are connected in their ritual with 
the second Temple. 

Relnhold, Karl Leonhard. A German 
philosopher, who was born at Vienna in 1758, 
and died in 1823. He was associated with 
Wieland, whose daughter he married, in the 
editorship of the Deutschen Mercur. He after- 
ward became a professor of philosophy at Kiel, 
and published Letters on the Philosophy of 
Kant. He was much interested in the study 
of Freemasonry, and published, under the 
pseudonym of Deems, at Leipsic, in 1788, two 
lectures entitled Die Hebraischen Mysterien 
oder die dUeste religidse Freimaurerei, i. e., The 
Hebrew Mysteries, or the Oldest Religious 
Freemasonry. The fundamental idea of this 
work is, that Moses derived his system from 
the Egyptian priesthood. Eichhorn attacked 
his theory in nis Universal Repository of Bib- 
lical Literature. Reinhold delivered and pub- 
lished, in 1809, An Address on the Design of 
Freemasonry , and another in 1820, on the oc- 
casion of the reopening of a Lodge at Kiel. 
This was probably his last Masonic labor, as 
he died in 1823, at the age of sixty-five years. 
In 1828, a Life of him was published by his 
son, a professor of philosophy at Jena. 

Reinstatement. See Restoration. 

Rejection. Under the English Constitu- 
tions three black balls must exclude a can- 
didate; but the by-laws of a Lodge may enact 
that one or two shall do so. (Rule 190.) In 
America one black ball will reject a candidate 
for initiation. If a candidate be rejected, he 
can apply in no other Lodge for admission. If 
admitted at all, it must be in the Lodge where 
he first applied. But the time when a new 
application may be made never having been 
determined by the general or common law of 
Masonry, the rule has been left to the special 
enactment of Grand Lodges, some of which 
have placed it at six months, and some at 
from one to two years. Where the Constitu- 
tion of a Grand Lodge is silent on the subject, 
it is held that a new application has never 
been specified, so that it is held that a rejected 
candidate may apply for a reconsideration of 
his case at any tune. The unfavorable re- 
port of the committee to whom the letter was 
referred, or the withdrawal of the letter by the 
candidate or his friends, is considered equiva- 
lent to a rejection. (See U nanimous Consent.) 

Rejoicing. The initiation of the Ancient 
Mysteries, like that of the Third Degree of 
Masonry, began in sorrow and terminated in 
rejoicing. The sorrow was for the death of 
the hero-god, which was represented in the 
sacred rites, and the rejoicing was for Lis re- 
suscitation to eternal life. "Thrice happy," 
says Sophocles, " are those who descend to the 



RELIGION 617 

shades below when they have beheld these 
rites of initiation." The lesson there taught 
was, says Pindar { the Divine origin of life, and 
hence the rejoicing at the discovery of this 
eternal truth. 

Relief* One of the three principal tenets 
of a Mason's profession, and thus defined in 
the lecture of the First Degree. 

To relieve the distressed is a duty incum- 
bent on all men, but particularly on Masons, 
who are linked together by an indissoluble 
chain of sincere affection. To soothe the un- 
happy, to sympathize with their misfortunes, 
to compassionate their miseries, and to restore 
peace to their troubled minds, is the great aim 
we have in view. On this basis we form our 
friendships and establish our connections. 

Of the three tenets of a Mason's profession, 
which are Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth, 
it may be said that Truth is the column of 
wisdom, whose rays penetrate and enlighten 
the inmost recesses of our Lodge; Brotherly 
Love, the column of strength, which binds us 
as one family in the indissoluble bond of 
fraternal affection; and Relief, the column of 
beauty, whose ornaments, more precious than 
the likes and pomegranates that adorned the 
pillars of the porch, are the widow's tear of 
joy and the orphan's prayer of gratitude. 

Relief, Board of. The liability to impo- 
sition on the charity of the Order, dv the ap- 
plications of impostors, has led to the estab- 
lishment in the larger cities of America of 
Boards of Relief. These consist of representa- 
tives of all the Lodges, to whom all applications 
for temporary relief are referred. Hie members 
of the Board, by frequent consultations, are 
better enabled to distinguish the worthy from 
the unworthy, and to detect attempts at im- 
position. A similar organization, but under a 
different name, was long ago established by 
the Grand Lodge of England, for the distri- 
bution of the fund of benevolence. (See Fund 
of Benevolence.) In New Orleans, Louisiana, 
the Board of Relief, after twenty-five years or 
successful operation, was chartered m July, 
1854, by the Grand Lodge as "Relief Lodge. 
No. 1, to be composed of the Masters ana 
Wardens of all the Lodges who were united in 
the objects of the Board. 

Religion of Masonry. There has been a 
needless expenditure of ingenuity and talent, 
by a large number of Masonic orators and es- 
sayists, m the endeavor to prove that Masonry 
is not religion. This has undoubtedly arisen 
from a well-intended but erroneous view that 
has been taken of the connection between 
religion and Masonry, and from a fear that if 
the complete disseverance of the two was not 
made manifest, the opponents of Masonry 
would be enabled successfully to establish a 
theory which they have been fond of advanc- 
ing, that the Masons were disposed to substi- 
tute the teachings of their Order for the truths 
of Christianity. Now I have never for a 
moment believed that any such unwarrantable 
assumption, as that Masonry is intended to 
be * substitute for Christianity, could ever ob- 
tain admission into any well-regulated mind, 



618 



RELIGION 



RELIGION 



and, therefore, I am not disposed to yield, on 
the subject of the religious character of Ma- 
sonry, quite so much as has been yielded by 
more timid brethren. On the contrary. I 
contend, without any sort of hesitation, that 
Masonry is, in every sense of the word, ex- 
cept one, and that its least philosophical, an 
eminently religious institution — that it is 
indebted solely to the religious element which 
it contains for its origin and for its continued 
existence, and that without this religious ele- 
ment it would scarcely be worthy of cultiva- 
tion by the wise and good. But, that I may 
be truly understood, it will be well first to 
agree upon the true definition of religion. 
There is nothing more illogical than to reason 
upon undefined terms. Webster has given 
four distinct definitions of religion: 

1. Religion, in a comprehensive sense, in- 
cludes, he says, a belief m the being and per- 
fections of Goa — in the revelation of his will 
to man — in man's obligation to obey his com- 
mands — in a state of reward andpunishment, 
and in man's acoountableness to God; and also 
true godliness or piety of life, with the practise 
of all moral duties. 

2. His second definition is, that religion, as 
distinct from theology, is godliness or real 
piety in practise, consisting in the performance 
of afl known duties to God and our fellow-men, 
in obedience to Divine command, or from love 
to God and his law. 

3. Again, he says that religion, as distinct 
from virtue or morality, consists in the per- 
formance of the duties we owe directly to God, 
from a principle of obedience to his will. 

4. And lastly, he defines religion to be any 
system of faith or worship; and in this sense, 
he says, religion comprehends the belief ana 
worship of Pagans ana Mohammedans as well 
as of Christians — any religion consisting in 
the belief of a superior power, or powers, gov- 
erning the world, and m the worship of such 
power or powers. And it is in this sense that 
we speak of the Turkish religion, or the Jew- 
ish religion, as well as of the Christian. 

Now, it is plain that, in either of the first 
three senses in which we may take the word 
religion (and they do not very materially dif- 
fer from each other), Masonry may rightfully 
claim to be called a religious institution. 
Closely and accurately examined, it will be 
found to answer to any one of the require- 
ments of either of these three definitions. So 
much does it " include a belief in the being and 
perfections of God," that the public profession 
of such a faith is essentially necessary to gain 
admission into the Order. No disbeliever in 
the existence of a God can be made a Mason. 
The "revelation of his will to man" is tech- 
nically called the "spiritual, moral, and Ma- 
sonic trestle-board" of every Mason, accord- 
ing to the rules and designs of which he is to 
erect the spiritual edifice of his eternal life. 
A "state of reward and punishment" is neces- 
sarily included in the very idea of an obli- 
gation, which, without the belief in such a 
state, could be of no binding force or efficacy. 
And "true godliness or piety of life" is incul- 



cated as the invariable duty of every Mason, 
from the inception of the first to the end of the 
very last degree that he takes. So. again, in 
reference to the second and third definitions, 
all this practical piety and performance of the 
duties we owe to God and to our fellow men 
arise from and are founded on a principle of 
obedience to the Divine will. Else whence, or 
from what other will, could they have arisen? 
It is the voice of the G. A. O. T. U. symbolised 
to us in every ceremony of our ritual and 
from every portion of the furniture of our 
Lodge, that speaks to the true Mason, com- 
manding him to fear God and to love the 
brethren. It is idle to say that the Mason 
does good simply in obedience to the statutes 
of the Order. These very statutes owe their 
sanction to the Masonic idea of the nature and 
perfections of God, which idea has come down 
to us from the earliest history of the Institu- 
tion, and the promulgation of which idea was 
the very object and design of its origin. 

But it must be confessed that the fourth 
definition does not appear to be strictly ap- 
plicable to Masonry. It has no pretension 
to assume a place among the religions of the 
world as a sectarian "system of faith and wor- 
ship," in the sense in which we distinguish 
Christianity from Judaism, or Judaism from 
Mohammedanism. In this meaning of the 
word we do not and can not speak of the Ma- 
sonic religion, nor say of a man that he is not 
a Christian, but a Mason. Here it is that the 
opponents of Freemasonry have assumed mis- 
taken ground, in confounding the idea of a re- 
ligious institution with that of the Christian 
religion as a peculiar form of worship, and in 
supposing, because Masonry teaches religious 
truth, that it is offered as a substitute for 
Christian truth and Christian obligation. Its 
warmest and most enlightened friends have 
never advanced nor supported such a claim. 
Freemasonry is not Christianity, nor a sub- 
stitute for it. It is not intended to supersede 
it nor any other form of worship or system 
of faith. It does not meddle with sectarian 
creeds or doctrines, but teaches fundamental 
religious truth — not enough to do away 
with the necessity of the Christian scheme of 
salvation, but more than enough to show, to 
demonstrate, that it is, in every philosophical 
sense of the word, a religious institution, 
and one, too, in which the true Christian 
Mason will find, if he earnestly seeks for them, 
abundant types and shadows of his own ex- 
alted and divinely inspired faith. 

The tendency of all true Masonry is toward 
religion. If it make any progress, its progress 
is to that holy end. Look at its ancient land- 
marks, its sublime ceremonies, its profound 
symbols and allegories — all inculcating re- 
ligious doctrine, commanding religious ob- 
servance, and teaching religious truth, and 
who can deny that it is eminently a religious 
institution? 

But, besides, Masonry is, in all its forms, 
thoroughly tinctured with a true devotional 
spirit. We open and close our Lodges with 
prayer; we invoke the blessing of the Most 



RELIGIOUS 



High upon all our labors; we demand of our 
neophytes a profession of trusting belief in 
the existence and the superintending care of 
God; and we teach them to bow with humil- 
ity and reverence at his awful name, while his 
holy law is widely opened upon our altars. 
Freemasonry is thus identified with religion; 
and although a man may be eminently relig- 
ious without being a Mason, it is impossible 
that a Mason can be "true and trusty*' to his 
Order unless he is a respecter of religion and 
an observer of religious principle. 

But the religion of Masonry is not secta- 
rian. It admits men of every creed within its 
hospitable bosom, rejecting none and approv- 
ing none for his peculiar faith. It is not 
Judaism, though there is nothing in it to of- 
fend a Jew j it is not Christianity, but there is 
nothing in it repugnant to the faith of a Chris- 
tian. Its religion is that general one of na- 
ture and primitive revelation — handed down 
to us from some ancient and patriarchal priest- 
hood — in which all men may agree and in 
which no men can differ. It inculcates the 
practise of virtue, but it supplies no scheme of 
redemption for sin. It points its disciples to 
the path of righteousness, but it does not 
claim to be "the way, the truth, and the life." 
In so far, therefore, it cannot become a sub- 
stitute for Christianity, but its tendency is 
thitherward; and, as the handmaid of relig- 
ion, it may, and often does, act as the porch 
that introduces its votaries into the temple of 
Divine truth. 

Masonry, then, is ( indeed, a religious in- 
stitution; and on this ground mainly, if not 
alone, should the religious Mason defend it. 

Religious Qualifications. See Qualifica- 
tions. 

Removal of Lodges. On January 25, 
1738. the Grand Lodge of England adopted a 
regulation that no Lodge should be removed 
without the Master's knowledge; that no 
motion for removing it should be made in his 
absence; and that if he was opposed to the 
removal, it should not be removed unless two- 
thirds of the members present voted in the 
affirmative. (Constitutions. 1738, p. 157.) 
But as this rule was adopted subsequent to the 
General Regulations of 1722, it is not obliga- 
tory as a law of Masonry at present. The 
Grand Lodges of England and of New York 
have substantially the same rule. But unless 
there be a local regulation in the Constitution 
of any particular Grand Lodge to that effect, 
there would seem to be no principle of Masonic 
law set forth in the Ancient Landmarks or Reg- 
ulations which forbids a Lodge, upon the mere 
vote of the majority, from removing from one 
house to another m the same town or city; 
and unless the Grand Lodge of any particular 
jurisdiction has adopted a regulation forbid- 
ding the removal of a Lodge from one house to 
another without its consent, there is no law in 
Masonry of universal force which would pro- 
hibit such a removal at the mere option of the 
Lodge. 

This refers, of course, only to the removal 
from one house to another; but as the town or 



REPORTORIAL 619 

village in which the Lodge is situated is desig- 
nated in its Warrant of Constitution, no such 
removal can be made except with the consent 
of the Grand Lodge, or, during the recess of 
that body, by the Dispensation of the Grand 
Master, to be subsequently confirmed by the 
Grand Lodge. 

Renouncing Masons. During the anti- 
Masonic excitement in the United States, 
which began in 1828. and lasted for a few 
years, many Masons left the Order, actuated 
by various motives (seldom good ones), and 
attached themselves to the anti-Masonic 
party. It is not singular that these deserters, 
who called themselves " Renouncing Masons," 
were the bitterest in their hatred and the loud- 
est in their vituperations of the Order. But, 
as may be seen in the article Indelibility, a 
renunciation of the name cannot absolve any- 
one from the obligations of a Mason. 

Repeal* As a Lodge cannot enact a new 
by-law without the consent of the Grand 
Lodge, neither can it repeal an old one without 
the same consent; nor can anything done at a 
stated meeting be repealed at a subsequent 
extra or emergent one. 

Report of a Committee. When a com- 
mittee, to which a subject had been referred, 
has completed its investigation and come to 
an opinion, it directs its chairman, or some 
other member, to prepare an expression of its 
views, to be submitted to the Lodge. The 
paper containing this expression of views is 
called its report, which may be framed in 
three different forms: It may contain only an 
expression of opinion on the subject which had 
been referred; or it may contain, in addition 
to this, an express resolution or series of res- 
olutions, the adoption of which by the assem- 
bly is recommended; or, lastly, it may contain 
one or more resolutions t without any prelim- 
inary expression of opinion. 

The report, when prepared, is read to the 
members of the committee, and, if it meets 
with their final sanction, the chairman, or one 
of the members, is directed to present it to the 
Lodge. 

The reading of the report is its reception, 
and the next question will be on its adoption. 
If it contains a recommendation of resolu' 
tions, the adoption of the report will be equiv- 
alent to an adoption of the resolutions, but the 
report may. on the question of adoption, be 
otherwise disposed of by being laid on the 
table, postponed, or recommitted. (See the 
subject fully discussed in Dr. Mackey's trea- 
tise on Parliamentary Law as applied to the 
Government of Masonic Bodies, ch. xxxi.) 

Reportorlal Corps. A name recently 
given in the United States to that useful and 
intelligent body of Masons who write, in their 
respective Grand Lodges, the reports on For- 
eign Correspondence. Through the exertions 
of Dr. Corson, the chairman of the Committee 
of Foreign Correspondence of New Jersey, a 
convention of this Dody was held at Baltimore 
in 1871, during the session of the General 
Grand Chapter, and measures were then taken 
to establish a triennial convention. Such a 



620 REPRESENTATIVE 



RESOLUTION 



convention would assume no legislative pow- 
ers, but would simply meet for the intercom- 
munication of ideas and the interchange of 
fraternal greetings. 

Representative of a Grand Lodge. A 
brother appointed by one Grand Lodge to rep- 
resent its interest in another. The repre- 
sentative is generally, although not necessar- 
ily, a member of the Urand Lodge to whom he 
is accredited, and receives his appointment on 
its nomination, but he wears the clothing of 
the Grand Lodge which he represents. He 
is required to attend the meetings of the 
Grand Lodge to which he is accredited, and 
to communicate to his constituents an abstract 
of the proceedings, and other matters of Ma- 
sonic interest. But it is doubtful whether these 
duties are generally perforni°d. The office of 
representative appears to be rather one of 
honor than of service. In the French system, 
a representative is called a "gage d'anutieV' 

Representatives of Lodges. In the Gen- 
eral Regulations of 1721 it was enacted that 
" The Grand Lodge consists of and is formed by 
the Masters and Wardens of all the regular 
particular Lodges upon record " ; and also that 
"The majority of every particular Lodge, 
when congregated, shall have the privilege 
of giving instructions to their Master and 
Wardens before the assembling of the Grand 
Chapter or Lodge, at the three quarterly com- 
munications hereafter mentioned and of the 
Annual Grand Lodge too ; because their Master 
and Wardens are their Representatives and 
are supposed to speak their mind. 1 ' (Con- 
stitutions, 1723 t p. ol.) A few modern Grand 
Lodges have disfranchised the Wardens also, 
and confined the representation to the Masters 
only. But this is evidently an innovation, 
having no color of authority in the Old Reg- 
ulations. [E. L. H.] 

Representative System. The system of 
appointing representatives of Grand Lodges 
originated some years ago with the Grand 
Lodge of New York. It at first met with 
much opposition, but has gradually mined 
favor, and there are now but few Grand 
Lodges in Europe or America that have not 
adopted it. Although the original plan in- 
tended by the founders of the system does not 
appear to have been effectually carried out in 
all its details, it has at least been successful as 
a means of more closely cementing the bonds 
of union between the bodies mutually rep- 
resented. 

Reprimand. A reproof formally com- 
municated to the offender for some fault com- 
mitted, and the lowest grade, above censure, 
of Masonic punishment. It can be inflicted 
only on charges made, and by a majority vote 
of the Lodge. It may be private or public. 
Private reprimand is generally communi- 
cated to the offender by a letter from the Mas- 
ter. Public reprimand is given orally in the 
Lodge and in the presence of the brethren. A 
reprimand does not affect the Masonic stand- 
ing of the person reprimanded. 

Reputation. In the technical language of 
Masonry, a man of good reputation is said to 



be one who is "under the tongue of good re* 
port": and this constitutes one of the indis- 
pensable qualifications of a candidate for in- 
itiation. 

Residence. It is the general usage in 
America, and may be considered as the Ma- 
sonic law of custom, that the application of a 
candidate for initiation must be made to the 
Lodge nearest his place of residence. There 
is, however, no express law upon this subject 
either in the ancient landmarks or the Old 
Constitutions, and its positive sanction as a 
law in any jurisdiction must be found in the 
local enactments of the Grand Lodge of that 
jurisdiction. Still there can be no doubt that 
expediency and justice to the Order make such 
a regulation necessary, and accordingly many 
Grand Lodges have incorporated such a regu- 
lation in their Constitutions; and of course, 
whenever this has been done, it becomes a 
positive law in that jurisdiction. 

It has also been contended by some Amer- 
ican Masonic jurists that a non-resident of a 
State is not entitled, on a temporaryvisit to 
that State, to apply for initiation. There is, 
however, no 1 ana mark nor written law in the 
ancient Constitutions which forbids the initia- 
tion of non-reeidents. Still, as there can be 
no question that the conferring of the degrees 
of Masonry on a stranger is always inexpedi- 
ent, and frequently productive of injury and 
injustice, by foisting on the Lodges near the 
candidate's residence unworthy and unac- 
ceptable persons, there has been a very general 
disposition among the Grand Lodges of this 
country to discountenance the initiation of 
non-residents. Many of them have adopted 
a specific regulation to this effect, and in all 
jurisdictions where this has been done, the 
law becomes imperative; for. as the land- 
marks are entirety silent on tne subject, the 
local regulation is left to the discretion of each 
jurisdiction. But no such rule has ever ex- 
isted among European Lodges. 

Resignation of Membership. The spirit 
of the law of Masonry does not recognise the 
right of any member of a Lodge to resign his 
membership, unless it be for the purpose of 
uniting with another Lodge. This mode of 
resignation is called a demission. (See 
Demit.) 

Resignation of Office. Every officer of a 
Lodge, or rather Masonic organization, being 
required at the time of his installation into 
office to enter into an obligation that he will 
perform the duties of that office for a speci- 
fied time and until his successor is installed, 
it has been repeatedly held by the Masonic 
jurists of this country that an officer once 
elected and installed cannot resign his office; 
and this may be considered as a well-estab- 
lished law of American Masonry. 

Resolution. In parliamentary law, a 
proposition, when first presented, is called a 
motion: if adopted, it becomes a resolution. 
Many Urand Lodges adopt, from time to time, 
in addition to the provisions of their Consti- 
tution, certain resolutions on important sub- 
jects, which, giving them an apparently 



RESPECTABLE 

greater weight of authority than ordinary 
enactments, are frequently appended to their 
Constitution, or their transaction, under the 
imposing title of "Standing Regulations." 
But this weight of authority is only apparent. 
These standing resolutions having been 
adopted, like all other resolutions, by a mere 
majority vote, are subject, like them, to be 
repealed or rescinded by the same vote. 

Respectable. A title given by the French, 
as Worshipful is by the English, to a Lodge. 
Thus, La Respectable Loge de la Candeur is 
equivalent to "The Worshipful Lodge of 
Candor." It is generally abbreviated as 
R.\ L.\ or R.\ CD/. 

Response. In the liturgical services of the 
church an answer made by the people speaking 
alternately with the clergyman. In the cere- 
monial observances of Freemasonry there are 
many responses, the Master and the brethren 
taking alternate parts, especially in the funer- 
al service as laid down first by Preston, and 
now very generally adopted. In all Masonic 
prayers the proper response, never to be 
omitted, is, "So mote it be." 

Restoration. The restoration, or, as it is 
also called, the reinstatement of a Mason who 
had been excluded, suspended, or expelled, may 
be the voluntary act of the Lodge, or that of 
the Grand Lodge on appeal, when the sentence 
of the Lodge has been reversed on account of 
illegality in the trial, or injustice, or undue 
severity in the sentence. It may also, as in 
the instance of definite suspension, be the re- 
sult of the termination of the period of sus- 
pension, when the suspended member is, ipso 
facto, restored without any further action of 
the Lodge. 

The restoration from indefinite suspension 
must be equivalent to a reinstatement in mem- 
berahip,because the suspension being removed, 
the offender is at once invested with the rights 
and privileges of which he had never been di- 
vested, but only temporarily deprived. 

But restoration from expulsion may be 
either to membership in the Lodge or simply 
to the privileges of the Order. 

It may also be ex gratia, or an act of mercy, 
the past offense being condoned; or ex debxto 
justitice, by a reversal of the sentence for ille- 
gality of trial or injustice in the verdict. 

The restoration ex gratia may be either by 
the Lodge or the Grand Lodge on appeal. If 
by the Lodge, it may be to membership, or 
only to good standing in the Order. But if by 
the Grand Lodge, the restoration can only be 
to the rights and privileges of the Order. The 
Mason having been justly and legally ex- 
pelled from the Lodge, the Grand Lodge pos- 
sesses no prerogative by which it could en- 
force a Lodge to admit one legally expelled 
any more than it could a profane who had 
never been initiated. 

But if the restoration be ex debito justitice. as 
an act of justice, because the trial or verdict 
had been illegal, then the brother, never hav- 
ing been lawfully expelled from the Lodge or 
the Order, but being at the very time of his 
appeal a member of the Lodge, unjustly or il- 



RETURNS 621 



legally deprived of his rights, the restoration 
in this case by the Grand Lodge must be to 
membership in the Lodge. Any other course, 
such as to restore him to the Order but not 
to membership, would be manifestly unjust. 
The Grand Lodge having reversed the trial 
and sentence of the subordinate Lodge, that 
trial and sentence become null and void, and 
the Mason who had been unjustly expelled is 
at once restored to his original status. (See 
this subiect fully discussed in Dr. Mackey's 
Text Book of Masonic Jurisprudence, Book Vl., 
chap, iii.) 

Resurrection. The doctrine of a resur- 
rection to a future and eternal life constitutes 
an indispensable portion of the religious faith 
of Masonry. It is not authoritatively incul- 
cated as a point of dogmatic creed, but is im- 
pressively taught by the symbolism of the 
Third Decree. This dogma has existed among 
almost all nations from a very early period. 
The Egyptians, in their mysteries, taught a 
final resurrection of the soul. Although the 
Jews, in escaping from their Egyptian thral- 
dom, did not carry this doctrine with them 
into the desert — for it formed no part of the 
Mosaic theology — yet they subsequently, 
after the captivity, borrowed it from the Zoro- 
astrians. The Brahmans and Buddhists of 
the East, the Etruscans of the South, and the 
Druids and the Scandinavian Skalds of the 
West, nursed the faith of a resurrection to 
future life. The Greeks and the Romams 
subscribed to it; and it was one of the great 
objects of their mysteries to teach it. It is, 
as we all know, an essential part of the Chris- 
tian faith, and was exemplified, in his own res- 
urrection, by Christ to his followers. In Free- 
masonry, a particular degree, the Master's, 
has been appropriated to teach it by an im- 
pressive symbolism. "Thus." says Hutchin- 
son (Spirit of Masonry, p. 164), "our Order is a 
positive contradiction to Judaic blindness and 
infidelity, and testifies our faith concerning 
the resurrection of the body." 

We may deny that there has been a regular 
descent of Freemasonry, as a secret organisa- 
tion, from the mystical association of the Eleu- 
sinians, the Samothracians, or the Dionysians. 
No one, however, who carefully examines the 
mode in which the resurrection or restoration 
to life was taught by a symbol and a ceremony 
in the Ancient Mysteries, and how the same 
dogma is now taught in the Masonic initia- 
tion, can, without absolutely rejecting the 
evident concatenation of circumstances which 
lies patent before him. refuse his assent to the 
proposition that the latter was derived from 
the former. The resemblance between the 
Dionysiac legend, for instance, and the 
HiramiCj cannot have been purely accidental. 
The chain that connects them is easily found 
in the fact that the Pagan mysteries lasted 
until the fourth century of the Christian era, 
and, as the fathers of the church lamented, ex- 
ercised an influence over the secret societies of 
the Middle Ages. 

Returns of Lodges. Every subordinate 
Lodge is required to make annually to the 



622 REUBEN 

Grand Lodge a statement of the names of its 
members, and the number of admissions, de- 
missions, and expulsions or rejections that 
have taken place within the year. This state- 
ment is called a return. A neglect to make the 
annual return causes a forfeiture of the right 
of representation in the Grand Lodge. The 
sum due by the Lodge is based on the return, 
as a tax is levied for each member and each 
initiation. The Grand Lodge is also, by this 
means, made acquainted with the state of its 
subordinates ana the condition of the Order 
in its jurisdiction. 

Reuben. The eldest son of Jacob. Among 
the Royal Arch banners, that of Reuben is 
purple, and bears a man as the device. It 
is appropriated to the Grand Master of 
the Second Veil. 

Revelation. The following is an extract 
from Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Cyclo- 
paedia upon this subject: "With infinite 
learning and patience the author of The Book 
of God, who preserves strict anonymity, has 
endeavoured to show that the work (Apoca- 
lypse) was originally revealed to a primaeval 
John, otherwise Oannes, and identical with 
the first messenger of God to man. This 
theory is sufficiently remarkable to be men- 
tioned here. The messengers, twelve in 
number, are supposed by the author to 
appear at intervals of 600 years. Thus: 
1, Adam, a. m. 3000; 2, Enoch, a. m. 3600; 
3, Fohi, a. M. 4200; 4, Brigoo, a. m. 4800; 
5, Zaratusht, a. m. 5400; 6, Thoth, a. m. 
6000; 7, Amoeis or Moses, a. if. 0600; 8, 
Laotseu. a. m. 7200; 9, Jesus, a. m. 7800; 
10, Mohammed, a. m. 8400; 11, Chengiz- 
Khan, a. if. 9000; and, 12, the twelfth mes- 
senger vet to be revealed, a. if. 9600. With 
the aid of this theory, the whole history 
of the world, down to our own days, is shown 
to be foretold in the Apocalypse, and although 
it is difficult to agree with the accomplished 
writer's conclusions, supported by him with 
an array of learning ana a sincere belief in 
what is stated, no one with any taste for 
these studies should be without this wonder- 
ful series of books. The same author has 
published, in two volumes, a revised edition 
of the Book of Enoch, with a commentary, 
and he promises to continue, and, if possible, 
complete his design." 

Revelations of Masonry. See Expo- 
sitions. 

Revels, Master of the. An officer at- 
tached to the royal or other eminent house- 
hold, whose function it was to preside when 
the members and guests were at refresh- 
ment, physical ana intellectual, to have 
charge of the amusements of the court or of 
the nobleman to whose house he was at* 
tached during the twelve Christmas holidays. 
In Masonic language, the Junior Warden. 

Reverend. A title sometimes given to the 
chaplain of a Masonic body. 

Reverential Sign. The second sign in the 
English Royal Arch system, and thus ex- 
plained. We are taught by the reverential 
sign to bend with submission and resigna- 



REVTVAL 

tion beneath the chastening hand of the 
Almighty, and at the same time to engraft 
his law m our hearts. This expressive form, 
in which the Father of the human race first 
presented himself before the face of the 
Most Hi^h, to receive the denunciation and 
terrible judgment, was adopted by our 
Grand Master Moses, who, when the Lord 
appeared to him in the burning bush on 
Mount Horeb. covered his face from the 
brightness of the Divine presence. 

Revestlary. The wardrobe, or place for 
keeping sacred vestments. Distinctive cos- 
tumes m public worship formed a part not 
only of the Jewish, hut of almost all the 
ancient religions. The revestiary was com- 
mon to them all. The Master of the Wardrobe 
became a necessity. 

Revival. The occurrences which took 
place in the city of London, in the year 
1717, when that important body, which 
has since been known as the Grand Lodge 
of England, was organized, have been al- 
ways known in Masonic history as the 
"Revival of Masonry." Anderson, in the 
first edition of the Constitutions, published 
in 1723 (p. 47), speaks of the freeborn British 
nations having revived the drooping Lodges 
of London; but he makes no other ref- 
erence to the transaction. In his second 
edition, published in 1738, he is more dif- 
fuse, ana the account there given is the 
only authority we possess of the organiza- 
tion made in 1717: Preston and all subse- 
quent writere have of course derived their 
authority from Anderson. The transac- 
tions are thus detailed by Preston (Illust., 
ed. 1792, p. 246), whose account is preferred, 
as containing in a more succinct form all 
that Anderson has more profusely detailed. 

"On the accession of George I., the Ma- 
sons in London and its environs, finding 
themselves deprived of Sir Christopher 
Wren and their annual meetings discon- 
tinued, resolved to cement themselves under 
a new Grand Master, and to revive the 
communications and annual festivals of 
the Society. With this view t the Lodges 
at the Goose and Gridiron, m St. Paul's 
Church-Yard: the Crown, in Parker's Lane, 
near Drury Lane; the Apple-Tree Tavern, 
in Charles Street, Covent Garden; and the 
Rummer and Grapes Tavern, in Channel 
Row, Westminster, the only four Lodges 
in being in the South of England at that 
time, with some other old brethren { met 
at the Apple-Tree Tavern, above mentioned, 
in February, 1717; and, having voted the 
oldest Master Mason then present into 
the chair, constituted themselves a Grand 
Lodge, pro tempore, in due form. At this 
meeting it was resolved to revive the Quar- 
terly Communications of the Fraternity, and 
to hold the next annual assembly ana feast 
on the 24th of June at the Goose and Gridiron, 
in St. Paul's Church-Yard, (in compliment 
to the oldest Lodge, which then met there,) 
for the purpose of electing a Grand Master 
among themselves, till they should have the 



REVIVAL 



RHODE 



623 



honor of a noble brother at their head. Ac- 
cordingly, on St. John the Baptist's day, 
1717, in the third year of the reign of 
King George I., the assembly and feast were 
held at the said house; when the oldest Master 
Mason and the Master of a Lodge having 
taken the chair, a list of proper candidates 
for the office of Grand Master was pro- 
duced; and the names being separately 
proposed, the brethren, by a great majority 
of hands, elected Mr. Anthony Saver Grand 
Master of Masons for the ensuing year: 
who was forthwith invested by the said 
oldest Master, installed by the Master of 
the oldest Lodge, and duly congratulated 
by the assembly, who paid him homage. 
The Grand Master then entered on the du- 
ties of his office, appointed his Wardens, and 
commanded the brethren of the four Lodges 
to meet him and his Wardens quarterly in 
communication; enjoining them at the same 
time to recommend to all the Fraternity a 
punctual attendance on the next annual 
assembly and feast. 1 ' 

Recently, this claim, that Masonry was 
not for the first time organized, but only 
revived in 1717, has been attacked by some 
of those modern iconoclasts who refuse 
credence to anything traditional, or even 
to any record which is not supported by 
other contemporary authority. Chief among 
these is Bro. W. P. Buchan, of England, 
who, in his numerous articles in the Lon- 
don Freemason (1871 and 1872), has attacked 
the antiquity of Freemasonry, and refuses 
to give it an existence anterior to the year 
1717. His exact theory is that "our sys- 
tem of degrees, words, grips, signs, etc.. 
was not in existence until about a. d. 1717." 
He admits, however, that certain of the 
"elements or groundwork" of the degrees 
existed before that year, but not confined to 
the Masons, being common to all the gilds. 
He thinks that the present system was 
indebted to the inventive genius of Anderson 
and Desaguliers. And he supposes that it 
was simply "a reconstruction of an ancient 
society, viz., of some form of old Pagan 
philosophy." Hence, he contends that it 
was not a *' revival," but only a " renaissance," 
and he explains his meaning in the following 



fore the eighteenth century we had a 
renaissance of Pagan architecture; then, to 
follow suit, in the eighteenth century we had 
a renaissance in a new dress of Pagan mys- 
ticism; but for neither are we indebted to 
the Operative Masons, although the Opera- 
tive Masons were made use of in both cases." 
{Jjondon Freemason, September 23, 1871.) 

Buchan's theory^ has been attacked by 
Bros. William J. Hughan and Chalmers I. 
Paton. That he is right in his theory, that the 
three degrees of Master, Fellow-Craft, and 
Apprentice were unknown to the Masons of 
the seventeenth century, and that these classes 
existed only as gradations of rank, will be very 
generally admitted. But there is unques- 
tionable evidence that the modes of recog- 



nition, the method of government, the legends, 
and much of the ceremonial of initiation, wert 
in existence among the Operative Masons of 
the Middle Axes, and were transmitted to the 
Speculative Masons of the eighteenth century. 
The work of Anderson, of Desaguliers, and 
their contemporaries, was to improve and to 
enlarge, but not to invent. The Masonic 
system of the present day has been the result 
of a slow but steady growth. Just as the lec- 
tures of Anderson, known to us from their 

Eublication in 1725, were subsequently modi- 
ed and enlarged by the successive labors of 
Clare, of Dunckerley, of Preston, and of Hem- 
ming, did he and Desaguliers submit the sim- 
ple ceremonial, which they found at the re- 
organization of the Grand Lodge in 1717, to a 
similar modification and enlargement. 

Revoke. When a Dispensation is issued 
by a Grand Master for the organization of a 
Lodge, it is granted " to continue of force until 
the Grand Lodge shall grant a Warrant, or 
until the Dispensation is revoked by the 
Grand Master or the Grand Lodge." A Dis- 
pensation may therefore be revoked at any 
time by the authority which issued it, or by 
a higher authority. Charters are arrested, 
forfeited, or declared nuU and void; Dispensa- 
tions are revoked. 

Rhetoric The art of embellishing lan- 
guage with the ornaments of construction, so 
as to enable the speaker to persuade or affect 
his hearers. It supposes ana requires a proper 
acquaintance with the rest of the liberal arts; 
for the first step toward adorning a discourse 
is for the speaker to become thoroughly ac- 
quainted with its subject, and hence the an- 
cient rule that the orator should be acquainted 
with all the arts and sciences. Its importance 
as a branch of liberal education is recom- 
mended to the Mason in the Fellow-Craft's 
Degree. It is one of the seven liberal arts 
and sciences, the second in order, and is de- 
scribed in the ancient Constitutions as "ret- 
oricke that teacheth a man to speak e faire and 
in subtill termes." (Harleian MS., No. 1942.) 

Rhode Island. Masonry was introduced 
into Rhode Island in 1750 by the establish- 
ment of a Lodge at Newport, the Charter for 
which had been granted by the St. John's 
Grand Lodge of Boston on December 27, 
1749. The same Grand Lodge established a 
second Lodge at Providence on January 18, 
1757. On April 6, 1791. these two Lodges 
organized a Grand Lodge at Providence, 
Christopher Champlin being elected the first 
Grand Master. This is the first instance 
known in Masonic history of the organization 
of a Grand Lodge by only two subordinates. 
The act was irregular, and the precedent has 
never subsequently been followed. It was 
not until 1799 that the new Grand Lodge 
granted its first Charter for the establishment 
of a third Lodge at Warren. The Grand 
Chapter was organized in March, 1798, and 
the Grand Council in October, 1860. The 
Grand Commandery forms a part of a common 
body known as the Grand Commandery of 
Massachusetts and Rhode Island. It was 



624 RHODES 

formed in 1805, and the celebrated Thomas 
Smith Webb was its first presiding officer. 

Rhodes. An island in the Mediterranean 
Sea, which, although nominally under the 
government of the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople, was in 1308 in the possession of Saracen 
pirates. In that year, Fulke de Villaret, 
Grand Master of the Knights Hospitalers, 
having landed with a large force, drove out the 
Saracens and took possession of the island, 
which became the seat of the Order, who re- 
moved to it from Cyprus and continued to 
occupy it until it was retaken by the Saracens 
in 1522, when the knights were transferred to 
the island of Malta. Their residence for over 
two hundred years at Rhodes caused them 
sometimes to receive the title of the Knights 
of Rhodes. 

Rhodes, Knight of. See Knight of 
Rhodes. 

Ribbon. The use of a ribbon, with the 
official jewel suspended and attached to a 
buttonhole instead of the collar, recently 
adopted by a few American Lodges, is a viola- 
tion of the ancient customs of the Order. 
The collar cut in a triangular shape, with the 
jewel suspended from the apex, dates from the 
earliest tune of the revival, and is perhaps as 
old as the apron itself. (See Collar.) 

Ridel, Cornelius Johann Rudolph. 
Born at Hamburg, May 25, 1759, and died at 
Weimar, January 16, 1821. He was an active 
and learned Mason, and for many years the 
Master of the Lodge Amalia at Weimar. In 
1817, he publishecfin four volumes an elab- 
orate ana valuable work entitled Versuch 
eines Alphabetischen Verzeichnisses, u. s. w., 
i. e., "An essay toward an Alphabetical Cata- 
logue of important events, for the knowledge 
and history of Freemasonry, and especially 
for a critical examination of the origin and 
growth of the various rituals and systems 
from 1717 to 1817." 

Right Angle. A right angle is the meeting 
of two lines in an angle of ninety degrees, 
or the fourth part of a circle. Each of its 
lines is perpendicular to the other: and as 
the perpendicular line is a symbol of upright- 
ness of conduct, the right angle has been 
adopted by Masons as an emblem of virtue. 
Sued was also its signification among the 
Pythagoreans. The right angle is repre- 
sented in the Lodges by the square, as the 
horizontal is by the level, and the perpen- 
dicular by the plumb. 

Right Eminent. An epithet prefixed to 
the title of the Deputy Grand Master of the 
Grand Encampment of Knights Templar of 
the United States, and to that of the Grand 
Commander of a State Grand Commandery. 

Right Excellent. The epithet prefixed to 
the title of all superior officers of a Grand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masonry below the 
dignity of a Grand High Priest. 

Right Hand. The right hand has in all 
ages been deemed an important symbol to 
represent the virtue of fidelity. Among the 
ancients, the right hand and fidelity to an ob- 
ligation were almost deemed synonymous 



RIGHT 



terms. Thus, among the Romans, the ex- 
pression "fallere dextram," to betray the right 
hand, also signified to violate faith; and "jun- 
gere dextras/ 1 to join right hand*, meant to 
awe a mutual pledae. Among the Hebrews, 
iamin, the right hand, was derived from 
]QH. aman, to be faithful. 

The practise of the ancients was con- 
formable to these peculiarities of idiom. 
Among the Jews, to give the right hand 
was considered as a mark of friendship and 
fidelity. Thus St. Paul says, "when James, 
Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, 
perceived the grace that was given unto 
me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right 
hands of fellowship f that we should go unto 
the heathen, ana they unto the circum- 
cision." (Gal. ii. 9.) The same expression, 
also, occurs in Maccabees. We meet, in- 
deed; continually in the Scriptures with 
allusions to the right hand as an emblem of 
truth and fidelity. Thus in Psalm cxliv. 
it is said, "their right hand is a right hand 
of falsehood.* 1 that is to say, they lift up 
their right nand to swear to what is not 
true. This lifting up of the right hand 
was, in fact, the universal mode adopted 
among both Jews and Pagans in taking an 
oath. The custom is certainly as old as the 
days of Abraham, who said to the King of 
Salem, "I have lifted up my hand unto 
the Lord, the most high God, the possessor 
of heaven and earth, that I will not take 
anything that is thine." Sometimes among 
the Gentile nations, the right hand, in taking 
an oath, was laid upon the horns of the 
altar, and sometimes upon the hand of the 
person administering the obligation. But in 
all cases it was deemed necessary, to the 
validity and solemnity of the attestation, 
that the right hand should be employed. 

Since the introduction of Christianity, 
the use of the right hand in contracting 
an oath has been continued, but instead of 
extending it to heaven, or seizing with it a 
horn of the altar, it is now directed to be 
placed upon the Holy Scriptures, which is 
the universal mode at this day in all Chris- 
tian countries. The antiquity of this usage 
may be learned from the fact, that in the 
code of the Emperor Theodosius, adopted 
about the year 438, the placing of the right 
hand on the Gospels is alluded to; and in 
the code of Justinian (lib. ii., tit. 53, lex. 
i.), whose date is the year 529, the ceremony 
is distinctly laid down as a necessary part 
of the formality of the oath, in the words 
"tactis sacrosanctis EvangelnV' — the Holy 
Gospels being touched. 

This constant use of the right hand in the 
most sacred attestations and solemn com- 
pacts, was either the cause or the consequence 
of its being deemed an emblem of fidelity. 
Dr. Potter (Arch. Grcec., p. 229) thinks it 
was the cause, and he supposes that the right 
hand was naturally used instead of the left, 
because it was more honorable, as being 
the instrument by which superiors give com- 
mands to those below them. Be this as it 



RIGHT 

may, it is well known that the custom existed 
universally, and that there are abundant 
allusions m the most ancient writers to the 
junction of right hands in making compacts. 

The Romans had a goddess whose name 
was Fides, or Fidelity, whose temple was 
first consecrated by Numa. Her symbol 
was two right hands joined, or sometimes 
two human figures holding each other by 
the right hands, whence, in all agreements 
among the Greeks and Romans, it was usual 
for the parties to take each other by the 
right hand, in token of their intention to ad- 
here to the compact. 

By a strange error for so learned a man, 
Oliver mistakes the name of this goddess, 
and calls her Faith. "The spurious Free- 
masonry, " he remarks, "had a goddess 
called Faith.' 1 No such thing. Fides, or. 
as Horace calls her, "incorrupta Fides, 
incorruptible Fidelity, is very different from 
the theological virtue of Faith. 

The joining of the right hands was es- 
teemed among the Persians and Parthians 
as conveying a most inviolable obligation 
of fidelity. Hence, when King Artabanus 
desired to hold a conference with his re- 
volted subject, Asineus, who was in arms 
against him, he despatched a messenger to 
him with the request, who said to Asineus, 
"the king hath sent me to give you his 
right hand and security," that is t a prom- 
ise of safety in going and coming. And 
when Asineus sent his brother Asueus to 
the proposed conference, the king met him 
and gave him his right hand, upon which 
Josephus (Ant. Jud., lib. xviii., cap. ix.) 
remarks: "This is of the greatest force there 
with all these barbarians, and affords a firm 
security to those who hold intercourse with 
them; for none of them will deceive, when 
once they have given you their right hands, 
nor will any one doubt of their fidelity, 
when that is once given, even though they 
were before suspected of injustice.' , 

Stephens (Travels in Yucatan, vol. ii., p. 
474) gives the following account of the use 
of the right hand as a symbol among the 
Indian tribes: 

"In the course of many years' residence 
on the frontiers including various journeyings 
among the tribes, I have had frequent 
occasion to remark the use of the right hand 
as a symbol; and it is frequently applied 
to the naked body after its preparation and 
decoration for sacred or festive dances. 
And the fact deserves further consideration 
from these preparations being generally 
made in the arcanum of the secret Lodge, 
or some other private place, and with all 
the skill of the adept's art. The mode of 
applying it in these cases is by smearing 
the hand of the operator with white or 
colored clay, and impressing it on the breast, 
the shoulder, or other part of the body. The 
idea is thus conveyed that a secret influence, 
a charm, a mystical power is given, arising 
from his sanctity, or his proficiency in the 
occult arts. This use of the hand is not 
41 



RING 625 



confined to a single tribe or people. I have 
noticed it alike among the Dacotahs, the 
Winnebagoes, and other Western tribes, as 
among the numerous branches of the red 
race still located east of the Mississippi River, 
above the latitude of 42 degrees, who speak 
dialects of the Algonquin language." 

It is thus apparent that the use of the 
right hand as a token of sincerity and a 
pledge of fidelity is as ancient as it is uni- 
versal; a fact which will account for the im- 
portant station which it occupies among 
the symbols of Freemasonry. 

Bight Side. Among the Hebrews, as well 
as the Greeks and Romans, the right side 
was considered superior to the left; and as 
the right was the side of good, so was the left 
of bad omen. Dexter, or right, signified also 
propitious, and sinister, or left, unlucky. 
In the Scriptures we find frequent allusions 
to this superiority of the right. Jacob, for 
instance, called his youngest and favorite 
child, Ben-jamin, the son of his right hand, 
and Bathsheba, as the king's mother, was 
placed at the right hand of Solomon. (See 
Left Side.) 

Bight Worshipful. An epithet applied 
in most jurisdictions of the United States 
to all Grand Officers below the dignity of a 
Grand Master. 

Ring, Luminous. See Academy of Sub- 
lime Masters of the Luminous Ring. 

Ring, Masonic. The ring, as a symbol of 
the covenant entered into with the Order, 
as the wedding ring is the symbol of the 
covenant of marriage, is worn in some of the 
high degrees of Masonry. It is not used in 
Ancient Craft Masonry. In the Order of the 
Temple the "ring of profession," as it is called, 
is of gold, having on it the cross of the Order 
and the letters P. D. £. P., being the initials 
of "Pro Deo et Patria." It is worn on the 
index finger of the right hand. The In- 
spectors-General of the Thirty-third Degree 
of the Ancient and Accepted lute wear a ring 
on the little finger of the right hand. Inside 
is the motto of the Order, "Deus meum que 
jus." In the Fourteenth Degree of the 
same Rite a ring is worn, which is described 
as "a plain gold ring," having inside the 
motto, "Virtus junxit, mors non separabit" 
It is worn in the Northern Jurisdiction on the 
fourth or ring; finger of the left hand. In the 
Southern Jurisdiction it is worn on the same 
finger of the right hand. 

The use of the ring as a symbol of a cov- 
enant may be traced very far back into an- 
tiquity. The Romans had a marriage ring, 
but according to Swinburne, the great can- 
onist, it was of iron, with a jewel of adamant, 
"to signify the durance and perpetuity of the 
contract." 

In reference to the rings worn in the high 
degrees of Masonry, it may be said that 
they partake of the double symbolism of 
power and affection. The ring, as a sym- 
bol of power and dignity, was worn in an- 
cient times by kings ana men of elevated 
rank and office. Thus Pharaoh bestowed 



626 RISING 



a ring upon Joseph as a mark or token of 

the power he had conferred upon him, for 
whicn reason the people bowed the knee to 
him. It is in this fight that the ring is 
worn by the Inspectors of Scottish Ma- 
sonry as representing the sovereigns of the 
Rite. But those who receive only the Four- 
teenth Degree, in the same Rite, wear the 
ring as a symbol of the covenant of affection 
ana fidelity into which they have entered. 

While on the subject of the ring as a sym- 
bol of Masonic meaning, it will not be ir- 
relevant to refer to the magic ring of King 
Solomon, of which both the Jews and the 
Mohammedans have abundant traditions. 
The latter, indeed, have a book on magic 
rings, entitled Scalcuthal, in which they 
trace the ring of Solomon from Jared, the 
father of Enoch. It was by means of this 
ring, as a talisman of wisdom and power, that 
Solomon was, they say, enabled to perform 
those wonderful acts and accomplish those 
vast enterprises that have made his name so 
celebrated as the wisest monarch of the earth. 

Rising Sun. The rising sun is represented 
by the Master, because as the sun by his rising 
opens and governs the day, so the Master is 
taught to open and govern his Lodge with 
equal regularity and precision. 

Bite. The Latin word rilus, whence we 
get the English rite, signifies an approved 
usage or custom, or an external observance. 
Vossius derives it by metathesis from the 
Greek rpfkur, whence literally it signifies a 
trodden path, and, metaphorically, a long- 
followed custom. As a Masonic term its 
application is therefore apparent. It signifies 
a method of conferring Masonic light by a 
collection and distribution of degrees. It is. 
in other words, the method and order observed 
in the government of a Masonic system. 

The original system of Speculative Ma- 
sonry consisted of only the tfee Sym- 
bolic degrees, called, therefore, Anck^t Craft 
Masonry. Such was the condition o* Free- 
masonry at the time of what is called the 
revival m 1717. Hence, this was the original 
Rite or approved usage, and so it continued 
in England until the year 1813, when at the 
union of the two Grand Lodges the "Holy 
Royal Arch" was declared to be a part of the 
system; and thus the English Rite was made 
legitimately to consist of four degrees. 

But on the Continent of Europe, the 
organisation of new systems began at a much 
earlier period, and by the invention of what 
are known as the high degrees a multitude 
of Rites was established. All of these agreed 
in one important essential. They were ouilt 
upon the three Symbolic degrees, which, 
in every instance, constituted the fundamental 
basis upon which they were erected. They 
were intended as an expansion and develop- 
ment of the Masonic ideas contained in these 
degrees. The Apprentice. Fellow-Craft, and 
Master's degrees were the porch through 
which every initiate was required to pass 
before he could gain entrance into the inner 
temple which hadbeen erected by the founders 



RITE 



of the Rite. They were the text, and the 
high degrees the commentary. 

Hence arises the law, that whatever may 
be the constitution and teachings of any 
Rite as to the higher degrees peculiar to it, 
the three Symbolic degrees being common 
to all the Rites, a Master Mason, in any 
one of the Rites, may visit and labor in a 
Master's Lodge of every other Rite. It is 
only after that degree is passed that the 
exclusiveness of each Rite begins to operate. 

There has been a multitude of these Rites. 
Some of them have lived only with their 
authors, and died when their parental energy 
in fostering them ceased to exert itself. 
Others have had a more permanent existence, 
and still continue to divide the Masonic 
family, furnishing, however, only diverse 
methods of attaining to the same great end, 
the acquisition of Divine Truth by Masonic 
light. Kagon, in his TuilierO&nSral, supplies 
us with the names of a hundred and eight, 
under the different titles of Rites, Orders, 
and Academies. But many of these are 
unmasonic, being merely of a political, social, 
or literary character. The following cata- 
logue embraces the most important of those 
which have hitherto or still continue to arrest 
the attention of the Masonic student. 

1. York Rite. 

2. Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. 

3. French or Modern Rite. 

4. American Rite. 

5. Philosophic Scottish Rite. 

6. Primitive Scottish Rite. 

7. Reformed Rite. 

8. Reformed Helvetic Rite. 

9. Fessler's Rite. 

10. Schroder's Rite. 

11. Rite of the Grand Lodge of the Three 
Globes. 

12. Rite of the Elect of Truth. 

13. Rite of the Vielle Bru. 

14. Rite of the Chapter of Clermont. 

15. Pernetty's Rite. 

16. Rite of the Biasing Star. 

17. Chastanier's Rite. 

18. Rite of the Philalethes. 

19. Primitive Rite of the Philadelphiana 

20. Rite of Martinism. 

21. Rite of Brother Henoch. 

22. Rite of Mizraim. 

23. Rite of Memphis. 

24. Rite of Strict Observance. 

25. Rite of Lax Observance. 

26. Rite of African Architects. 

27. Rite of Brothers of Asia. 

28. Rite of Perfection. 

29. Rite of Elected Cohens. 

30. Rite of the Emperors of the East and 
West. 

31. Primitive Rite of Narbonne. 

32. Rite of the Order of the Temple. 

33. Swedish Rite. 

34. Rite of Swedenborg. 

35. Rite of Zinnendorf . 

36. Egyptian Rite of Cagliostro. 

37. Rite of the Beneficent Knights of the 
Holy City. 



RITE 



These Rites are not here given in either 
the order of date or of importance. The 
distinct history of each will be found under 
its appropriate title. 

Rite aes Hus Coens, ou Pre 1 tares. A sys- 
tem adopted in 1750, but which did not 
attain its full vigor until twenty-five years 
thereafter, when Lodges were opened in Paris, 
Marseilles, Bordeaux, and Toulouse. The 
devotees of Martinez Pasqualis, the founder, 
were called Martinistes, and were partly 
Hermetic and partly Swedenborgian in their 
teachings. Martinez was a religious man, 
and based his teachings partly on the Jewish 
Kabbala and partly on Hermetic supemat- 
uralism. The grades were as follows: 1. 
Apprenti; 2. Companion; 3. Mattre; 4. 
Grand Ehi; 5. Apprenti Coen; 6. Compagnon 
Coen; 7. Mattre Coen; 8. Grand Architects; 
9. Grand Commandeur. 

Rltter. German for knight l as "Der 
Preussische Bitter," the Prussian Knight. 
The word is not, however, applied to a 
Knight Templar, who is more usually called 
"Tempelherr"; although, when spoken of as 
a Knight of the Tempk, he would be styled 
RiUer vom Tempd. 

Ritual. The mode of opening and closing 
a Lodge, of conferring the degrees, of installa- 
tion, and other duties, constitute a system 
of ceremonies which are call